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Uruguay Case Study - NAP-Ag Programme

FAO-UNDP Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans programme (NAP-Ag)

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Case study
July 2017 Uruguay
Integrating Agriculture in National
Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) Programme
Safeguarding livelihoods and promoting
resilience through National Adaptation Plans
2
Contents
Highlights 3
Case study objectives 4
Adaptation and the Paris Agreement 5
Climate change  agriculture 6
Frameworks  institutions 7
Agriculture adaptation planning process 9
NAP–Ag programme support 11
Lessons learned so far 14
Further information 15
©Communications,MGAP
Cover photo: ©Communications, MGAP
This publication was made possible by the Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag)
Programme, led by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP), with generous support from the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the
Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The contents are
the responsibility of the authors and do not reflect the views of FAO, UNDP or the Federal Ministry for the
Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety.
Authors
David Mansell-Moullin (FAO) led the writing of this case study with inputs from Cecilia Jones (FAO Uruguay),
Magdalena Preve (UNDP Uruguay), Walter Oyhantcabal (Uruguay Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries)
and Ignacio Lorenzo (Uruguay Ministry of Housing, Land Planning and the Environment). Contributors to the case
study include: Claudia Garcia (FAO), Ninni Nyman (UNDP) and Juan Luis Salazar (FAO). FAO-NAPs@fao.org
Citation
FAO  UNDP. (2017). Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans: Uruguay Case Study. Rome, Italy,
FAO XX pp. (also available at www.fao.org/in-action/naps)
3
Highlights
�
The agricultural sector is a mainstay
of the Uruguayan economy,
contributing seventy percent of
exports and seven percent of the
Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The
sector has experienced a period of
rapid growth, intensification and
modernization over the last decade.
�
Agricultural production remains
vulnerable to climate change and
climate variability, with extreme
events such as floods and droughts
becoming more intense. Projections
indicate that there will be an increase
in the duration of heat waves and a
significant increase in the intensity of
the precipitation this century.
�
Uruguay has developed an advanced
suite of climate change policies,
strategies and plans. The country
has committed to ambitious and
quantified sectoral mitigation targets
to be achieved by 2030.
�
In 2016 the Ministry of Livestock,
Agriculture and Fisheries (MGAP)
began the process of developing
a National Adaptation Plan (NAP)
specifically for the agricultural sector
(Agriculture NAP). The formulation of
the NAP will be finalised in 2018.
�
This planning process builds on
over a decade of national studies,
awareness and consensus on the
importance of climate change
adaptation and the 2009 National
System for Response to Climate
Change and Variability (SNRCC).
�
The Agriculture NAP will seek to
clarify questions around which
livestock, agriculture, forestry and
fishery activities need to adapt, in
which parts of the country, and how
producers can effectively reduce their
vulnerability and build their resilience
to future climate uncertainties.
� This push to adapt the agriculture
sector will contribute to Uruguay’s
economic and sustainability goals,
as well as the National Policy on
Climate Change (2017) and the
countries National Determined
Contribution (NDC) commitments
under the Paris Agreement.
�
The UNDP–FAO NAP–Ag programme
in Uruguay is working with the
Sustainability and Climate Change
Unit of the MGAP, and in close
coordination with other ministries
and government bodies, to support the
formulation of the Agriculture NAP.
�
Since mid-2016, the NAP–Ag
programme in Uruguay has supported
three assessments to review climate
change impacts and adaptation
options; map stakeholders to be
involved in the Agriculture NAP
process; and identify capacity needs
within the government and amongst
agricultural producers.
�
The NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay
is now working with the MGAP on:
cost benefit analysis of adaptation
alternatives; impact assessment of
adaptation policies; consultations
with dairy, family farming, forestry,
irrigated rice, fisheries, fruit and
vegetable, agriculture and livestock
producers; development of indicators
to track and monitor adaptation; and
strengthening inclusion of gender
dimensions within the Agriculture NAP.
4
Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) programme
Case study objectives
This country case study on Uruguay is one in a series that describes the steps taken to formulate
and implement National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). The case studies focus on adaptation in
agriculture, which includes forestry, livestock and fisheries. The series aims to provide national
policy makers with valuable information from counterparts in Asia, Africa and Latin America who
are on the same NAP journey to tackle the multiple challenges posed by climate change.
Each case study further describes the contribution and lessons learnt from the UNDP – FAO
programme Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag), which is funded
by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear
Safety (BMUB). The value of this work to achieving national and international development and
climate change goals (e.g. particularly the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development
Goals) is also presented.
The case study series also shows the links between the country-led NAP processes and the
NAP– Ag programme activities and resulting impacts. Given that the NAP–Ag programme in
Uruguay has only been running since mid-2016, it is too early to assess the results, however
lessons can be drawn from the suite of activities that are being developed at the national level.
The preparation of this case study is based on interviews with the UNDP – FAO NAP–Ag country
coordinator, UNDP and FAO staff, representatives from national Ministries (e.g. Ministry of
Housing, Land Planning and the Environment; Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries), as
well as extensive review of country reports and publications.
