National Research Council      Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering                                      ...
Presentation outline   Geohazard vs. risk in urban areas   Geohazard assessment   UrbiSIT Project       • Geohazard vs. ri...
Population in megacities                           ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
Natural disasters in urban areas - World    Risk = Hazard x Elements at risk x Vulnerability                              ...
Geohazard assessment in the World                             ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
Urban areas in Italy                                 31.7 million of people                                 live in urban ...
Natural disasters - Italy in Europe  Europe                                                   Italy                       ...
What’s UrbiSIT Project?DEM                                                      Land use                                  ...
UrbiSIT Project: numbers and structure   UrbiSIT is a five-years project (December 2007-   November 2012).   UrbiSIT is fi...
UrbiSIT Project: activities and products             Data storage and managing via WebGIS interface                       ...
UrbiSIT Project: WebGIS interface                               ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
Differential settlements                           ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
Subsoil database of Rome                                  Data sources:                                  Laboratorio di Id...
Tiber River alluvial deposits - Architecture                                G.R.A.                5 m a.s.l.              ...
Settlement susceptibility index (Iδ) - Critical zones        δ n A Δz A,i I n AO Δz AO,j I Iδ =    =∑           +∑        ...
Mapping the settlement susceptibility index (Iδ) 3D model of the alluvial deposits of the Tiber River (Ponte Milvio‐Castel...
Mapping the settlement susceptibility index (Iδ)    Map of Iδ susceptibility index vs. interferometric map                ...
L’Aquila earthquake                      ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
L’Aquila earthquake                      ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
Managing Emergency Activities  ACQUISITION OF GEOLOGICAL MAPS AND  SUBSURFACE DATA  FIELD MAPPING OF COSEISMIC DEFORMATION...
New criteria for seismicmicrozonation                           ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
Seismic MicrozonationGoals of Seismic Microzonation: Identify and define areas with different level of seismic hazard Eval...
Seismic microzonationin Italy• Two different technical –scientific approaches for themitigation of seismic risk:   - Built...
Seismic MicrozonationLEVEL IOutput:Map of the previous surveysMap of Homogeneous zones for seismic microzonationLIVEL IIAc...
SEISMIC MICROZONATION    IN THE L’AQUILA AREA: THE TASK PROJECTTask 1: Finding, archivage and GIS Georeferencing of the pr...
GEOLOGICAL MAP             Carta di microzonazione sismica             di San Giuliano di Puglia (CB)                 ONE ...
EXAMPLE OF GEOLOGICAL MAP OF S. GREGORIO AREA (L’AQUILA)               FOR SEISMIC MICROZONATION                          ...
ROMA EXPERIENCE           ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
ROMA EXPERIENCEROMA GEOLOGICALBLOCK-DIAGRAM      ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
ROMA EXPERIENCE Remains of Elephas antiquus in the excavations of Velia hills near the Colosseo (1924-32)                 ...
The Palatine Project - Geohazard assessment forCultural Heritage preservation    Palatine Hill, Roman Forum, and Coliseum:...
GEOHAZARD IN ROME                    ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
GEOHAZARD IN ROME                    ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
« DECIVS MARIVSVENANTIVS                   Decio Mario VenancioBASILIVS V[IR]              Basilio, and virC[LARISSIMVS] E...
The Palatine Project - Geohazard assessment for   Cultural Heritage preservation    THE PALATINE      PROJECTThe Palatine ...
The Palatine Project - New surveys       STEP 3New surveys:• 25 geotechnicalboreholes (201already available)•35 geotechnic...
The Palatine Project - New surveysGeohazard assessment andseismic microzonationof the Palatine hill,Coliseum, andRoman For...
The Palatine Project - Geological map                                ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
The Palatine Project - Geohazard susceptibilitymap                                 ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
The Palatine Project - Geohazard susceptibility   LANDSLIDES                       50                             A   A’La...
The Palatine Project - Geohazard susceptibility  TOPPLING AND   COLLAPSESWeathering, slopeattitude, andfractures ofvolcani...
The Palatine Project - Geohazard susceptibility CAVITY COLLAPSE                                                           ...
The Palatine Project - Seismic microzonation map                                ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
The Palatine Project - Data and products availability            http://webgis.igag.cnr.it/palatino/                      ...
PLANNING DEVELOPMENT                    MITIGATION              OF RISK IN URBAN AREAS     PREVENTION                  PLA...
