The Attitudes of Non-Minority Language Speakers to Minority Language Revitalization: What are Non-Basque Speakers Prepared to Do for Basque?
The Attitudes of Non-Minority Language Speakers to Minority Language Revitalization: What are Non-Basque Speakers Prepared to Do for Basque? Ane Ortega “Begoñako Andra Mari” Teacher Training College Barrainkua 2, 48009 Bilbao. BASQUE COUNTRY [email@example.com] Esti Amorrortu Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, University of Deusto Avda. Universidades 24, 48007 Bilbao. BASQUE COUNTRY [firstname.lastname@example.org] AbstractThanks to the political changes in Spain in the past 40 years, as well as to the commitment of Basque society, the process oflanguage minorization of Basque and the trend towards its loss has been reversed. However, the survival of Basque is far fromsecured. Despite an increase in the number of speakers, the overall number of the non-Basque speaking population is still high. Inthis situation, it is argued that the complicity and support of those who do not speak the minority language are essential for itsrevitalization. In this context, knowing the attitudes, prejudices, opinions and folk-beliefs of those who do not speak Basque isstrategic, and in particular what non-Basque speakers may be ready to do to support the language. A clear diagnosis of these aspectsshould then inform policy makers as well as attitude-changing campaigns. The UNESCO-Etxea Amarauna-Languages group carriedout a research project on the attitudes towards Basque of adult non-Basque speakers in the BAC (2006-2009). This paper reports onthe results related to the positioning of this group regarding the Basque language policy and their level of commitment to support theminority language.Keywords: language revitalization; language attitudes; minority language learning, Basque Basque in schools and the proliferation of the 1. The situation of Basque today immersion programme (Idiazabal et al., 2007).Basque or Euskara is a pre-Indoeuropean isolate Despite these positive figures, the percentage of thoselanguage spoken nowadays by almost 700,000 people who do not speak the language or are passive bilinguals(Basque Government, 2008). A minorized language for is high, especially from age 35 onwards (e.g.centuries, a grass-root movement starting in the 1960’s percentages of Basque speakers vary from 32.7% in thetogether with governmental language policy since the 35-39 age group to 22.2% in the 60-65 age groupcreation in 1979 of the Basque Autonomous (Basque Government, 2008)).Community (hereafter BAC) have managed to reverseits dramatic situation. This, however, is not true for all With regard to language use, several studies have shownthe Basque-speaking territories, which comprise three that Basque language use has spread to the publicpolitical-administrative entities, namely, the French administration, the mass media and the university;Basque Country, Navarre and the BAC (For further however there has not been a significant increase in itsdetails on the situation in the three territories, see use in informal situations. (Soziolinguistika Klusterra,Azurmendi et al., 2008; Azurmendi & Martínez de 2007; Basque Government, 2008). In fact, one of theLuna, 2005; Amorrortu, 2003). greatest challenges and priorities for the normalization process of the language in the coming years is in thatThis paper focuses on the BAC, where there has been an the increased knowledge of the language is transformedimportant increase in the percentage of Basque into increased use (Basque Language Advisory Board,speakers, especially among the youngest generations 2009).(e.g. 76.7% of children age 10-14 are bilingual,according to the latest census data (Basque Government, The data on the public support for the efforts to promote2008)). This has been mainly due to the introduction of Basque are also positive. Table 1 compares the results for 1996 and those of a decade later.
