Introduction to Risk Management:Concepts, Approaches and Current Thinking                                                J...
• Damage from  disasters, including to  heritage resources, is  increasing every year  - Better    communication    and in...
• Disaster risk vs. other slower acting risks• Disaster Risk is often expresses with the  equation:   Risk = Hazard x Vuln...
• Most common hazards  include earthquakes,  fires, floods,  hurricanes/typhoons,  tsunamis• Some of these may be  increas...
Earthquake in L’Aquila, Italy
Tsunamis in Indonesia and Japan
Copyright © Skip BolenHurricane Katrina
Fires in Uganda and Madagascar
Source –http://news.bbc.co.ukTerror Attach in Mumbai, India
• Lack of  Maintenance and  poverty• Inappropriate  Restoration• Rampant  Urbanization• Building where we  didn’t in the p...
• Effective DRM for heritage starts with advance planning  and preparation• DRM should be conceived in ways which have the...
Disaster RiskManagement (DRM)is a cycle for whichplanning for adisaster(prevention),response to thedisaster, andrecovery f...
• Improvements within the heritage  profession• Better integration between the heritage  profession and the larger disaste...
• Coordination of activities• Developing joint tools• Sharing information• Developing serious  research on both  “modern t...
• Emphasis on  management  planning/management  systems which take into  account disaster risk  (DRM)• Maintenance and sim...
The global Disaster Risk         Reduction sector is currently         not concerned with the         heritage            ...
• Speaking the same  language• Heritage being  accepted as one of  many concerns• Use of heritage as a  positive proactive...
• Using traditional building  materials and techniques  of construction• Using traditional land  use planning• Using exist...
Use of heritage during readiness phase
Don’t Tear It Down             By Randolph LangenbachUse of heritage during readiness phase
• Using heritage places  as meeting  points/shelter• Using existing  social/cultural  decision-  making/leadership  struct...
• Using traditional  knowledge for  planning, materials,  and know-how• Using heritage as an  economic resource  through t...
• Using traditional  knowledge systems  (community as a  knowledge resource)• Involving  communities in all  aspects of th...
•   Purpose     ‒ Strengthen protection of       WH and contribute to       sustainable development       by integrating h...
•    Objectives      1. Strengthening institutional support and         governance for reducing risks at World         Her...
Available for download at:http://whc.unesco.org/en/activities/630/http://whc.unesco.org/fr/activities/630/                ...
• What is Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and why  is it important?• What does a DRM plan consist of?• How do you get start...
• Glossary of Disaster Management Terms• Typology of Hazards• Relevant Charters and Recommendations• International Organiz...
The manual is meant to:• give an overall framework and approach to DRM• help site managers develop DRM plans for their  pr...
The Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Cycle
These can be separate (but linked) plans or                 the DRM can be part of the overall                        mana...
Components of a DRM plan
Relationship of the Plan to the DRM Cycle
•   Site manager•   Site staff•   Local and national government•   Community leaders/communities•   Local scientists and r...
•   Attributes that carry the OUV (SOUV)•   Geographical information•   Geological, hydrological, meteorological informati...
Macedonia - Zone 3: 10% chance every 50 yearsof a destructive earthquake.
Delhi’s Seismicity (Seismo‐tectonic Map around Delhi region, (after Sharma 2003) )             Source: Improving the Seism...
Delhi’s Seismicity (cont’d)              32.5                                                 Epicenters in and around Del...
Delhi’s HISTORICAL SEISMICITY in brief              Date                        Magnitude  893 or 894 (Intensity XI, XII) ...
Risk Analysis Process
Prioritizing Risks
• Creative activity to imagine possible disaster  scenarios• Alternative scenarios should be developed• Should be develope...
• Measures to prevent or mitigate disasters    –   Ensure actions don’t have negative impact on OUV    –   Use traditional...
Conserving Culture, Promoting Diversity           www.iccrom.org
King Tirana Disaster Risk final - Introduction to Risk Management: Concepts, Approaches and Current Thinking. /Joseph King...
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King Tirana Disaster Risk final - Introduction to Risk Management: Concepts, Approaches and Current Thinking. /Joseph King, Unit Director, Sites Unit, ICCROM

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Introduction to Risk Management: Concepts, Approaches and Current Thinking.