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Cavinato tirana 2011 final - Lessons Learnt in Risk Preparedness for Cultural Heritage Sites: Rome and L’Aquila experiences. /Gian Paolo Cavinato, National Research Council (CNR) - Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering (IGAG)

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Lessons Learnt in Risk Preparedness for Cultural Heritage Sites: Rome and L’Aquila experiences.
Gian Paolo Cavinato, National Research Council (CNR) - Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering (IGAG).

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Cavinato tirana 2011 final - Lessons Learnt in Risk Preparedness for Cultural Heritage Sites: Rome and L’Aquila experiences. /Gian Paolo Cavinato, National Research Council (CNR) - Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering (IGAG)

  1. 1. National Research Council Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering Italian Civil  Protection National ServiceLessons Learnt in Risk Preparedness forCultural Heritage Sites: Rome and L’AquilaexperiencesGian Paolo CavinatoNational Research Council (CNR) - Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering (IGAG) ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  2. 2. Presentation outline Geohazard vs. risk in urban areas Geohazard assessment UrbiSIT Project • Geohazard vs. risk in Italy • Goal • Structure • Activities and results L’Aquila earthquake Palatine Project ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  3. 3. Population in megacities ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  4. 4. Natural disasters in urban areas - World Risk = Hazard x Elements at risk x Vulnerability source: http://www.preventionweb.net/english/ ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  5. 5. Geohazard assessment in the World ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  6. 6. Urban areas in Italy 31.7 million of people live in urban areas, equal to 55.4 % of the Italian population. 18.7 million of people live in 76 main boroughs*, equal to 32.7 % of the Italian population. * with more than 50.000 citizensLight pollution from satellite ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  7. 7. Natural disasters - Italy in Europe Europe Italy source: http://www.preventionweb.net/english/ ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  8. 8. What’s UrbiSIT Project?DEM Land use UrbiSIT UrbiSIT is a project financed byInterferometry Subsoil database the Italian Civil Protection National Service to develop a GIS aimed at geohazard assessment in urban areas Damage inventories Geology ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  9. 9. UrbiSIT Project: numbers and structure UrbiSIT is a five-years project (December 2007- November 2012). UrbiSIT is financed by Italian Civil Protection National Service for 450.000 € per year (for a total of 2.250.000 €). UrbiSIT consists of 6 workpackages (WP1-6) and several research units, involving people (more than 30 scientists) from earth science, engineering, physics, archaeology, and informatics. ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  10. 10. UrbiSIT Project: activities and products Data storage and managing via WebGIS interface THEMATIC GEOGRAPHIC  GEOHAZARD  KEY DATABASE ASSESSMENT PRODUCTS Differential Seismic Cavity Flash Landslides settlements hazard collapse floodsSmall scale Level 1 State, RegionSmall scale Municipality, Level 2 NeighborhoodLarge scale Site-specific Level 3 ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  11. 11. UrbiSIT Project: WebGIS interface ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  12. 12. Differential settlements ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  13. 13. Subsoil database of Rome Data sources: Laboratorio di Idrogeologia di Roma TRE BOREHOLE (BH)  Comune di Roma APAT – Legge n. 464/1984 TYPE ANAS S.p.A.  ITALFERR Gruppo Ferrovie dello Stato Geoplanning – Servizi per il territorioPK ID_BH_Type S.G.S. Studio Geotecnico Strutturale  S.I.G. Studio Indagini Geotecniche Description IGES s.n.c. BOREHOLE (BH) More than 8000  STRATIGRAPHY boreholes. PK Id_Strat BOREHOLE (BH) FK1 Id_Data PK, FK2 Id_Data Id_Old_Strat Id_Old_Data FK1 Id_BH_Type Strat_Top FK3 Id_Use More than 2000 boreholes  Strat_Bot BH_Depth penetrate the recent alluvial  Strat_Top_a.s.l. … deposits. Strat_Bot_a.s.l. Original_Description Laboratory tests available for  … approximately 700 samples. ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  14. 14. Tiber River alluvial deposits - Architecture G.R.A. 5 m a.s.l. -5 m a.s.l. -30 m a.s.l. -40 m a.s.l. More than 70 m of alluvial deposits ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  15. 