  Box 1 
National Adaptation Plans (NAPs)
National Adaptation Plans were established in 2010, as
part of the Cancun Adaptation Framework to enhance
urgent action on adaptation, and were adopted by Parties
to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) (Decision 1/CP.16.). NAPs enable
countries to identify, prioritize and implement the most
needed medium- and long-term adaptation strategies and
programmes. They aim to:
•	 reduce vulnerability to climate change by building
adaptive capacity and resilience; and
•	 ensure that climate change adaptation is integrated into
development planning in all sectors and at all levels of
planning within the country.
©Communications,MGAP
Least DeveLopeD Countries
LDC ExpErt Group, DECEMBEr 2012
NATIONAL ADAPTATION PLANS
Technical guidelines for the national adaptation plan process
5
Uruguay – Case study
Adaptation and the Paris Agreement
The 2015 Paris Agreement recognizes the urgent need for adaptation in our global response to
climate change. Most of the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), submitted to
the UNFCCC prior to the Paris Agreement, and the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)
submitted following the entry into force of the Agreement, include countries adaptation goals,
priorities, actions and needs.
Uruguay submitted its INDC on 29 September 2015. It emphasizes both mitigation and
adaptation actions, and quantifies ambitious sectoral mitigation targets to be achieved by 2030.
The INDC emphasizes the critical need for adaptation in the food and agriculture sector, as well
as the progress made through existing adaptation actions in the agriculture sectors, such as the:
•	 Design and implementation of adaptation measures in cattle production, including water
sources, feed and rangeland management measures;
•	 Development of soil use and management plans to reduce erosion and preservation of organic
matter in croplands;
•	 Development of research and data collection programmes; strengthening of weather, climate
and water services; development of information systems, climate services and monitoring
programmes.
The Uruguay INDC (2015) also defines a wide variety of adaptation actions to be achieved by
2030, including the “development and implementation of national, regional and sector-specific
participatory climate change and variability adaptation plans, and incorporation of monitoring
and reporting systems on adaptation and loss and damage”. The INDC specifically calls for the
design of sector-specific NAPs, with medium and long-term strategies and programmes, in key
sectors such as agriculture.
Following the ratification and entry into force of the Paris Agreement on 4 November 2016,
Uruguay opted to submit a revised Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) that builds on
the INDC submitted in 2015. The participatory process to finalise the NDC is currently underway
and is expected to be completed by the 23rd session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties
(COP 23) in November 2017.
  Box 2 
Climate change and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)	
Climate change has major implications for each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs). National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) have an important role to play in achieving the
SDGs and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In the agricultural, livestock and
forestry sectors, adaptation can contribute to sustainable food production systems as well
as the development of resilient agricultural practices, and ultimately to SDG Goal 2 to
achieve Zero Hunger. The SDG Goal 13 on climate change, explicitly highlights adaptation
as a key mechanism to combat climate change and its impacts, with targets to:
•	 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural
disasters.
•	 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning.
•	 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate
change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning.
“ Parties hereby establish the global goal on adaptation of
enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and
reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to
contributing to sustainable development. ”
(UNFCCC (2015) Article 7 of the Paris Agreement)
6
Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) programme
Climate change  agriculture
The agricultural sector, and particularly livestock farming, play a major role in the Uruguayan
economy. The sector accounts for 7 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), and when all
associated activities are included, contributes up to 25 percent of total GDP. Importantly, seventy
percent of total exports come from the agriculture sector. Whilst Uruguay’s population is one
of the smallest in Latin America, with only 3.3 million people, the total agricultural production is
estimated to feed 28 million people. For example, the country has one of the highest numbers of
cattle per capita, with 12 million cattle and 7 million sheep.
Over the last decade, the agricultural sector has experienced a period of rapid growth,
intensification and modernization. However, agriculture production remains highly exposed
to climate change and climate variability, with floods and droughts during the same period
becoming more intense. The results from a set of global models project an average temperature
increase of 2 to 3°C for the region, and an increase of 10 to 20 percent in the annual
precipitation, by the end of the 21st century. Projections also indicate that there will be a
slight decrease in the number of days with frost; a significant increase in the number of warm
nights; an increase in the duration of heat waves and a significant increase in the intensity of
the precipitation. The impacts will be felt differently within Uruguay’s diverse land-use patterns
and production systems, whether crops (wheat, soybean, rice, maize), fruit (citrus, viticulture),
grasslands (e.g. beef, dairy, sheep), horticulture or forestry (natural and plantation). Adaptation
strategies and practices will therefore need to differ between each of these sectors.
Reconciling national economic objectives to produce more food and primary products in more
efficient and competitive ways for export, whilst at the same time meeting national sustainability
objectives to minimize environmental impacts and reduce the intensity of greenhouse gas
(GHG) emissions, poses a number of challenges. For example, the agriculture sector currently
contributes approximately 75 percent of Uruguay’s total GHG emissions, with methane from
enteric fermentation accounting for more than half of these emissions. In addition, Uruguay
must build resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change and climate variability in order to
achieve both economic and sustainability goals. The effective development and implementation
of NAPs will play a critical role in this process.
©Communications,MGAP
“Uruguay is highly sensitive to droughts, it has low-lying
coastal areas, as well as areas which are prone to climate
related disasters, such as floods. Adaptation becomes
particularly important when it comes to food production,
which is a core activity for the domestic economy and is highly
sensitive to climate.”