(Strongly) Neutral (Strongly) based on data gathering through indirect methods, such support opposed as focus groups (Baxok eta al., 2007) or content analysis of written essays (Larrañaga, 1995) are less common, 1996 2006 1996 2006 1996 2006 and even less so experimental indirect methods, for 46% 64.7% 38% 24% 16% 11.2% example, the matched-guise technique (Amorrortu, 2000; Echevarria, 2005). Our investigation uses both qualitative and quantitative methods in a complementary way:Table 1. Attitudes towards the efforts to promote the use of Basque in the BAC. Source: Basque Government (a) The qualitative study was designed with the aim of 1999 and Basque Government 2008 uncovering language attitudes in all their complexity and diversity. It used focus-group methodology andIn 2006 only 11.2% were opposed or strongly opposed content analysis was performed on the transcribedto the measures to promote Basque, although there was conversations with the assistance of the software NVivostill a quarter of the population who did not position 7.themselves clearly. Attracting this group to a morefavourable position would seem important in order to The outcomes of this study are: a typology of attitudesrevitalize Basque. for Basque; a rich database with the participants’ own verbalizations catalogued by content units; and the identification of a very interesting type of subject for the 2. The research project aims of this research, the one that has been labelled asThe general aim of the research project Erdaldunen the yes-but: those persons who, being generally ineuskararekiko aurreiritziak eta jarrerak / Actitudes y favour of Basque, show however a more lukewarmcreencias de los castellanohablantes hacia el euskera support and put limits to governmental intervention to(Amorrortu et al., 2009) is to bring to light and describe promote Basque; this type of person tends to showwith the greatest detail possible the diversity of attitudes complex attitudes, often contradictory. It is the themestowards Basque of the non-Basque speakers in the raised by this group of participants and their opinionsBAC. To be more precise, to identify which social and concerns which were mostly taken as the basis forgroups are prepared to make an effort in favour of the quantitative study, as shown below.Basque and what exactly they would be prepared to do (b) The quantitative study used a questionnaire designedand under what circumstances. ad hoc with the aim of (a) measuring the frequencyIn this project, the term ‘linguistic attitude’ is used as a among the non-Basque speakers of the BAC of the mostbroad notion comprising a diversity of components of prominent attitudes uncovered in the qualitative study,the cognitive, affective and behaviour types, such as and (b) identifying the social groups in which these areopinions, prejudices, beliefs, folk beliefs, evaluations, most frequent. The questionnaire is thereforefeelings, and behaviours towards Basque, language completely based on the qualitative study, to the pointdiversity, and linguistic phenomena related to that the speakers’ own verbalizations were used for thebilingualism. formulation of the items.The term ‘non-Basque speaker’ has been used in this The sample comprised 600 non-Basque speakers agedstudy and in this paper in preference to the term 18-55, and reflected the social make-up of the BAC in‘Spanish monolingual’. A ‘non-Basque speaker’ is terms of sex, age and type of sociolinguistic area: ‘moredefined as a person with very low or no competence in Basque-speaking’ areas (≥ 47% of Basque speakers) andBasque, unable to sustain basic communicative ‘less Basque-speaking (<47%), as per the latestexchanges in this language. Note that this definition Sociolinguistic Map (Basque Government, 2008).encompasses the ‘non-Basque speaker’ and the ‘passive This paper reports on the results of both the qualitativebilingual’ groups described in the Basque Government and the quantitative studies regarding the issue at hand.surveys.In this paper we present some of the results of theabove-mentioned research, specifically, those related to 3. Non-Basque speakers’ degree ofthe commitment of non-Basque speakers towards agreement with the language policy inBasque and their readiness to take action. favour of Basque Among the themes that were explored through the focusMethodology groups, the process of Basque normalization and the language policy in favour of Basque was especiallyAttitudes towards Basque have been widely studied, productive, which permitted us to gain a fair knowledgemainly through quantitative methods and direct of the great concerns non-Basque speakers appear toquestioning (e.g. Baxok et al., 2007; Basque share.Government, 1999, 2008, 2009a). Qualitative studies