Joseph King, Unit Director, Sites Unit, ICCROM

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King Tirana Disaster Risk final - Introduction to Risk Management: Concepts, Approaches and Current Thinking. /Joseph King, Unit Director, Sites Unit, ICCROM

  1. 1. Introduction to Risk Management:Concepts, Approaches and Current Thinking Joseph King Building Capacity in Natural Risk Preparedness for Cultural Heritage Sites in Albania Tirana, Albania – 19 April 2011
  2. 2. • Damage from disasters, including to heritage resources, is increasing every year - Better communication and information - Wider definition of the term “heritage” - Larger footprint - Other? Disaster Risk as a Threat
  3. 3. • Disaster risk vs. other slower acting risks• Disaster Risk is often expresses with the equation: Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability• For Disaster Risk to increase, either the frequency or strength of the hazard must increase or there must be more vulnerability (or both) What is Disaster Risk and Why Is It Increasing?
  4. 4. • Most common hazards include earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes/typhoons, tsunamis• Some of these may be increasing due to changes in weather patterns, etc.Is the frequency or intensity of hazards going up?
  5. 5. Earthquake in L’Aquila, Italy
  6. 6. Tsunamis in Indonesia and Japan
  7. 7. Copyright © Skip BolenHurricane Katrina
  8. 8. Fires in Uganda and Madagascar
  9. 9. Source –http://news.bbc.co.ukTerror Attach in Mumbai, India
  10. 10. • Lack of Maintenance and poverty• Inappropriate Restoration• Rampant Urbanization• Building where we didn’t in the past• Loss of traditional knowledge systems• Vulnerability to secondary hazards Is our vulnerability Increasing?
  11. 11. • Effective DRM for heritage starts with advance planning and preparation• DRM should be conceived in ways which have the least impact on the heritage values (including OUV) while ensuring safety• Advance planning should be conceived in terms of the whole property, and provide integrated concern for its buildings, structures, natural features, and their associated contents and landscapes• Planning should include multiple for multiple risks• Property occupants and users should be directly involved in development of emergency-response plans• Following a disaster, every effort should be made to ensure the retention and repair of structures or features that have suffered damage or loss Some Key Principles
  12. 12. Disaster RiskManagement (DRM)is a cycle for whichplanning for adisaster(prevention),response to thedisaster, andrecovery from thedisaster must alwaysbe in motion The DRM Cycle
  13. 13. • Improvements within the heritage profession• Better integration between the heritage profession and the larger disaster reduction community• Better relationships with local communities and use of their skills and knowledge How can we improve the situation?
  14. 14. • Coordination of activities• Developing joint tools• Sharing information• Developing serious research on both “modern techniques” and traditional knowledge systems• Developing best practices• Developing capacity building activities Improvements within the Heritage Profession
  15. 15. • Emphasis on management planning/management systems which take into account disaster risk (DRM)• Maintenance and simple solutions where applicable• More complex solutions where necessary and feasible Improvements within the Heritage Profession
  16. 16. The global Disaster Risk Reduction sector is currently not concerned with the heritage HERITAGE GLOBAL FIELD OF RISK REDUCTION The Heritage sector does not know the “language” of DRCourtesy of Giovanni Boccardi, UNESCO WHC Integrating with larger Disaster Reduction Community
  17. 17. • Speaking the same language• Heritage being accepted as one of many concerns• Use of heritage as a positive proactive force at the readiness, response, and recovery phasesIntegrating with larger Disaster Reduction Community
  18. 18. • Using traditional building materials and techniques of construction• Using traditional land use planning• Using existing social/cultural decision- making/leadership• Learning from local knowledge (myths, taboos, warning systems, planning) Use of heritage during readiness phase
  19. 19. Use of heritage during readiness phase
  20. 20. Don’t Tear It Down By Randolph LangenbachUse of heritage during readiness phase
  21. 21. • Using heritage places as meeting points/shelter• Using existing social/cultural decision- making/leadership structures in response Use of heritage during response phase
  22. 22. • Using traditional knowledge for planning, materials, and know-how• Using heritage as an economic resource through tourism• Paying attention to local needs Use of heritage during recovery phase
  23. 23. • Using traditional knowledge systems (community as a knowledge resource)• Involving communities in all aspects of the process from the beginning (starting with planning) Improving relations with the Community