Uruguay Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (2015, p.8)

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Uruguay Case Study - NAP-Ag Programme

  • 1. Case study July 2017 Uruguay Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) Programme Safeguarding livelihoods and promoting resilience through National Adaptation Plans
  • 2. 2 Contents Highlights 3 Case study objectives 4 Adaptation and the Paris Agreement 5 Climate change agriculture 6 Frameworks institutions 7 Agriculture adaptation planning process 9 NAP–Ag programme support 11 Lessons learned so far 14 Further information 15 ©Communications,MGAP Cover photo: ©Communications, MGAP This publication was made possible by the Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) Programme, led by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), with generous support from the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The contents are the responsibility of the authors and do not reflect the views of FAO, UNDP or the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. Authors David Mansell-Moullin (FAO) led the writing of this case study with inputs from Cecilia Jones (FAO Uruguay), Magdalena Preve (UNDP Uruguay), Walter Oyhantcabal (Uruguay Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries) and Ignacio Lorenzo (Uruguay Ministry of Housing, Land Planning and the Environment). Contributors to the case study include: Claudia Garcia (FAO), Ninni Nyman (UNDP) and Juan Luis Salazar (FAO). FAO-NAPs@fao.org Citation FAO UNDP. (2017). Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans: Uruguay Case Study. Rome, Italy, FAO XX pp. (also available at www.fao.org/in-action/naps)
  • 3. 3 Highlights � The agricultural sector is a mainstay of the Uruguayan economy, contributing seventy percent of exports and seven percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The sector has experienced a period of rapid growth, intensification and modernization over the last decade. � Agricultural production remains vulnerable to climate change and climate variability, with extreme events such as floods and droughts becoming more intense. Projections indicate that there will be an increase in the duration of heat waves and a significant increase in the intensity of the precipitation this century. � Uruguay has developed an advanced suite of climate change policies, strategies and plans. The country has committed to ambitious and quantified sectoral mitigation targets to be achieved by 2030. � In 2016 the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries (MGAP) began the process of developing a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) specifically for the agricultural sector (Agriculture NAP). The formulation of the NAP will be finalised in 2018. � This planning process builds on over a decade of national studies, awareness and consensus on the importance of climate change adaptation and the 2009 National System for Response to Climate Change and Variability (SNRCC). � The Agriculture NAP will seek to clarify questions around which livestock, agriculture, forestry and fishery activities need to adapt, in which parts of the country, and how producers can effectively reduce their vulnerability and build their resilience to future climate uncertainties. � This push to adapt the agriculture sector will contribute to Uruguay’s economic and sustainability goals, as well as the National Policy on Climate Change (2017) and the countries National Determined Contribution (NDC) commitments under the Paris Agreement. � The UNDP–FAO NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay is working with the Sustainability and Climate Change Unit of the MGAP, and in close coordination with other ministries and government bodies, to support the formulation of the Agriculture NAP. � Since mid-2016, the NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay has supported three assessments to review climate change impacts and adaptation options; map stakeholders to be involved in the Agriculture NAP process; and identify capacity needs within the government and amongst agricultural producers. � The NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay is now working with the MGAP on: cost benefit analysis of adaptation alternatives; impact assessment of adaptation policies; consultations with dairy, family farming, forestry, irrigated rice, fisheries, fruit and vegetable, agriculture and livestock producers; development of indicators to track and monitor adaptation; and strengthening inclusion of gender dimensions within the Agriculture NAP.
  • 4. 4 Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) programme Case study objectives This country case study on Uruguay is one in a series that describes the steps taken to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). The case studies focus on adaptation in agriculture, which includes forestry, livestock and fisheries. The series aims to provide national policy makers with valuable information from counterparts in Asia, Africa and Latin America who are on the same NAP journey to tackle the multiple challenges posed by climate change. Each case study further describes the contribution and lessons learnt from the UNDP – FAO programme Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag), which is funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB). The value of this work to achieving national and international development and climate change goals (e.g. particularly the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals) is also presented. The case study series also shows the links between the country-led NAP processes and the NAP– Ag programme activities and resulting impacts. Given that the NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay has only been running since mid-2016, it is too early to assess the results, however lessons can be drawn from the suite of activities that are being developed at the national level. The preparation of this case study is based on interviews with the UNDP – FAO NAP–Ag country coordinator, UNDP and FAO staff, representatives from national Ministries (e.g. Ministry of Housing, Land Planning and the Environment; Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries), as well as extensive review of country reports and publications.   Box 1  National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) National Adaptation Plans were established in 2010, as part of the Cancun Adaptation Framework to enhance urgent action on adaptation, and were adopted by Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Decision 1/CP.16.). NAPs enable countries to identify, prioritize and implement the most needed medium- and long-term adaptation strategies and programmes. They aim to: • reduce vulnerability to climate change by building adaptive capacity and resilience; and • ensure that climate change adaptation is integrated into development planning in all sectors and at all levels of planning within the country. ©Communications,MGAP Least DeveLopeD Countries LDC ExpErt Group, DECEMBEr 2012 NATIONAL ADAPTATION PLANS Technical guidelines for the national adaptation plan process