The opinions and perceptions expressed were generally preserved and developed. But it is a completelyin favour of the language policy, but in a qualified different matter to try to generalize the use ofmanner. Overtly negative views of the normalization Basque to the whole population of Euskadi [theprocess were not common, but very negative criticism BAC]. (GA-D, 70)tended to be expressed indirectly by means of strategies The main issues in relation to the process ofsuch as third-party reporting, that is, putting one’s normalization of Basque merited further study and werethoughts in other people’s voice. The participants’ included in the survey. Question 4 of the questionnairecontributions fell roughly into the following main was thus designed to measure the level of agreementthemes: whether the prestige and use of Basque has among the whole adult non-Basque speaking populationimproved, to what extent and in what areas; how of the BAC with certain language policy principles and‘natural’, difficult, or even artificial it is to live ‘in measures.Basque’; whose responsibility the normalization ofBasque should be; evaluation of the effectiveness and A cluster analysis was performed in order to classify theobjectives of governmental language policy; and the subjects according to the agreement they showed on thefuture of Basque. different items of Q.4. As a result, three clusters were identified: aldekoagoak / the more-in-favour (25% ofHere are a couple of examples: the sample were placed in this cluster), bai-bainakoak / I think that people are willing, they appreciate the the yes-but (45%) and kritikoagoak / the more-critical importance of knowing Basque. In that respect great (30% of the sample). (See Amorrortu et al., 2009: 284- steps have been taken foward, as the Basque 288 for further details.) language is far more valued now than before; there Figure 1 shows the mean values attained by each cluster were times when it was even looked down upon. (BI-A, 258) for each item. The results are discussed in Section 3.1 next. I have no problems with Basque being promoted, it is part of culture, and all that is culture should be 5 4 3 2 1 G4.1 G4.2 G4.3 G4.4 G4.5 G4.6 G4.8 G4.9 G4.10 G4.11 G4.12 G4.13 G4.14 G4.15 G4.16 G4.17 G4.18 G4.19 G4.20 Aldekoagoak 4,36 2,96 3,19 2,47 4,35 4,28 3,86 3,85 3,39 4,33 4,72 4,68 3,93 4,01 4,15 3,54 4,67 2,86 4,61 Bai-bainakoak 3,6 2,27 2,43 1,7 4,02 3,95 2,27 2,26 2,06 3,92 4,27 4,27 3,52 2,89 2,79 3,33 4,26 2,31 4 Kritikoagoak 2,47 1,89 1,82 1,61 3,25 2,68 2,1 2,03 1,92 2,8 3,78 3,73 2,24 3,39 2,9 2,26 4,02 2,61 3,49 Figure 1. Mean values for each cluster (range 1 to 5). Notation in language of origin, e.g. 4,36 = 4.36 Key: G (galdera) = Q (question), e.g. G4.1 = Q.4.1 Aldekoakoak: the more-in-favour; Bai-bainakoak: the yes-but; Kritikoagoak: the more-critical
communities or not present at all; the majority feels3.1. In Search of the Consensus Threshold equally Spanish and Basque; and they do not considerA recurrent idea during the discussion groups was that themselves either Basque nationalists or non-Basque‘things should be done by consensus’. The analysis of nationalists. Incidentally, 60% of the yes-but cluster areQ.4 allowed exploring what the vast majority of the in the age group 26-40, that is, they are likely to havenon-Basque speaking population may agree on, in other children in school age. This makes this group strategicwords, where the threshold of consensus might be. for language policy.High consensus. The results show that all three clusters, The more-critical mostly live in Spanish-speaking areasthat is, the more-in-favour, the yes-but and the more- with very little presence of Basque in their lives or nocritical, show a high level of agreement in general presence at all; they see Basque as one of the languagesprinciples and statements (around 4 in a 1 to 5 scale), of the Basque people (and not the language) and theysuch as Q.4.12. ‘Basque should not be left to die’, position themselves as non-Basque nationalists.Q.4.13. ‘I agree that Basque should be supported’ andQ.4.18. ‘The use of the Basque language should berespected’. 3.3. Discussion The results demonstrate that Basque is generally valuedWhen the statements refer to specific and concrete and the need for its support socially accepted amongmeasures, however, the degree of agreement diminishes. those who do not speak the language. Where there isThe yes-but group aligns itself with the more-in-favour less agreement is in relation to the specific measuresfor some items and with the more-critical for other undertaken for its promotion. The cluster analysis hasitems. The analysis of these alignments allowed us to shown which measures count with the support of nearlyidentify which language policy principles or actions ¾ of non-Basque speakers, and which other measuresshow the greater support and which the lowest: have an equal percentage against. This is interestingPrinciples and actions with high support. The clusters information for policy makers and society as a whole,of the more-in-favour and the yes-but –70% of the since it gives a clear indication of which measures maysample– behave the same in their agreement with the be successful and which will be met by opposition.following statements: Q.4.6. ‘If a language in danger isto be saved, active measures in support must be taken, 4. What are non-Basque speakerseven