What are they?
Sexually transmitted infections are diseases transmitted
through genital contact (penis, vulva, anus, vagina) with an-
other person, which is why it would be more correct to call
them genitally transmitted infections.
They can affect sexually active men and women of all ages,
sexual orientations, social classes, ethnicities and religions.
Prevention is your right
They can be caused by fungi, viruses, protozoa and oth-
er microscopic parasites. Some of the most common and
most-known sexually transmitted infections include hepati-
tis, syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, pubic lice, HPV
(human papillomavirus infection) and HIV.
How are they
Some practices are thought to increase the risk of STI trans-
• Vaginal penetration without a condom.
• Anal penetration without a condom.
• Unprotected oral sex (without a latex condom and/or den-
tal dam): sucking or licking the vulva, penis or anus with the
tongue and mouth If semen also comes into contact with
the mouth and/or is swallowed, the risk is much greater.
shame or the fear
of thinking you
have a sexually
infection!How can they
Use a condom: This is the only method to PREVENT sexually
transmitted infections and must be used at all times. Con-
doms also prevent pregnancy.
If these infections are detected in time, there’s a solution for
most of them. But if they’re left untreated, they can cause
serious health problems.
You should seek medical assistance if you feel itching, sting-
ing or pain in your genitals, if you have warts or lumps, if you
feel you have to pass water more often or experience pain
when urinating and/or have a coloured discharge, or if you
notice a different look or smell than usual.
Many infections don’t have any symptoms whatsoever. There-
fore, it’s important to get regular medical check-ups (urology
and gynaecology) and use preventive measures.
How can they
With medication. Most of these infections can be cured easily
if they’re treated properly and in good time. It’s very impor-
tant to follow medical advice.
IT IS TRANSMITTED THROUGH
Vaginal and/or anal penetration without
Sharing needles, syringes and other tools
to inject drugs.
Mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth
and breastfeeding (if you get pregnant, you
should see your doctor as soon as possible).
Sharing objects that might cause cuts or bleed-
ing, such as razor blades, toothbrushes, etc.
IT IS NOT TRANSMITTED THROUGH
Regular contact with people with HIV, such as
working, playing, going to school, exercising,
We can also share bread, food, glasses
We can hug, kiss and cuddle, etc. HIV is NOT
transmitted through saliva, sweat or tears.
HIV is NOT transmitted by mosquitoes, dogs or
This is a virus that
enters our bodies
and affects our immune
Important information for your
Anyone who puts themselves at risk can get infected,
regardless of their sexual orientation, age, sex, ethni-
city or religion.
You can have hiv without knowing. The only way to find
out is via the HIV test.
You can do the test at your health centre, other spe-
cialist centres, and some NGOs and associations. It’s
free, confidential and painless.
There’s a treatment for hiv.
People being treated for HIV canNOT pass it on.
People with HIV (HIV-positive) can lead a normal life.
• Health centres: You can visit your primary
care physician, gynaecologist or midwife to
ask for information, clear up any doubts and
• Some cities have centres specialised in pro-
viding information and treatment for STIs and
If you need
care, you can
get in touch