  • 5. 5 Uruguay – Case study Adaptation and the Paris Agreement The 2015 Paris Agreement recognizes the urgent need for adaptation in our global response to climate change. Most of the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), submitted to the UNFCCC prior to the Paris Agreement, and the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) submitted following the entry into force of the Agreement, include countries adaptation goals, priorities, actions and needs. Uruguay submitted its INDC on 29 September 2015. It emphasizes both mitigation and adaptation actions, and quantifies ambitious sectoral mitigation targets to be achieved by 2030. The INDC emphasizes the critical need for adaptation in the food and agriculture sector, as well as the progress made through existing adaptation actions in the agriculture sectors, such as the: • Design and implementation of adaptation measures in cattle production, including water sources, feed and rangeland management measures; • Development of soil use and management plans to reduce erosion and preservation of organic matter in croplands; • Development of research and data collection programmes; strengthening of weather, climate and water services; development of information systems, climate services and monitoring programmes. The Uruguay INDC (2015) also defines a wide variety of adaptation actions to be achieved by 2030, including the “development and implementation of national, regional and sector-specific participatory climate change and variability adaptation plans, and incorporation of monitoring and reporting systems on adaptation and loss and damage”. The INDC specifically calls for the design of sector-specific NAPs, with medium and long-term strategies and programmes, in key sectors such as agriculture. Following the ratification and entry into force of the Paris Agreement on 4 November 2016, Uruguay opted to submit a revised Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) that builds on the INDC submitted in 2015. The participatory process to finalise the NDC is currently underway and is expected to be completed by the 23rd session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP 23) in November 2017.   Box 2  Climate change and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Climate change has major implications for each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) have an important role to play in achieving the SDGs and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In the agricultural, livestock and forestry sectors, adaptation can contribute to sustainable food production systems as well as the development of resilient agricultural practices, and ultimately to SDG Goal 2 to achieve Zero Hunger. The SDG Goal 13 on climate change, explicitly highlights adaptation as a key mechanism to combat climate change and its impacts, with targets to: • Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters. • Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning. • Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning. “ Parties hereby establish the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development. ” (UNFCCC (2015) Article 7 of the Paris Agreement)
  • 6. 6 Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) programme Climate change agriculture The agricultural sector, and particularly livestock farming, play a major role in the Uruguayan economy. The sector accounts for 7 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), and when all associated activities are included, contributes up to 25 percent of total GDP. Importantly, seventy percent of total exports come from the agriculture sector. Whilst Uruguay’s population is one of the smallest in Latin America, with only 3.3 million people, the total agricultural production is estimated to feed 28 million people. For example, the country has one of the highest numbers of cattle per capita, with 12 million cattle and 7 million sheep. Over the last decade, the agricultural sector has experienced a period of rapid growth, intensification and modernization. However, agriculture production remains highly exposed to climate change and climate variability, with floods and droughts during the same period becoming more intense. The results from a set of global models project an average temperature increase of 2 to 3°C for the region, and an increase of 10 to 20 percent in the annual precipitation, by the end of the 21st century. Projections also indicate that there will be a slight decrease in the number of days with frost; a significant increase in the number of warm nights; an increase in the duration of heat waves and a significant increase in the intensity of the precipitation. The impacts will be felt differently within Uruguay’s diverse land-use patterns and production systems, whether crops (wheat, soybean, rice, maize), fruit (citrus, viticulture), grasslands (e.g. beef, dairy, sheep), horticulture or forestry (natural and plantation). Adaptation strategies and practices will therefore need to differ between each of these sectors. Reconciling national economic objectives to produce more food and primary products in more efficient and competitive ways for export, whilst at the same time meeting national sustainability objectives to minimize environmental impacts and reduce the intensity of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, poses a number of challenges. For example, the agriculture sector currently contributes approximately 75 percent of Uruguay’s total GHG emissions, with methane from enteric fermentation accounting for more than half of these emissions. In addition, Uruguay must build resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change and climate variability in order to achieve both economic and sustainability goals. The effective development and implementation of NAPs will play a critical role in this process. ©Communications,MGAP “Uruguay is highly sensitive to droughts, it has low-lying coastal areas, as well as areas which are prone to climate related disasters, such as floods. Adaptation becomes particularly important when it comes to food production, which is a core activity for the domestic economy and is highly sensitive to climate.” Uruguay Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (2015, p.8)