if not everybody is in agreement with them’;Q.4.11. ‘It is essential that public funds are used for the willing to do?promotion of Basque’; Q.4.17 ‘The costs of the The participants in the focus groups often madelanguage policy in favour of Basque are reasonable’. reference to their level of commitment towards Basque and what they personally declared they could do or werePrinciples and measures with low support. The prepared to do.clusters of the more-critical and the yes-but –75% of thesample– are together in the following statements, which Here is an example:show a critical attitude: Q.4.8. ‘They have tried to I was born in 1965. I lived during the bad years [therevitalize Basque too quickly’; Q.4.9. ‘Making Franco regime] and I did not manage to learn how toknowledge of Basque a criterion for the job description speak Basque. I have been going to lessons but ifto become a civil servant is unacceptable because it is you can’t learn, you can´t learn. But I have madediscriminatory’; Q.4.1.0. ‘The knowledge of Basque sure that my children learn the language. (ZA-D, 9)should not be generalized to the whole of the populationof the BAC’. (Note that these items have been recoded.) Q.5 in the questionnaire measures the level of compliance with the actions that came up in the discussion groups:3.2. Description of the ClustersAfter identifying the three clusters, the relation of each Q.5. Could you please tell me how ready youcluster with different sociolinguistic variables was would be to make an effort in support ofexamined and the following trends were found: Basque? Show compliance in a scale 1-4, where 1 is ‘not at all’ and 4 is ‘very ready’ to makeAmongst the more-in-favour, one in three lives in the effort.Basque speaking areas; Basque is found to be quite orvery present in their lives, they feel more Basque than 5.3. I would make sure that my children 3.47Spanish or only Basque; they declare themselves to be learn Basque well.Basque nationalists; and for the majority of them 5.4. I would make sure that my children 3.35Basque is the language of the Basque and not just one take part in Basque cultural events, forof the languages of the Basque together with Spanish. instance, drama plays, clown shows,The majority of the yes-but live in Spanish-speaking extracurricular activities.areas and Basque is present very little in their
5.5. I would do my best so the people 2.97 The data show that nearly 70% of adults aged 16-55 around me see the Basque language in a have tried to learn Basque at one point of their lives but positive light. have not succeeded in doing so. This situation came up often in the discussion groups, where the feelings of 5.2. I would learn a bit of Basque so that 2.60 frustration for not having been able to learn the I can communicate at a basic level. language were shared by many, as this example 5.1. I would make an effort to learn 2.26 illustrates: Basque well. Well, all my life I’ve wanted to learn Basque but it is an unfulfilled wish... I know I’ll die without Table 2: Willingness to make an effort in favour of realising it. It’s been a great frustration to me having Basque (1-4) been unable to learn the language. (DO-C, 142/144)The results of the questionnaire show that the clearest Two main types of obstacles were reported: on the oneaction is to ensure that the new generations learn hand, the difficulty of the language and therefore theBasque and become part of the Basque culture. The length of the learning process, on the other hand, thelatest school enrolment data are coherent with these type of the instruction on offer at the euskaltegi or adultstatements of intent, as 71.1% of BAC families chose Basque schools, which requiered a level ofthe full immersion programme in Basque for their committment regarded as difficult to assume by many.children at Pre-school stage during 2009-2010 (whilstaround 23.9% of parents chose the bilingual programme I did attend lessons but I had to give it up, I justand only 4.9% chose the Spanish language programme) could not cope with it all... Yes, the lack of time, of(Basque Government, 2009b). Note that in the BAC hours: work, study... And later I had children and Icontext this is a clear indication of the linguistic just did not have the time. But well, I now speakprogramme the children will follow during the whole of with the children the little Basque I know. (DU-A,their compulsory education. (For a discussion on the 102/106)reasons why non-Basque speaking parents choose theseprogrammes, see Amorrortu & Ortega, in press). The only course choice was two hours every day, it is not that they made it easy for you... They were tooThe items related to learning Basque themselves feature ‘militant’. I just wanted to learn a bit to be able tolast in the list. Learning ‘a bit’ of Basque was included communicate. I would be happy with that: just learnbecause it is less impossing as an objective than to speak, just to be able to say simple things. (BI-B,learning Basque ‘well’, but still it did not rank high. 181) The percentage of those