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Teaching Enrichment Series: Incoporating Universal Design - Handouts


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Teaching Enrichment Series: Incoporating Universal Design - Handouts

  1. 1. Learners and Learning: More Learning for More Learners<br />As you come into the workshop today, use the opening minutes to review and respond to the following two writing prompts to begin thinking on workshop themes.<br />1. Learning<br />Frank Coffield proposes the following definition of learning, with two qualifications: <br />“Learning refers only to significant changes in capability, understanding, knowledge, practices, attitudes or values by individuals, groups, organisations or society.”Qualification 1: Learning excludes the acquisition of factual information when it does not contribute to such changes.Qualification 2: Learning excludes immoral learning as when prisoners learn from other inmates in custody how to extend their repertoire of criminal activities.<br />Just Suppose Learning & Teaching Became the First Priority (2008)<br />Making use of the prompt above as well as your experience as learner and teacher brainstorm in the space below, or on your keyboard, to begin defining what learning would look, sound, be like in your course(s).<br />For Further Information – Coffield’s analysis shows that if those involved in teaching – at policy or classroom levels – do not define learning, then acquisition becomes the default definition regardless of course goals/outcomes and levels of complexity required for mastery.<br />2. Learners: Making use of your experience and prompted by the chart below, write notes / ideas about what learner characteristics will help students flourish in your class. Use space below the chart or your keyboard to record your focused list of learner characteristics.<br />STUDENTSLEARNERSRelationship with EducatorsStudents are employees, required to obediently follow instructions.Learners are citizens with a vested interest in the learning society.Relationship with other StudentsStudents are competitorsLearners are collaboratorsMotivationObligation: Students are culturally obliged to work for the teacher & for compensation (below)Responsibility: Learners are motivated by an understood and realized “value in their work, especially when it is valuable to others.CompensationInstitution defined grades and gateways to college (another institution) and a good job (another institution)A sense of ongoing accomplishment that is not delivered but earned, and not symbolic but tangible and valuable – an investment.Mode of OperationCompliant, group-disciplined, objective-oriented, and trainablePersevering, self-disciplined, group-and goal-oriented, resourceful, and learning in order to achieve rather than achieving learningWhyCompelledCuriousEquipped…with packaged knowledge and tools for recording packaged knowledge – prescribed and paced learning…with tools for exploring a networked variety of content, experimenting with that content, and discovering, concluding, and construction knowledge – invented learningAssessmentMeasuring what the student has learned.Measuring what the learner can do with what has been learned.<br />What is Universal Course Design?<br />Adaptation from an Instructors’ Wiki into which we have added aspects of Integrated Aligned Course Design & of 9 Principles of UDI.<br />Universal Course Design (UCD) is constructing college courses including course curriculum, instruction, assessment and the environment to be usable by all students, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for accommodations. <br />Faculty Goal: What should all students know and be able to do by participating in this learning experience? <br />Faculty Challenge: High standards and greater student diversity.<br /><ul><li>DESIGN CONSIDERATIONSUse in conjunction with Integrated Aligned Design UDI PRINCIPLESPrimary Starting PointsCurriculumDetermine the specific course content, skills, and strategies to be learned. Ask the question, “How will the students access the information?” Provide flexible media & materials to ensure information access & learning.Motivate & engage the students based on interest, experience & application. 1. Equitable use 2. Flexibility in use3. Simple and intuitiveInstructionProvide multiple and flexible methods of presentation.Provide multiple models of correct performance, multiple opportunities to practice with supports & flexible opportunities to demonstrate skill.Provide choices of content and tools, choice of learning context all of which are culturally responsive. 1. Flexibility in use4. Perceptible information9. Instructional climate AssessmentCreate two or more assessment choices for students to choose from to coincide with their learning styleProvide ongoing evaluation of “what is working and what is not.” Change methods according to the effectiveness & appropriateness of pre-sentation format, expression methods & level of engagement of all students.Measures a range of student performance across multiple levels. 1. Equitable use5. Tolerance for error EnvironmentCreate a campus-wide climate that is safe, caring, and nurturing.Build a personalized learning environment. Teach respect for all learners.Use physical space to enhance student participation and engagement.Student-teacher social interactions, classroom climate, and peer group relationships enhance student learning. 6. Low physical effort7. Size and space8. Community of learners
  2. 2. EXAMPLESSuggestions from Instructors’ WikiRESOURCESSuggestions from us for Further InformationCourse CurriculumA statistics professor at New Hampshire Community Technical College began his course by asking students name their interests. He then incorporated the interests into the statistical data sets he used in class. Students reported being more interested in the class and better able to understand how information they learned applied to their profession. Developing an Inclusive Curric. an Inclusive Campus: family studies professor at the University of Vermont teaching a large lecture class used to lecture for an hour but noticed that after 20 minutes students’ eyes look dazed and they stopped taking notes. When the mid-term exam scores were not great he decided to begin providing the class with an outline of session concepts & content. Also, students broke into groups to discuss a particular problem and then report to the entire class. This strategy increased the level of engagement in class. Using an MP3 player to audio, he recorded lectures, and after class put the audio file on the website for students to download. As a result of this technique, students were better prepared to participate in class. Preparing Future Faculty portal: Improving web access for learning: PowerPoints: HYPERLINK "" HYPERLINK "" t "_blank" on UCD: An education professor at Rhode Island College recognized the diverse learning styles in her classroom and decided that a typical final exam would not accurately reflect what students had learned. So, she gave them a choice: take the final exam or develop a website in groups of 3 using wikis to reflect what they had learned in the class. 