  • 7. 7 Uruguay – Case study Frameworks institutions Uruguay ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1994 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2001. It has submitted four National Communications under the UNFCCC, in the years 1997, 2004, 2010 and 2016. The Table below lists key climate specific national policy documents and milestones since 1994.   Table 1  Key national climate planning processes and policies Year Title 1994 Establishment of the Climate Division in the Ministry of Environment 2000 Establishment of a Climate Unit in the Ministry of Agriculture 2004 Program of General Measures for Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change in Uruguay (2004) 2009 National System for Response to Climate Change and Variability (SNRCC) 2010 National Climate Change Response Plan (PNRCC) 2015 Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) 2017 Establishment of the Water, Environment and Climate Change Secretariat (SNAACC), National Environment System (SNA), National Environment Cabinet (GNA) 2017 National Climate Change Policy (PNCC) In 2009, Uruguay established a National System for Response to Climate Change and Variability (SNRCC), which brings together 11 Ministries, as well as the Uruguayan Institute of Meteorology, the Congress of Intendants and the National Emergency System, and the Office of Planning and Budget of the Presidency, to coordinate and plan risk prevention, mitigation and adaptation to climate change. The SNRCCC operates under the Climate Change Division (DCC) within the Ministry of Housing, Land Planning and the Environment (MVOTMA). The National Plan for Response to Climate Change (PNRCC) was the main instrument of the SNRCC to incorporate and implement climate change action until the release of the National Policy for Climate Change in 2017. In 2016, a National Environmental Cabinet attached to the Presidency of the Republic was established, with the objective of coordinating the implementation of environmental, water and climate change action. In the same year, the SNRCC initiated an extensive and participatory process to elaborate a National Climate Change Policy (PNCC) with a view to strengthening and guiding future climate mitigation and adaptation work. The PNCC was finalized and approved on 27 April 2017 and seeks to achieve a low carbon and climate resilient development model for Uruguay, is applicable to all sectors of the economy and seeks to ensure compliance with commitments within the 2015 Paris Agreement. “Our National Climate Change Policy allows us to take a long‑term view and also to know that climate change is not an exclusive issue for one economic sector or institution, but actually touches all ministries, local government, civil society and the private sector. Without this consensus, and a national strategic framework, then we cannot all head in the same direction.” Ignacio Lorenzo, Climate Change Director, Ministry of Housing, Land Planning and the Environment
  • 8. 8 Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) programme   Figure 1  Uruguay institutional framework for climate change coordination A representative from the Uruguay Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries (MGAP) is Vice President of the SNRCC and National Environmental Cabinet. The MGAP has prioritized climate change adaptation in its medium- and long-term planning. In 2000, the MGAP created a specialized Climate Change Unit within its Office of Agricultural Programming and Policy (OPYPA), to strengthen and advance technical, policy and monitoring work on agriculture and climate change. In 2016, this Unit was renamed the Agricultural Sustainability and Climate Change Unit (USyCC) and is the main interlocutor for UNDP and FAO support on adaptation planning. Agriculture adaptation planning process Uruguay is currently developing sector-specific National Adaptation Plans (NAP) in three priority areas (i.e. rather than a nationwide adaptation plan that covers all sectors) namely: • NAP for Coastal Areas (Coastal NAP) – formulation stage • NAP for for Cities and Infrastructure (City and Infrastructure NAP) – design stage • NAP for Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Agricultural Sector (Agriculture NAP) On 7 July 2016, Tabaré Aguerre, the Minister of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries, formally announced the preparation of the Agriculture NAP at an adaptation launch workshop organized with UNDP and FAO and with the participation of MVOTMA and other institutions with agriculture climate change adaptation responsibilities. The aim is to structure, define and Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries (MGAP) Office of Agricultural Programming and Policy (OPYPA) within the MGAP State Water Works (OSE) Local Roundtables Local Government Congress of Mayors Ministry of Social Development (MIDES) Ministry of Transport and Public Works (MTOP) Office of Planning and Budgets (OPP) Ministry of Tourism (MINTUR) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MRREE) UNDP - FAO NAP–Ag programme Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mining (MIEM) Ministry of National Defence (MDN) Ministry of Housing, Territorial Planning and Environment (MVTOMA) Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) Ministry of Public Health (MSP) National System for Emergencies (SINAE) Uruguay Institute of Meteorology (INUMET) National Environmental Cabinet National Policy on Climate Change Headed by the President of the Republic National Environment, Water and Climate Change Secretariat (SNAACC). Supervise the compliance of National Environmental Cabinet agreements and offer technical and operational support National System for Response to Climate Change and Variability (SNRCC). NDC, International Negotiations, Inventories, Damages and Losses, International funding National Environment System (SNA): Strengthen, articulate and coordinate the public policies to protect the goods and services that ecosystems offer.
  • 9. 9 Uruguay – Case study coordinate existing and new adaption efforts with a view to finalizing a consolidated Agriculture NAP by the end of 2018. It will be the primary adaptation mechanism to achieve agricultural sector contributions in the NDC and the National Climate Change Policy (2017). The Agriculture NAP will seek to clarify questions around which livestock, agriculture and fishery activities need to adapt, in which parts of the country, and how producers can effectively reduce their vulnerability and build their resilience to climate change. The NAP will develop both institutional and producer capacities on climate adaptation and assist producers putting into practice the most appropriate adaptation measures. Further investigation and transfer of technology will be encouraged, as will monitoring of progress during adaptation. The Agriculture NAP will be a platform from which to seek external adaptation finance (e.g. Global Environment Facility, Green Climate Fund), particularly to support adaptation by the most vulnerable producers, as well as to ensure that climate change is included in Uruguay’s economic and budgetary planning processes. It will also seek to build and strengthen understanding and inclusion of gender dimensions within the Agriculture NAP process in Uruguay, through studying and monitoring women and men’s roles in selected agricultural sectors. The MGAP is the lead Ministry responsible for the Agriculture NAP, working in close coordination