learning at the moment is very 5. Adult Learning of Basque low, less than 10% of the sample, a figure even moreThis section discusses the results concerning the number striking if compared with the percentage of those whoof people learning Basque, their motivations, the did try in the past. But on the other hand, more than halfcircumstances in which they would be willing to learn, declared to be willing to learn. The policy makers andand reasons not to do it: Questions 6-8 of the Basque learning providers should consider what couldquestionnaire. be done to encourage them to make the effort, perhaps by proposing alternative ways of learning.5.1. Non-Basque speakers learning Basqueor willing to learn 5.2. Motivations to learn BasqueThe following table shows the data on Basque learning The discussion groups brought to light a number ofby adult non-Basque speakers in the survey: motivations or reasons to learn Basque, such as the ones% of non-Basque speakers who have tried to learn in these examples: I would like to learn Basque for the sake of myHave tried: 67.7% Have not tried: 34.4% children. Right now they are only little but when% of non-Basque speakers who are learning they are older I would like to help them with their homework, those kinds of things. (BA-E, 7)Are learning: 8.9% Are not learning: 91.1% At then end, this is an inner feeling. Why do you% of non-Basque speakers who would like to learn wish you could speak Basque? Why do you wantWould like: 53% Would not like: 47% your children to speak Basque? Because they are living here, so that they have this culture, these roots, and so that they are maintained. (BA-E, 165) Table 3: Basque learning by the adults participating in The motivations highlighted in the focus groups were the survey (%) included in Q.7 of the survey, where the respondents
had to choose the 1st and 2nd most important motivations well as to external motivations or external pressure (e.g.for them when considering learning Basque. 7.6). The results show that all types have been chosen as 1st or 2nd option by a fair number of speakers. ThisPlease tell me how important these aspects are for your suggests that all types of motivations have the potentialdecision to learn Basque. Choose the two that are most to mobilize the non-Basque population and shouldrelevant to you and rank them as 1st and 2nd choice. therefore be taken into account.I have tried to learn Basque or I Ranked Rankedwould like to learn Basque... 1st (%) 2nd (%) 5.3. Circumstances in which non-Basque7.1. Because it is our language 23.7 7.3 speakers may decide to learn Basque7.4. To be able to help my 23.1 11.4children with their homework Q. 8 of the survey measured the readiness to learn Basque by some if some conditions were met. Note that7.6. To have access to a wider 17.3 14.9 those who answered negatively to Q.6.3 on whetherchoice of jobs they would consider learning Basque did not answer this7.5. To be able to communicate 12.6 18.1 question. Therefore the results in Figure 2 correspond towith Basque speakers the 53% who expressed a willingness to learn (Table 3).7.8. For personal enrichment 10.2 19.67.2. To help prevent it from dying 7.0 9.9 The reason for choosing these items was again that7.7. Because people in my 2.3 5.6 these were the ones that the participants in the focusenvironment speak it groups mentioned as favourable circumstances to make7.3. Out of respect for Basque 2.0 3.8 the effort to learn Basque. It should be noted that theyspeakers all point out to alternative ways of learning, in7.9. To be able to take part in the 1.2 6.7 meaningful or less demanding situations, or, if it had toBasque culture be through classroom instruction, only if the time to do it was given (as it is the case for civil servants).Table 4. Reasons given in 1st and 2nd place for studying Basque (%) As seen in Figure 2, all four proposed conditions where confirmed as favourable circumstances, as they wereNote that the reasons given are of different types: selected by the majority of the respondents.integrative (e.g. 7.1) as well as instrumental (e.g. 7.4,7.6), and related to inner motivations (e.g. 7.1, 7.8) as I would be willing to learn Basque… If I were given the time off to do it (as it 80.1 is done for the civil servants) If it were linked to activities that my 76 children do If it were in combination with an activity 73 I enjoy If it did not require me to attend lessons 72.5 for two hours a day I would not learn Basque under any 2.9 circumstances 0 25 50 75 100 Figure 2. Conditions under which non-Basque adults would be prepared to learn Basque (%) But I tell you that I am not prepared to spend three5.4. Reasons not to learn Basque hours a day five days a week for five years just to try to learn the language, because I have enough on myThe participants in the discussion groups were keen to plate as it is, with work and all the rest. (GA-B, 74)explore the difficulties for learning Basque.Contributions like the following one were common: The items in Q.9 reflect the most often mentioned reasons. Consider Figure 3.