  24. 24. • Purpose ‒ Strengthen protection of WH and contribute to sustainable development by integrating heritage into risk reduction policies and incorporate concern for disaster reduction within site Management Plans ‒ Provide guidance to integrate risk reduction into WH strategic planning and management New Approaches: World Heritage Strategy
  25. 25. • Objectives 1. Strengthening institutional support and governance for reducing risks at World Heritage properties; 2. Using knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of disaster prevention at WH properties 3. Identifying, assessing and monitoring risks from disasters at WH properties 4. Reducing underlying risk factors at WH properties 5. Strengthening disaster preparedness at WH properties These follow closely the five priority areas of the Hyogo Framework for Action New Approaches: World Heritage Strategy
  26. 26. Available for download at:http://whc.unesco.org/en/activities/630/http://whc.unesco.org/fr/activities/630/ First Publication in a New Series of Resource Manuals for World Heritage
  27. 27. • What is Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and why is it important?• What does a DRM plan consist of?• How do you get started?• How do you identify and assess disaster risks?• How can you prevent disaster risks or mitigate their impact?• How do you prepare for and respond to emergencies?• How do you recover and rehabilitate your property after a disaster?• How do you implement, reassess and reappraise the DRM plan? Table of Contents
  28. 28. • Glossary of Disaster Management Terms• Typology of Hazards• Relevant Charters and Recommendations• International Organizations and Research Institutions• Key References and Publications Annexes
  29. 29. The manual is meant to:• give an overall framework and approach to DRM• help site managers develop DRM plans for their propertiesThe manual is not meant to:• Give detailed information on every type of hazard or disaster situation (there is a list of key publications where you can find more information on specific issues) The Purpose of the Manual
  30. 30. The Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Cycle
  31. 31. These can be separate (but linked) plans or the DRM can be part of the overall management planPossible links include visitor management, communityinvolvement, maintenance and monitoring to name a few Where does DRM Fit Into Overall Planning
  32. 32. Components of a DRM plan
  33. 33. Relationship of the Plan to the DRM Cycle
  34. 34. • Site manager• Site staff• Local and national government• Community leaders/communities• Local scientists and researchers• Health services• Police, firefighters, and other emergency response organizations (local and national) Core Team and Other Key Stakeholders
  35. 35. • Attributes that carry the OUV (SOUV)• Geographical information• Geological, hydrological, meteorological information• Factors and processes for probable hazards (including probable frequency)• Thematic hazard maps, heritage risk maps, etc.• Disaster histories• Inventories of the heritage and also existing DRM infrastructure• Existing plans and planning mechanisms for DRM and more generally for physical planning (at all levels)• Institutions relevant to DRM and heritage• Traditional knowledge systems Information Needed to Identify Disaster Risks
  36. 36. Macedonia - Zone 3: 10% chance every 50 yearsof a destructive earthquake.
  37. 37. Delhi’s Seismicity (Seismo‐tectonic Map around Delhi region, (after Sharma 2003) ) Source: Improving the Seismic Resistance of Cultural Heritage Buildings, EU‐India Economic Cross Cultural Programme
  38. 38. Delhi’s Seismicity (cont’d) 32.5 Epicenters in and around Delhi Region (100 Years) 31.5 30.5 29.5Latitude ºN 28.5 27.5 26.5 Magnitude < 2 Magnitude 2 to 3 25.5 Magnitude 3 to 4 Magnitude 4 to 5 24.5 Magnitude 5 to 6 74.5 75.5 76.5 77.5 78.5 79.5 80.5 81.5 82.5 Magnitude > 6 Places Longitude ºE Slide Source: Prof C V R Murthy, IIT Kanpur
  39. 39. Delhi’s HISTORICAL SEISMICITY in brief Date Magnitude 893 or 894 (Intensity XI, XII) -15.07.1720 (intensity IX in Delhi) 6.5 01.09.1803 7.0 16.01.1842 5.5 05.03.1842 5.5 26.04.1848 6.0 04.04.1905 8.0 26.02.1906 7.0 14.04.1934 5.0 20.10.1937 6.0 10.10.1956 6.7 27.08.1960 6.020.06.1966 Delhi-Gurgaon Border 4.7 15.08.1966 5.6 13.02.1969 5.1 23.03.1984 5.1
  40. 40. Risk Analysis Process
  41. 41. Prioritizing Risks
  42. 42. • Creative activity to imagine possible disaster scenarios• Alternative scenarios should be developed• Should be developed based on different types of likely hazards coming alone or together• Secondary or follow-on hazards should be considered (e.g. fire after an earthquake)• Should be written as narratives Writing Disaster Scenarios
  43. 43. • Measures to prevent or mitigate disasters – Ensure actions don’t have negative impact on OUV – Use traditional knowledge systems• Preparation and response – Planning for the first 72 hours – Roles and responsibilities of team members – Establishing procedures and ensuring emergency equipment• Recovery and rehabilitation – Assessing damage – Planning for short and long term recovery – Reviewing the planning and response Planning Areas
  44. 44. Conserving Culture, Promoting Diversity www.iccrom.org

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