with the MVOTMA, the Uruguay Agency for International Cooperation (AUCI) and the Office of Planning and Budget of the Presidency (OPP). To be effective, the development and implementation of Agriculture NAP requires a high level of participation by public, private and civil society organizations and individuals. The 2016 launch workshop emphasized this participatory approach and the Table below summarizes key organizations involved in this process. A monitoring committee has also been established to review progress in the development of the Agriculture NAP, which includes MGAP, MVOTMA, OPP, AUCI, FAO and UNDP. The Agriculture NAP intends to build on an extensive body of climate adaptation research, projects and studies developed by the MGAP in Uruguay with partner Organizations such as FAO. The Table below highlights a selection of major initiatives, which cover soil management, irrigation practices, water management, risk assessment, national information systems etc. which all underpin the adaptation planning process. The UNFCCC Technical Guidelines for the National Adaptation Plan Process (2012) lay out four steps in the preparation of a NAP, namely: Element A – Lay the groundwork and address gaps Element C – Implementation strategies Element B – Preparatory elements Element D – Reporting, monitoring and reviewing Table 4 shows the degree to which Kenya has progressed in this process. The text highlighted in red or blue are those areas where the NAP–Ag programme has already provided (red) or is expected to provide (green) support. “The planning process must lead to a vision of how the agricultural sector should be in 2030 or 2050. We must identify goals, a system of policies and actions that help achieve those goals and a system of indicators to show how we are progressing towards those goals.” Walter Oyhantcabal, Director of the Agricultural Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, OPYPA, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries
  • 10. 10 Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) programme   Table 2  Overview of organizations involved in the agriculture NAP Organizations Thematic area Role in Adaptation Planning Agricultural Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, OPYPA, MGAP Agriculture Planning, policy design, impact assessment, emission inventories Rural Development Direction, MGAP Agriculture Policy implementation at territorial level Natural Resources Division, MGAP Environment Water use and soil conservation policies. Forestry Division, MGAP Forestry Afforestation policy and native forest conservation Environment Division and Climate Change Division, MVOTMA Environment Policy coordination, focal point to UNFCCC and international negotiations, chairs the SNRCC National Dairy Institute Agriculture Improving the dairy value chain National Agricultural Research Institute All agricultural sectors Research and development of technology Farmer Unions, Producer Cooperatives and Civil Society Stakeholders in all agricultural sectors Target beneficiaries of public policies Specialized Meeting of Family Farmers (REAF) Family farmers of all agricultural sectors Represents the interests of family farmers University of the Republic Agriculture Academic and research activities Institute of Women Affairs of the Ministry of Social Development Social development Helping integrate the gender dimension Agricultural Institute of Extension Services Livestock Extension service for livestock producers Division of horticulture, fruit and small animal production, MGAP Agriculture Policies and programmes for vegetable, fruit and small animal farming. Local Fishing Councils of the Division of Aquatic Resources, MGAP Fisheries Policies for fisheries NAP–Ag programme support The UNDP – FAO programme to support the Integration of Agriculture into the National Adaptation Plan (NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay) plays a key role in supporting and coordinating the development of the Agriculture NAP through to the end of 2018. The Programme works directly with the Sustainability and Climate Change Unit (USyCC), in the Office of Agricultural Programming and Policy (OPYPA) of the MGAP and with the other national institutions involved in the process. The Text Box 3 summarizes the four anticipated major areas of work within the NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay. “The NAP–Ag programme is catalyzing a number of national initiatives and programmes towards more resilient and adaptative agricultural systems that are less vulnerable to climate change. By customizing the work plan to the national needs the Programme can effectively strengthen the institutional capacities and address capacity gaps” Cecilia Jones, National Coordinator of the NAP–Ag, FAO Uruguay
  • 11. 11 Uruguay – Case study   Table 3  Major agriculture climate related adaptation projects in Uruguay Year Title 2010 - 2013 New Policies for Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change (TCP / URU / 3302) FAO Technical Cooperation Programme 2011 - 2018 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Climate Change Project. World Bank 2012 – 2017 Building resilience to climate change and variability in vulnerable small producers Adaptation Fund of the Kyoto Protocol 2012 – 2017 Rural Productive Development Program Inter-American Development Bank 2018 – 2022 Climate-smart Livestock Production and Land Restoration in the Uruguayan Rangelands Global Environment Facility 2016 –2017 Low Carbon Development of the Beef Cattle Sector in Uruguay. FAO and New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC)   Table 4  Status of the Agriculture NAP Formulation and Implementation in Relation to the UNFCCC NAP Technical Guidelines Step A. Laying the ground work and address the gaps 1 Launching the formulation and implementation of the NAP Completed 2 Formulate mandate for it Completed 3 Define institutional arrangements and coordination mechanism Completed 4 Consult and engage stakeholders Completed 5 Synthesize available information, stocktaking of relevant activities and assess gaps and needs Completed Step B. Preparatory elements 6 Analyze past climate and CC scenarios Ongoing 7 Comprehensively assess climate vulnerability (science knowledge) Ongoing 8 Undertaking activities on integrating adaptation into national and subnational development planning Not started 9 Identifying adaptation options to address key vulnerabilities Ongoing 10 Appraising, prioritizing and ranking adaptation options Ongoing Step C. Implementation strategy 11 Formulate national and subnational plans and budgets to integrate adaptation into the agricultural sectors Ongoing 12 Prioritizing CC adaptation in national and subnational planning Ongoing 13 Synthesize available information, stock–taking of existing agricultural sector initiatives, policies, development plans, and programs Completed 14 Implementing and managing actions in NAPs to reduce vulnerability through policies, projects and other activities Not started Step D. Reporting, monitoring and review 15 Designing/applying a monitoring and evaluation framework or system Ongoing 16 Communicating progress on the formulation and implementation of the NAP Ongoing 17 Monitoring and periodically reviewing the NAP process Not started 18 Iterative updating of the NAP Not started
