King Tirana Disaster Risk final - Introduction to Risk Management: Concepts, Approaches and Current Thinking. /Joseph King, Unit Director, Sites Unit, ICCROM
Introduction to Risk Management:Concepts, Approaches and Current Thinking Joseph King Building Capacity in Natural Risk Preparedness for Cultural Heritage Sites in Albania Tirana, Albania – 19 April 2011
• Damage from disasters, including to heritage resources, is increasing every year - Better communication and information - Wider definition of the term “heritage” - Larger footprint - Other? Disaster Risk as a Threat
• Disaster risk vs. other slower acting risks• Disaster Risk is often expresses with the equation: Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability• For Disaster Risk to increase, either the frequency or strength of the hazard must increase or there must be more vulnerability (or both) What is Disaster Risk and Why Is It Increasing?
• Most common hazards include earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes/typhoons, tsunamis• Some of these may be increasing due to changes in weather patterns, etc.Is the frequency or intensity of hazards going up?
Source –http://news.bbc.co.ukTerror Attach in Mumbai, India
• Lack of Maintenance and poverty• Inappropriate Restoration• Rampant Urbanization• Building where we didn’t in the past• Loss of traditional knowledge systems• Vulnerability to secondary hazards Is our vulnerability Increasing?
• Effective DRM for heritage starts with advance planning and preparation• DRM should be conceived in ways which have the least impact on the heritage values (including OUV) while ensuring safety• Advance planning should be conceived in terms of the whole property, and provide integrated concern for its buildings, structures, natural features, and their associated contents and landscapes• Planning should include multiple for multiple risks• Property occupants and users should be directly involved in development of emergency-response plans• Following a disaster, every effort should be made to ensure the retention and repair of structures or features that have suffered damage or loss Some Key Principles
Disaster RiskManagement (DRM)is a cycle for whichplanning for adisaster(prevention),response to thedisaster, andrecovery from thedisaster must alwaysbe in motion The DRM Cycle
• Improvements within the heritage profession• Better integration between the heritage profession and the larger disaster reduction community• Better relationships with local communities and use of their skills and knowledge How can we improve the situation?
• Coordination of activities• Developing joint tools• Sharing information• Developing serious research on both “modern techniques” and traditional knowledge systems• Developing best practices• Developing capacity building activities Improvements within the Heritage Profession
• Emphasis on management planning/management systems which take into account disaster risk (DRM)• Maintenance and simple solutions where applicable• More complex solutions where necessary and feasible Improvements within the Heritage Profession
The global Disaster Risk Reduction sector is currently not concerned with the heritage HERITAGE GLOBAL FIELD OF RISK REDUCTION The Heritage sector does not know the “language” of DRCourtesy of Giovanni Boccardi, UNESCO WHC Integrating with larger Disaster Reduction Community
• Speaking the same language• Heritage being accepted as one of many concerns• Use of heritage as a positive proactive force at the readiness, response, and recovery phasesIntegrating with larger Disaster Reduction Community
• Using traditional building materials and techniques of construction• Using traditional land use planning• Using existing social/cultural decision- making/leadership• Learning from local knowledge (myths, taboos, warning systems, planning) Use of heritage during readiness phase
Don’t Tear It Down By Randolph LangenbachUse of heritage during readiness phase
• Using heritage places as meeting points/shelter• Using existing social/cultural decision- making/leadership structures in response Use of heritage during response phase
• Using traditional knowledge for planning, materials, and know-how• Using heritage as an economic resource through tourism• Paying attention to local needs Use of heritage during recovery phase
• Using traditional knowledge systems (community as a knowledge resource)• Involving communities in all aspects of the process from the beginning (starting with planning) Improving relations with the Community