I do not learn Basque... Because I don´t have the time 60.4 Because I have other priorities 31.9 Because I think Basque is very difficult 31.6 Because I am not sufficiently motivated 18.9 Because I dont get sufficient support/help 17.2 Because Im not good at learning languages 16.6 Because the effort isnt worth my while 9.7 Because I do not think I would be capable of 9.2 learning enough Because I have absolutely no interest 5.7 Other 2.5 No answer 7 0 25 50 75 100 Figure 3. Reasons why non-Basque speakers do not learn Basque (%) discussed three groups: the more-in-favour (about 30%,The most common reason is by far lack of time. This is according to our data), a group that mostly forrelated to the type of courses on offer, which tend to be ideological reasons and contact with the Basqueintensive, many of them requiring attending lessons five language tends to be in favour of every actiondays a week for two hours a day. However, this reason performed; the more-critical (also about 30%), thosemay also be an excuse to justify not enough interest. who tend to disagree with the measures, mostly when they affect them; and a third group, the one labelled asA reason worth mentioning is the one based on the the yes-but (of slightly larger proportion, around 40%),difficulty of Basque itself and of learning a second which includes those who position themselves in favourlanguage as an adult. These folk beliefs are well spread or against depending on the measure itself. They tend toamong the population. The discussion of how these be in favour of the language but put limits to whatprejudices affect Basque normalization is beyond the should be done in the name of Basque normalization.scope of this paper, but efforts should be made toweaken these particular beliefs because of the negative We argue that the future direction of the languageeffects on the learning of Basque. policy for Basque should take into account what policies enjoy general support and which would face opposition 6. Final discussion by some of the population, and that those less popular should be approached with sensitivity and a practicalGiven the strategic importance of non-speakers of the mind. It would seem particularly interesting to payminority language for its survival and development, it is attention to the yes-but and make sure that they areof crucial importance to make a diagnosis of the brought closer to Basque and that they are not allowedattitudes of this group. This paper has presented data to be lost for the normalization of the language. Astowards such diagnosis with regard to Basque. The mentioned in this paper, many of the yes-but areattitudes of the non-Basque speakers have been individuals in the age of parenting, which makes themdescribed in relation to two aspects: (a) how they view even more strategic.the measures taken by the public institutions in theprocess of normalization of Basque, and (b) what they The second aspect of the paper discusses what the non-are prepared to do to help with this process. Basque speakers are prepared to do. The actions most favoured are those involving the children: ensuring thatIn relation to the first aspect, the paper shows that the their children become Basque speakers and part of theBasque society generally supports the language. This Basque culture.must be interpreted in terms of real advancement, sincenot so long ago Basque was a language ignored by Whilst learning the language themselves did not seem asmany or looked down upon. However, after 40 years of an objective of the respondents initially, the analysis ofactive measures in favour of the language, not all of the the different questions indicated that many would in factmeasures enjoy the same degree of support amongst consider it. The study of the motivations showed anthose who do not speak Basque. The paper has interesting mixture with regard to the nature of such