  • 12. 12 Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) programme   Box 3  NAP–Ag programme outcomes 1. Strengthen technical capacity – Building up partner countries’ use of appropriate tools and analyses to assist ministries with investment planning and budgeting (e.g. training in cost-benefit of adaptation alternatives, evaluation of adaptation policies,). 1. Develop integrated roadmaps for NAPs – Strengthening the technical capacity of individuals and institutions to develop a roadmap of economically viable, gender-responsive, medium and long-term adaptation options for the agriculture sectors (e.g. consultation dialogues, incorporating the Agriculture NAP into national development strategies). 1. Improve evidence–based results for NAPs – Developing and introducing impact assessment frameworks for the agriculture sectors, which generate evidence-based results that can be used in policy processes (e.g. cost-benefit studies, adaptation indictors and monitoring, analysis and reporting of gender aspects). 2. Promote agricultural NAPs through advocacy and knowledge–sharing – Sharing and providing information to other countries and sectors on how to integrate adaptation needs into national planning and budgeting processes. Key activities undertaken by the NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay with the MGAP between mid‑2016 and mid-2017, as well as those that are ongoing, include: Assessments Stocktaking Report - Uruguay National Adaptation Plan for Variability and Climate Change (2016) – This report reviews and compiles relevant information on adaptation as the basis for the Agricultural NAP. It provides a summary of the the main agricultural sectors (e.g. livestock, dairy, agriculture, rice, forestry, horticulture and fisheries) in Uruguay, possible climate change impacts on each and their potential to adapt. It also reviews the current institutional arrangements and policies, and identifies gaps and barriers to elaborating the Agricultural NAP. The NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay and the Sustainability and Climate Change Unit of the MGAP drafted and published this extensive review. Stakeholder Map for the National Adaptation Plan for Variability and Climate Change in the in the Agricultural Sector (2016) – See Annex II (p.52) This work provides a thorough review and assessment of the stakeholders that should be involved and consulted in the Agriculture NAP planning process, as well as the different perceptions of climate change and variability within the different producer sectors. The final report identifies 304 actors and 80 organizations in six sectors of relevance in the development of the Agricultural NAP. The NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay developed the study with the Agricultural Sustainability and Climate Change Unit of the MGAP. Capacity Assessment Report (2016) – The assessment sought to characterize and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the current institutional and political environment for managing climate change adaptation in the Uruguayan agricultural sector. It identifies knowledge gaps and capacity building needs. Priority areas requiring capacity building include: climate scenarios; adaptation indicators; systems to measure loss and damage; multi-criteria and cost-benefit analysis; impact assessment evaluation of public programmes and policies; and collection of sex disaggregated statistics. To address these gaps, a partnership has been created with the Interdisciplinary Center for Response to Climate Change and Climate Variability (CIRCVC) at the University of the Republic. Consultation Adaptation Dialogues (2017) – Effective consultation is a critical element in the development of the Agriculture NAP in Uruguay. A series of nine Adaptation Dialogues with the dairy, family-farming, forestry, irrigated rice, fisheries, horticulture and fruticulture, agriculture and livestock sectors are taking place in 2017 as part of the NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay. These consultation sessions address questions around climate change impacts, adaptation options, concerns and experiences so far. The Dialogues are a space for producers, companies, civil society,
  • 13. 13 Uruguay – Case study academia, and government representative to meet and build a common vision for the Agriculture NAP. The outcomes from the Dialogues, which are being co-hosted and organized with the stakeholders from each production system, will feed into the adaptation planning processes of the agriculture sector (See Text Box).   Box 4  Family Farming Adaptation Dialogue – May 2017 Approximately 60 percent of agricultural production in Uruguay is run on a family basis. The NAP–Ag program in Uruguay seeks to gather the views, concerns and experiences of family farmers on climate change impacts and adaptation options and integrate these learning’s into the Agriculture NAP process. One of the nine Adaptation Dialogues focused specifically on bringing together family producers. The Dialogue was organized with the national section of the Specialized Meeting on Family Farming (REAF) of MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market). It involved over 40 farmers, including crop producers, dairy farmers, livestock farmers, fishermen, sheep farmers, as well as fruit and horticulture producers. Producers highlighted the unpredictable nature of annual droughts and periods of excess rainfall. Actions specific to each agriculture sector were identified, as well as ones that could be of benefit to multiple sectors (e.g. development of water storage systems). Studies frameworks Study of Adaptation to Climate Change and Gender (2017 ongoing) – The NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay is building and strengthening understanding and inclusion of gender dimensions within the Agriculture NAP planning process. The research combines qualitative and quantitative survey methods and will generate sex-disaggregated rural statistics, as well as indicators on the contribution of women to rural production and issues such as how climate adaptation strategies and perceptions differ between women and men in dairy, livestock and vegetable production sectors. The work is being carried out with MGAP, MVOTMA and the Institute of Women Affairs of the Ministry of Social Development. Impact Evaluation Framework (2017 ongoing) – To assess the effectiveness of agricultural adaptation and mitigation policies and programmes, the NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay is providing training in impact evaluation approaches. The