15. Settlement susceptibility index (Iδ) - Critical zones δ n A Δz A,i I n AO Δz AO,j I Iδ = =∑ +∑ q i=1 E A,i j=1 E AO,j An ie ne re Teve 5 km ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  16. 16. Mapping the settlement susceptibility index (Iδ) 3D model of the alluvial deposits of the Tiber River (Ponte Milvio‐Castel S. Angelo) Ponte Milvio No estimation Organic clays Clays borehole Silts Sands Gravels Castel S. Angelo ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  17. 17. Mapping the settlement susceptibility index (Iδ) Map of Iδ susceptibility index vs. interferometric map source: http://webgis.irea.cnr.it Via Andrea Doria, after the L’Aquila earthquake of the 6 April 2009 ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  18. 18. L’Aquila earthquake ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  19. 19. L’Aquila earthquake ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  20. 20. Managing Emergency Activities ACQUISITION OF GEOLOGICAL MAPS AND SUBSURFACE DATA FIELD MAPPING OF COSEISMIC DEFORMATIONS GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE SITES IDENTIFIED FOR REBUILDING HYDROGEOLOGICAL, GEOMORPHOLOICAL, AND GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SITES CHOSEN FOR REBUILDING SEISMIC MICROZONATION http://www.protezionecivile.it/ ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  21. 21. New criteria for seismicmicrozonation ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  22. 22. Seismic MicrozonationGoals of Seismic Microzonation: Identify and define areas with different level of seismic hazard Evaluate the seismic response of the terrains identified in the microzones for the riduction of the seismic risk ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  23. 23. Seismic microzonationin Italy• Two different technical –scientific approaches for themitigation of seismic risk: - Built new infrastructure knowing seismic hazard (reduce uncertainty on geohazard) -Built new infrastructures following earthquake proof methodologies (reduce the vulnerability) Microzonation follows the 2006first approach ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  24. 24. Seismic MicrozonationLEVEL IOutput:Map of the previous surveysMap of Homogeneous zones for seismic microzonationLIVEL IIActions:New data acquisitionSimplified numerical modelingOutput:Map of the zones with no-co seismic effects expectedMap of zones prone to co seismic effects (Liquefaction, Active faults, Differential settlements)LIVEL III Actions:New data acquisition Output:Map of Seismic Microzonation ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  25. 25. SEISMIC MICROZONATION IN THE L’AQUILA AREA: THE TASK PROJECTTask 1: Finding, archivage and GIS Georeferencing of the previuos dataTask 2: Geological and geotechnical Models geologico-tecnico(Geologists)Task 3: Geothecnical Analysis of the terrains (Geotechnics)Task 4: Geophysical Analysis of the terrains (Geophysics)Task 5: Instrumental Analyses: H/V Spectral rapport, strong /weakmotion and microtremors (seismologist)Task 6: Numeric Simulation for Earthquake Reference (Geologists andstatististics)Task 7: Numeric Simulation (Geologists and Engineer Geotechnicals)Task 8: Damage Analysis (Structural Engineers)Task 9: Urban planning and Building Technical Norm (Architects andEngineers)Task 10: Final Report, GIS cartographic output, and publication ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  26. 26. GEOLOGICAL MAP Carta di microzonazione sismica di San Giuliano di Puglia (CB) ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  27. 27. EXAMPLE OF GEOLOGICAL MAP OF S. GREGORIO AREA (L’AQUILA) FOR SEISMIC MICROZONATION ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  28. 28. ROMA EXPERIENCE ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  29. 29. ROMA EXPERIENCEROMA GEOLOGICALBLOCK-DIAGRAM ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  30. 30. ROMA EXPERIENCE Remains of Elephas antiquus in the excavations of Velia hills near the Colosseo (1924-32) ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  31. 31. The Palatine Project - Geohazard assessment forCultural Heritage preservation Palatine Hill, Roman Forum, and Coliseum: an UNESCO World Heritage Site Palatine Hill, Roman Forum, and Coliseum circuit: 5 millions of visitors in 2010! High levels of geohazard, mainly due to the lack of overall  knowledge in terms of geological setting. Ministry  of  Cultural  Heritage,  Italian  Civil  Protection  National Service, and National Research Council involved  in a project aimed at geohazard assessment and Cultural  Heritage Preservation of the archaeological area. ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  32. 32. GEOHAZARD IN ROME ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  33. 