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Baltic way 15 07 2010_eng


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Baltic States common nomination „The Baltic Way – Human Chain Linking Three States in Their Drive for Freedom” - inscribed on the International Register of UNESCO Memory of the World programme

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Baltic way 15 07 2010_eng

  1. 1. 1The Baltic Way – Human Chain LinkingThree States in Their Drive forFreedom1989
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  3. 3. 3August 23, 1939• Roughly two million people• The Three Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia,Lithuania• A 600 km long human chain from the ToompeaCastle in Tallinn, all across Riga and the riverof Daugava to the tower of Gediminas in Vilnius.
  4. 4. 4The Baltic Way 1989• Events Prior to the Baltic Way• The Course and the Significance of the Baltic Way• Documentary Heritage of the Baltic Way• The 20th Anniversary of the Baltic Way(1989 -2009)
  5. 5. I Events Prior to the Baltic Way5
  6. 6. 6Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact• A "Treaty of Non-aggression between the ThirdGerman Reich and the Union of Soviet SocialistRepublics" is signed on August 23, 1939.• Appending the pact were secret protocols thatmarked the spheres of interest of the Nazi Germanyand the USSR in Europe.• With this pact both powers divided their influencein Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland andRomania.
  7. 7. 7The First Paragraph ofthe Secret Protocol• Für den Fall einer territorial-politischen Umgestaltung in den zu denbaltischen Staaten (Finnland, Estland,Lettland und Litauen) gehörendenGebieten bildet die nördliche GrenzeLitauens zugleich die Grenze derInteressensphären Deutschlands und derUdSSR.• Only later was Lithuania added to the Soviet sphereof interest.
  8. 8. 8The Admission of theMolotov-Ribbentrop Pact• After the end of the Second World War the USSRdenied the very existence of the pact and everythingeven remotely connected to it was madeconfidential.• According to the official propaganda of the USSR,the presence of the Baltic states within the USSRwas completely voluntary and the results of theelections were called upon to confirm it.
  9. 9. 9The Uncovering of theMolotov-Ribbentrop Pact• In 1986 M. Gorbachov began to approve a morecandour approach towards the crimes of Stalinism.• In 1986, during a USA-USSR conference inJūrmala (Latvia) the USA demanded the USSR tocease the occupation of the Baltic States.• The radio stations from Western Countries like“Voice of America” and “Radio Free Europe/RadioLiberty” supported the propagation of ceasing theoccupation.
  10. 10. 10The United Path of the BalticStates• In 1986, the former political detainees from theBaltic States agreed upon organizing differentactions on August 23.• On August 23, 1987, extensive actions of protesttook place in Vilnius, Riga and Tallinn and weredispersed by local militsia.• Widespread national movements began to developin the Baltic States in 1988.• On August 23, 1988, actions of protest tookplace in all three capitals of the Baltic States.
  11. 11. 11II The Course and theSignificance of the Baltic Way
  12. 12. 12August 23, 1989• 50 years since the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.• A unified goal – the restoration of independence ofthe Baltic States and public acknowledgment of thesecret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
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  15. 15. 15August 23, 1989The Baltic Way was organized by the nationalmovements of the Baltic countries:•The Rahvarinne – the Popular Front of Estonia,•The Popular Front of Latvia•And the Reform Movement of Lithuania – theSajūdis.The practical organizing of the Baltic Way reliedupon the regional branches of these nationalmovements.
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  18. 18. 18August 23, 1989• People joined hands at 7pm oclock,commemorating the events of the August 23, 1939,and demanding their internationalacknowledgment.• The human chain ranged from Tallinn, all throughRiga to Vilnius.• People of various ages and social, national andreligious backgrounds had all joined together in thishuman chain.
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  22. 22. 22August 23, 1989in the Press of the World• News headlines all over the world were dedicated tothe impressive and important action of the Balticstates.• Gatherings of solidarity with the Baltic states wereheld in Moscow, Leningrad, Stockholm, Melbourne,Toronto, Berlin, Tbilisi and in many other places allover the world.• Newspapers all over the world paid a specialattention to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact andits consequences in Eastern Europe.
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  24. 24. 24August 23, 1989in the Press of the World“Two million link hands in protest over theKremlins iron rule”// “Hands of Hope”, Daily Mail, 24.08.1989.“Three-deep they stood, old and young, almost allcarrying a votive candle tied with a blackribbon.”// “Human chain stands up against the Soviet Union”,Independent, 24.08.1989.
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  26. 26. 26August 23, 1989in the Press of the World“Yesterdays 400-mile-long human chain dramaticallysymbolized the shared passion for freedom of the Balticpeoples.”// “Crumbling empire”, Daily Express, 24.08.1989.“...human chain stretching 370 miles through Estonia,Latvia and Lithuania in protest against the secret 1939pact between Germany and the USSR which gave control ofthe Baltic states to the USSR; and to demand moreautonomy.”// “Joining hands across the Baltic states” The Times,24.08.1989.
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  29. 29. 29The Baltic Way – for the People• A unified goal – fair evaluation of the past eventsand the restoration of independence.• The feeling of unity and fraternity both innational scale and in between all three BalticStates.• Expression of believing in the ideas of democracy• The symbol of unity – the song “Atmostas Baltija,Bunda jau Baltija, Argake Baltimaad”.
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  33. 33. 33The Baltic Way –for Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania• The injustice that ensued as a result of the SecondWorld War was publicly acknowledged.• The Supreme Councils of all three Baltic Statessigned declarations of restoration of independencein 1990.• The foundation of the unified path of the BalticStates in the following years was created – joiningthe European Union and the NATO in 2004.