aim is to build reliable evidence on the value of alternative public adaptation approaches and a protocol that can be used to improve the design of future projects. This work will feed into the Agriculture NAP formulation and implementation processes and will contribute to measuring the progress and impact of adaptation work. Cost-Benefit Analysis (2017 ongoing) – To understand and compare the benefits and drawbacks of alternative adaptation options, the NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay is supporting the use of cost-benefit studies. Initially these studies will focus on assessing livestock and supplemental irrigation adaptation options. The development of a national cost-benefit framework, and training sessions on cost-benefit analysis, will help standardize this approach and provide evidence that will feed into Uruguay’s NDC and Agricultural NAP. “Through a series of sectorial dialogues - with broad participation of producers, key ministries, technical staff and academic experts - the NAP–Ag Programme in Uruguay is identifying and proposing the best adaptation options for the agriculture sector for the medium and long term. These will constitute the basis for building more resilient agricultural systems.” Magdalena Preve, Programme Associate (Sustainable Development Area), UNDP Uruguay
  • 14. 14 Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP–Ag) programme Adaptation Indicators in Agriculture (2017 ongoing) – the NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay is supporting the development, with the South American Institute for Resilience and Sustainability (SARAS2), of a matrix of indicators to track and monitor adaptation in agriculture. These indicators will be integrated with the NDC and the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. It will be used at the sectoral level by MGAP to measure adaptation progress, and along with the indicators from the Coastal NAP and Cities and Infrastructure NAP, will form part of national efforts to measure adaptation. Capacity building Training in Climate Modelling with MOSAICC (2017 ongoing) – The first of three training modules in the use of the FAO Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change (MOSAICC) model took place in March 2017. The training and modelling of scenarios will help improve understanding and provide data to measure and assess climate change impacts in the agriculture sector. The training involves national experts from both government agencies and academia. The MOSAICC will be used for climate modelling and to develop climate scenarios that will feed into national decision-making and planning. Lessons learned so far Whilst the NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay has only been underway for a short period of time, considerable progress has been made since the inception workshop in July 2016. Initial lessons from this process, which may also be of value to countries developing sectoral adaptation plans, include: • Agriculture Sector Consultation – Working with each agricultural sector (e.g. dairy, family farming, forestry, rice, fisheries, agriculture, livestock) through the Adaptation Dialogues, recognizes the diversity of agricultural systems and ensures that issues, priorities, concerns and adaptation technologies are relevant and specific for producers. Working closely with producer associations is important to ensure member participation and to build long-term support and validation of the Agricultural NAP process. The Agriculture NAP will therefore have the necessary buy-in that will be essential for implementation and to focus extension, technical assistance and technology transfer appropriately. • Embedded within Government – The NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay team is based in the Unit for Sustainability and Climate Change of the Office of Agricultural Programing and Policy of the MGAP, which makes it easier to develop close relationships with the government economists, policy analysts and technical staff. Information generated by the NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay is easily and directly shared and discussed with MGAP. This helps ensure that the work is relevant and owned by the MGAP, integrated within the Agricultural NAP and NDC and contributes to the National Climate Change Policy. • Evidence-Based Policies – The NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay emphasises the importance of evaluating and comparing alternative adaptation measures and the effectiveness of policies based on solid evidence. Developing and providing training in impact evaluation and cost-benefit analysis to generate this evidence-base will ensure that the Agricultural NAP is well founded, receives greater support and is more likely to be integrated into national planning and budgeting. • Collaborating with Specialists – The MGAP, with the support of the NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay, is establishing agreements and partnerships to draw on the expertise of specialist organisation. Agreements have been signed with the South American Institute for Resilience and Sustainability (SARAS2) to develop adaptation indicators and cost benefit analysis, and an agreement is being discussed with the University of the Republic to support capacity-building work. • Implementation and Adaptation Finance – Even with best ideas, knowledge and plans in place, there is a need for both national and international finance to turn paper into practice. The Uruguay INDC states that external funds will be essential to meet mitigation and adaptation goals and the majority of MGAP climate change programmes to date have been financed through external loans, funds and projects. The NAP–Ag programme in Uruguay and the Agriculture NAP process will identify medium- to long-term adaptation needs and strategies and programmes to address them, whilst providing the platform from which to budget for and attract sustainable sources of national and international finance for adaptation.
  • 15. 15 Further information NAP–Ag: •  www.fao.org/in-action/naps/partner-countries/uruguay •  www.adaptation-undp.org/naps-agriculture/partner-countries/uruguay Guidelines: •  UNFCCC National Adaptation Plan – Technical guidelines for the national adaptation plan process (2012) •  Addressing Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in National Adaptation Plans – Supplementary guidelines (2017) Uruguay: •  National Policy on Climate Change (PNCC) •  Video: Launch event of Agricultural NAP (in Spanish) Contact: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) •  www.fao.org/in-action/naps •  FAO-NAPs@fao.org | Julia.Wolf@fao.org United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) •  www.adaptation-undp.org/naps-agriculture •  Rohini.Kohli@undp.org Germany’s Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) •  www.bmub.bund.de International Climate Initiative (IKI) •  www.international-climate-initiative.com