motivations. The variety found proves that motivations Spanish version: Actitudes y creencias de losof very different nature can in fact mobilize people into castellanohablantes hacia el euskera (2009)action and therefore all should be seen as legitimate by Azurmendi, M. J. & Martínez de Luna, I. (eds.) (2005).society and be taken into account by policy makers. The Case of Basque: From the Past Toward the Future. Special Issue of the International Journal ofAs for the circumstances in which non-Basque speakers the Sociology of Language, 174. Berlin: Mouton demay contemplate learning the language, it appears that Gruyter.formal and traditional instruction tends not to be anoption, but some or many may decide to learn at least a Azurmendi, M. J., Larrañaga, N., & Apalategi, J.bit if it is for their own purposes, and in combination (2008). Bilingualism, identity, and citizenship in thewith activities that are meaningful or interesting to Basque Country. In M. Niño-Murcia & J. Rothmanthem. The children again appear to be a strong (eds.) Bilingualism and Identity (pp. 35--62).motivator for these adults (learning with them, in Amsterdam: John Benjamins.activities linked to theirs, with the aim of helping them Basque Government (1999). Encuesta Sociolingüísticawith their studies). The paper also informs of the main de Euskal Herria 1996. La Continuidad del Euskerareasons why the non-Basque speakers do not learn II. Comunidad Autónoma Vasca. Vitoria-Gasteiz:Basque, lack of time being the main obstacle. Whilst Basque Government.there is now a number of iniciatives to help non-Basquespeaking adults familiarize with the Basque language ___ (2008). IV Encuesta Sociolingüistica. Vitoria-and culture in alternative and creative ways, the data in Gasteiz: Basque Government.our study gives a firm indication of the need to continue ___ (2009a). IV Mapa Sociolingüístico. Vitoria-Gasteiz:making efforts in this direction. Basque Government.It is hoped that this paper will contribute to a better ___ (2009b). Department of Education,understanding of the role of non-minority language www.euskadi.net, (Last access: 2009 / 09 / 04).speakers in minority language revitalization. Basque Language Advisory Board (2009). Basis for a Language Policy for the Early 21st Century. Acknowledgments Towards a Renewed Agreement. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Basque Government.The authors would like to thank the other members ofthe UNESCO-Etxea Amarauna group (www.amarauna- Baxok, E., Etxegoin, P., Lekunberri, T., Martínez delanguages.com) and of the UNESCO Chair on World Luna, I., Mendizabal, L., Ahedo, I., Itzaina, X., &Language Heritage of the University of the Basque Jimeno, R. (2006) Euskal nortasuna eta kultura XXI.Country (EHU-UPV) (http://www.unesco-hizkuntza- mendearen hasieran, Donostia-San Sebastián: Euskokatedra.ehu.es, especially Itziar Idiazabal, Andoni Ikaskuntza.Barreña and Belen Uranga. Thanks also to the Language Soziolinguistika klusterra (2007). Kale neurketaren V.Policy Office of the Basque Government, who funded neurketa, 2006. Special Issue of the BATthe investigation, and to all members of the public who Soziolinguistika Aldizkaria, 64. Andoain:participated, be it in the focus groups, or in the survey. Soziolinguistika Klusterra. Echeverria, B. (2005). Language Attitudes in San References Sebastian: The Basque Vernacular as Challenge toAmorrortu, E. (2000). Linguistic Attitudes in the Basque Spanish Language Hegemony. Country: the Social Acceptance of a New Variety. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural PhD dissertation, University of Southern California. Development, 26 (3), 249--264.___ (2003). Basque Sociolinguistics: Language, Idiazabal, I., Amorrortu, E., Barreña, A., Ortega, A. & Society, and Culture. Reno: Center for Basque Uranga, B. (2007). Mother Tongue, Language of Studies, University of Nevada-Reno. Immersion. What Can the School do to Revitalize Minorized Languages? In T. de Graaf, N. Ostler & R.Amorrortu, E. & Ortega, A. (in press). Zergatik Salvedra (Eds.), Endangered Languages and eskolaratzen dituzte gurasoek seme-alabak Language Learning. Proceedings of the FEL XII euskarazko hizkuntza-ereduetan? Euskera, Bilbao: (The Netherlands: Fryske Akademy), (pp. 139—45). Euskaltzaindia (Academy of the Basque Language). Larrañaga, N. (1995). Euskalerriko gaztetxoekAmorrortu, E., Ortega, A., Idiazabal, I., & Barreña, A. euskararekiko dituzten jarrerak eta beren eragina (2009). Erdaldunen euskararekiko aurreiritziak eta euskara ikasi eta erabiltzean. PhD Dissertation. jarrerak Vitoria-Gasteiz: Basque Government. University of Deusto, Bilbao.