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  35. 35. 35The Baltic Way – for the World• The USSR officially acknowledged the existence ofthe Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and its secretprotocols and on December 24, 1989 it wasannounced to be abeyant.• The abeyance of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pactshowed the World the decline of the USSR as asuperpower and contributed to the furtherdemocratic movements in the USSR and thecountries of the Warsaw Pact.• It demonstrated the Baltics as united anddemocratic region of the world.
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  37. 37. 3737III Documentary Heritageof the Baltic Way
  38. 38. 38Documentary Heritageof the Baltic WayThe Baltic Way has left a significant documentaryheritage:• The organization documents of the Baltic Way –letters, announcements, audio and videorecordings of the meetings;• Photo, audio and video footage of the Baltic Way,its course, organization and repercussions.
  39. 39. 39Documentary Heritageof the Baltic WayThe National commissions for UNESCO togetherwith the respective memory institutions of theBaltic States nominated this documentary evidenceto be included in the UNESCO “Memory of theWorld” International Register in 2008.July 30, 2009 the documentary heritageof the Baltic Way was inscribed upon theUNESCO “Memory of the World”programme International register
  40. 40. 40The UNESCO Programme“Memory of the World”• Conservation, access, cognition and study of thedocumentary heritage of the world.• The “Memory of the World” International Register- documentary heritage that is of high significancefor the whole world.• The repository of the memories of humanity.
  41. 41. 41The Nomination of theDocumentary Heritage of the BalticWayThe documents are united by:• time / the organization and course of the Baltic Way,July 15 to August 23, 1989.• place / documents during and along the Baltic Way – inEstonia, Latvia, Lithuania.• people / the Baltic Way was positively international –Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Russians,Belarussians, Poles, Tatars and other nationalitiesparticipated in it.• Subject and theme / the action of people in the name ofa significant political goal, neglecting the risk andstanding up for human rights
  42. 42. 42The nomination of the Baltic Way by Estonia,Latvia and Lithuania“The Baltic Way – Human Chain Linking ThreeStates in Their Drive for Freedom”
  43. 43. 43IV The 20th Anniversaryof the Baltic Way (1989 – 2009)
  44. 44. 442009 – 20th Anniversaryof the Baltic Way“It was a special day and I didnt even consider of not going andnot participating [..] We stood in a place that was free. But theAkmens [Stone] bridge was crowded. We stood with our handsjoined and risen above our heads and foreign tourists which hadcome out of a hotel in Pārdaugava were astonished and tookpictures of us [..] We stood for a more honest Latvia and werehoping that the government would be more considerate andunderstanding of its people, –tells participant of the Baltic Way Zenta Denisova.”“Vienotības ceļš”, Latvijas Avīze, 28.08.2004.
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  46. 46. 462009 – 20th Anniversaryof the Baltic Way“In the evening of August 23, at 7pm oclock the residents ofEstonia, Latvia and Lithuania, from border to border for 600kilometers joined their hands in order to tell the world “We wantour independence and countries back – a free Estonia, free Latviaand free Lithuania!” Hundreds of journalists were filming theBaltic Way and it was broadcast by all major news channels ofthe world. The Baltic problem was no longer just a political anddiplomatic issue, it had gained a wide support in the Westernsociety. If we bother to take a look in the bibliography, thestatistical increase of the publications on Baltic states is clearlyvisible.” –remembers Sandra Kalniete, one of the organizers of theBaltic Way.“Baltijas ceļš piepildīts”, Diena, 23.08.2004.
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  48. 48. 482009 –20th Anniversary of the Baltic Way• The Baltic Way – a symbol of unity of the Balticstates.• The Baltic Way – a symbol of common aspirationsfor restoring the independence of the Baltic States.• The Baltic Way – a symbol of spiritual unity to facethe injustice of the past.• The Baltic Way – a historical symbol of the power ofnon-violent action.
  49. 49. 492009 –20th Anniversary of the Baltic WayOn August 23, 2009it will be the 70 years since the darkest day in thehistory of the Baltic States and20 years since the unity of the Baltic Statesmanaged to change the course of history.Information about Baltic
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  51. 51. 51Commemorative Eventsof the Baltic Way in 2009Events all over the Baltic States – in Ape, Ilzene, Padedze,Trapene, Valmiera, Naukšēni, Karksi, Vireši, Smiltene, Valka,Bauska, Jelgava, Jēkabpils, Viļņa, Sigulda, Tallina, Rīga ...
  52. 52. 52Materials about Baltic WayIn the result of cooperation between the LatvianNational Commission for UNESCO andMuseum of the Occupation of Latvia the usefulmaterials was developed:• a study of the school history textbooks;• methodological material on how to include andpresent the regaining the independence in theschool curricula.
  53. 53. 53The Baltic Way – Human Chain Linking ThreeStates in Their Drive for Freedom1989Thank you for your attention !
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  55. 55. 55• The presentation was prepared by the Latvian National Commissionfor UNESCO.• The materials from the nomination file “The Baltic Way – humanchain linking three states in their drive for freedom” of thenomination for the international registry “Memory of the World”were used for this presentation, as well as the reproductions of thecollections of Museum of the Popular Front of Latvia.• The photos of the travelling photo exhibition “Baltic Way that Movedthe World” were also used in this presentation. Latvian NationalCommission for UNESCO thanks for the support in developing thispresentation to the Ministry of the Foreign Affairs of the Republic ofLatvia and photographer Ilmārs Znotiņš.• Design by Kārlis Vilītis.