33. GEOHAZARD IN ROME ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  34. 34. « DECIVS MARIVSVENANTIVS Decio Mario VenancioBASILIVS V[IR] Basilio, and virC[LARISSIMVS] ET clarissimus inlustris,INL[VSTRIS] PRAEF[ECTVS] prefect of Rome,VRB[I] PATRICIVS CONSVL patrician, consulORDINARIVS ARENAM ET ordinary restored at hisPODIVM QVAE ABOMI own expense the arenaNANDI TERRAEMO and the podium,TVS RVINA PROS destroyed by a terribleTRAVIT SVMTV PRO earthquake (484 or 508PRIO RESTITVIT » b.c)The Colosseum blocks of travertine weresystematically removed in the fifteenth andsixteenth century to be re-used in new buildings,and blocks fell to the ground were still used in1634 for the construction of Palazzo Barberini in1703, after another earthquake, the Port ofRipetta. ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  35. 35. The Palatine Project - Geohazard assessment for Cultural Heritage preservation THE PALATINE PROJECTThe Palatine Project,aimed at geohazard Time Dataset Main productsassessment of thehill and surrounding Stepsareas, is structured inthree subsequentsteps of elaboration: •Geological map on a 1:3,000 scale, with 02/2009 Data from Step 1 06/2009 literature geological cross sectionsStep 1, founded on •Hydrogeological map on a 1:3,000 scaledataset fromliterature; •Geological and hydrogeological map on aStep 2, founded on 1:1,000 scale, with geological cross sectionsavailable data from Available data 07/2009 •Geohazard susceptibility map on a 1:1,000public archives; Step 2 12/2009 from public scale archivesStep 3, founded on •Seismic microzonation map on a 1:1,000new data, acquired scale (no numeric modeling)on purpose. • Geological and lithological map on a 1:2,000 01/2010 Acquisition of scale, with geological cross sections Step 3 12/2010 new data • Seismic microzonation map on a 1:2,000 scale (numeric modeling) ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  36. 36. The Palatine Project - New surveys STEP 3New surveys:• 25 geotechnicalboreholes (201already available)•35 geotechnicalsamples analyses•24 ERT (ElectricalResistivityTomographies)•11 Down-Hole, 1Cross-Hole, 19MASW (MultichannelAnalysis of SurfaceWaves)•5 GPR (GroundPenetrating Radar)surveys•85 Microtremorsmeasurements ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  37. 37. The Palatine Project - New surveysGeohazard assessment andseismic microzonationof the Palatine hill,Coliseum, andRoman Forum 100 m 3D view of ERT lines UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011 ONE
  38. 38. The Palatine Project - Geological map ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  39. 39. The Palatine Project - Geohazard susceptibilitymap ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  40. 40. The Palatine Project - Geohazard susceptibility LANDSLIDES 50 A A’Landslides caninvolve the 45northern sector of A’ 40the study area(Domus 35 ATiberiana).The geological 30 Domus Tiberianasetting of this area 25bring high levels ofgeohazard, due to 20the peculiar Modified after Croci 2008attitude of the 15sedimentary bedscurved into the 10volcanic rocks. 5 0 A -5 -10 A’ -15 After Calabresi & Scarpelli 1998 PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011 ONE UN
  41. 41. The Palatine Project - Geohazard susceptibility TOPPLING AND COLLAPSESWeathering, slopeattitude, andfractures ofvolcanic rocks fracture tuff(tuffs), enhancecollapses andtoppling of blocksalong the north- Topplingwestern slope ofthe Palatine Hill.The presence ofnumerousanthropic tunnels tuffparallel to theslope enhancethese phenomenafurther on. ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  42. 42. The Palatine Project - Geohazard susceptibility CAVITY COLLAPSE Temple of JupiterThe presence ofanthropic cavitieshighly enhancegeohazard due tocavity collapsesusceptibility, After Forma Urbis, Lanciani 1893-1901mainly if tunnelsare close to the Anthropic tunnel close to thesurface. Magna Mater Temple of Jupiter: collapse of the foundation tuff Magna Mater A A’ sand tunnel A A’ ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  43. 43. The Palatine Project - Seismic microzonation map ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  44. 44. The Palatine Project - Data and products availability http://webgis.igag.cnr.it/palatino/ ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011
  45. 45. PLANNING DEVELOPMENT MITIGATION OF RISK IN URBAN AREAS PREVENTION PLANNING EMERGENCIES DEVELOPMENT OF KNOLEDGES,  PROTOCOLS AND TRAINING, STANDARD METHODS  PROCEDURES DURING THE  AND TOOLS FOR OPERATIONAL  SHARED EMERGENCY AND  ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGICAL  POST‐EMERGENCY HAZARD ONE UN PROJECT TIRANA 19 APRIL 2011

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