• Purpose ‒ Strengthen protection of WH and contribute to sustainable development by integrating heritage into risk reduction policies and incorporate concern for disaster reduction within site Management Plans ‒ Provide guidance to integrate risk reduction into WH strategic planning and management New Approaches: World Heritage Strategy
• Objectives 1. Strengthening institutional support and governance for reducing risks at World Heritage properties; 2. Using knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of disaster prevention at WH properties 3. Identifying, assessing and monitoring risks from disasters at WH properties 4. Reducing underlying risk factors at WH properties 5. Strengthening disaster preparedness at WH properties These follow closely the five priority areas of the Hyogo Framework for Action New Approaches: World Heritage Strategy
Available for download at:http://whc.unesco.org/en/activities/630/http://whc.unesco.org/fr/activities/630/ First Publication in a New Series of Resource Manuals for World Heritage
• What is Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and why is it important?• What does a DRM plan consist of?• How do you get started?• How do you identify and assess disaster risks?• How can you prevent disaster risks or mitigate their impact?• How do you prepare for and respond to emergencies?• How do you recover and rehabilitate your property after a disaster?• How do you implement, reassess and reappraise the DRM plan? Table of Contents
• Glossary of Disaster Management Terms• Typology of Hazards• Relevant Charters and Recommendations• International Organizations and Research Institutions• Key References and Publications Annexes
The manual is meant to:• give an overall framework and approach to DRM• help site managers develop DRM plans for their propertiesThe manual is not meant to:• Give detailed information on every type of hazard or disaster situation (there is a list of key publications where you can find more information on specific issues) The Purpose of the Manual
These can be separate (but linked) plans or the DRM can be part of the overall management planPossible links include visitor management, communityinvolvement, maintenance and monitoring to name a few Where does DRM Fit Into Overall Planning
• Site manager• Site staff• Local and national government• Community leaders/communities• Local scientists and researchers• Health services• Police, firefighters, and other emergency response organizations (local and national) Core Team and Other Key Stakeholders
• Attributes that carry the OUV (SOUV)• Geographical information• Geological, hydrological, meteorological information• Factors and processes for probable hazards (including probable frequency)• Thematic hazard maps, heritage risk maps, etc.• Disaster histories• Inventories of the heritage and also existing DRM infrastructure• Existing plans and planning mechanisms for DRM and more generally for physical planning (at all levels)• Institutions relevant to DRM and heritage• Traditional knowledge systems Information Needed to Identify Disaster Risks
Macedonia - Zone 3: 10% chance every 50 yearsof a destructive earthquake.
Delhi’s Seismicity (Seismo‐tectonic Map around Delhi region, (after Sharma 2003) ) Source: Improving the Seismic Resistance of Cultural Heritage Buildings, EU‐India Economic Cross Cultural Programme
Delhi’s Seismicity (cont’d) 32.5 Epicenters in and around Delhi Region (100 Years) 31.5 30.5 29.5Latitude ºN 28.5 27.5 26.5 Magnitude < 2 Magnitude 2 to 3 25.5 Magnitude 3 to 4 Magnitude 4 to 5 24.5 Magnitude 5 to 6 74.5 75.5 76.5 77.5 78.5 79.5 80.5 81.5 82.5 Magnitude > 6 Places Longitude ºE Slide Source: Prof C V R Murthy, IIT Kanpur
Delhi’s HISTORICAL SEISMICITY in brief Date Magnitude 893 or 894 (Intensity XI, XII) -15.07.1720 (intensity IX in Delhi) 6.5 01.09.1803 7.0 16.01.1842 5.5 05.03.1842 5.5 26.04.1848 6.0 04.04.1905 8.0 26.02.1906 7.0 14.04.1934 5.0 20.10.1937 6.0 10.10.1956 6.7 27.08.1960 6.020.06.1966 Delhi-Gurgaon Border 4.7 15.08.1966 5.6 13.02.1969 5.1 23.03.1984 5.1
• Creative activity to imagine possible disaster scenarios• Alternative scenarios should be developed• Should be developed based on different types of likely hazards coming alone or together• Secondary or follow-on hazards should be considered (e.g. fire after an earthquake)• Should be written as narratives Writing Disaster Scenarios
• Measures to prevent or mitigate disasters – Ensure actions don’t have negative impact on OUV – Use traditional knowledge systems• Preparation and response – Planning for the first 72 hours – Roles and responsibilities of team members – Establishing procedures and ensuring emergency equipment• Recovery and rehabilitation – Assessing damage – Planning for short and long term recovery – Reviewing the planning and response Planning Areas