65% of the students chose to develop a website, which they still refer to that site as a resource and she has used it as a resources in subsequent classes. Accessible Assessments: Design for Testing: Universal Design for Assessment: & Multilingual Students: A nursing professor at the UMassachusetts-Boston assigned a small classroom with rows of chairs does not like the arrangement because it does not permit her to freely interact with all students. So, she arrives in the classroom a half an hour early to rearrange the chairs into a large circle, equalizing the learning environment for all. Students not only take a more active role in the conversation during the class, but also arrive early to help her with the chairs & speak to her about their work. Multicultural Learning/Teaching: Design for Instruction:</li></ul>Published on [Universal Design for Instruction in Postsecondary Education] (<br />Home > The Nine Principles of UDI©<br />The Nine Principles of UDI©<br />Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) is an approach to teaching that consists of the proactive design and use of inclusive instructional strategies that benefit a broad range of learners including students with disabilities. The nine Principles of UDI© provide a framework for college faculty to use when designing or revising instruction to be responsive to diverse student learners and to minimize the need for "special" accommodations and retrofitted changes to the learning environment. UDI operates on the premise that the planning and delivery of instruction, as well as the evaluation of learning can incorporate inclusive attributes that embrace diversity in learners without compromising academic standards.<br />Principle Definition 1. Equitable use Instruction is designed to be useful to and accessible by people with diverse abilities. Provide the same means of use for all students; identical whenever possible, equivalent when not.2. Flexibility in useInstruction is designed to accommodate a wide range of individual abilities. Provide choice in methods of use.3. Simple and intuitiveInstruction is designed in a straightforward and predictable manner, regardless of the student's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. Eliminate unnecessary complexity4. Perceptible informationInstruction is designed so that necessary information is communicated effectively to the student, regardless of ambient conditions or the student's sensory abilities.5. Tolerance for errorInstruction anticipates variation in individual student learning pace and prerequisite skills.6. Low physical effort Instruction is designed to minimize nonessential physical effort in order to allow maximum attention to learning.Note: This principle does not apply when physical effort is integral to essential requirements of a course.7. Size and space for approach and useInstruction is designed with consideration for appropriate size and space for approach, reach, manipulations, and use regardless of a student's body size, posture, mobility, and communication needs.8. A community of learnersThe instructional environment promotes interaction and communication among students and between students and faculty.9. Instructional climate Instruction is designed to be welcoming and inclusive. High expectations are espoused for all students.<br />Adapted From:<br />Principles of Universal Design for Instruction, by S. S. Scott, J.M. McGuire, & S.F. Shaw. Storrs: University of Connecticut, Center on Postsecondary Education and Disability. Copyright 2001.<br />Permission is granted to copy this document for educational purposes; however, please acknowledge your source using the following citation:<br />UDI Online Project. (2009). Examples of UDI in Online and Blended Courses. Center on Postsecondary Education and Disability, University of Connecticut, Storrs. [1].<br />Source URL:<br />Links:[1]<br />Universal Design for Instruction<br />Integrated and Aligned Design<br />Universal Design is not new. It encompasses a range of design considerations with a goal to create learning environments that minimize barriers to teaching and learning. Universal Design is not easy, but a universally designed course will minimize the need to change or modify the design, delivery, and assessment of course material while improving learning for all students. Integrated and Aligned Design incorporates the principles of Universal Design into well established tenants of good curricular design.<br /> <br />This is a summary of essential design considerations:<br />1. What level of intellectual behavior are you attempting to reach (Bloom’s Taxonomy, e.g. knowledge/remembering, understanding, applying)?<br />Does the course begin with remembering basic information and end with application to novel situations, or is this a survey course where remembering is the expected level of mastery?<br />Determining the desired level Intellectual behavior leads to the question, “how will I achieve this?” This leads to the next design tool, Backward Design.<br />Backward Design – Summary Points<br />Establish Intended Learning Outcomes (Curriculum)<br />Determine various modes of feedback and assessment (Assessment)<br />Develop teaching and learning activities (Instruction)<br />Learning Outcomes (Curriculum)<br />Begin at the end <br />What should students know at the end of the: course, topic, lecture<br />What is essential; what prepares students for follow on learning <br />What do you desire for them to leave with when your course ends<br />Write clear and measurable Outcomes – move beyond “understand” and “remember”. Make objectives Concrete and Tangible. Essentially, you will define “to understand” with specific terms.<br />Not…‘to understand the steps of the research process’. Instead…‘students will demonstrate mastery of the research process through creation of a research outline, passing a test on the tenants of good research design, and completion of a research paper.’<br />Well constructed objectives provide direct links to how you should assess teaching and learning.<br />Reflect – Who are my learners? In what ways do they learn? What can I do to reach this diverse range of learners (Universal Design)? Do my learning outcomes result in excluding different learners?<br />Feedback & Assessment Procedures (Assessment)<br />What will the students have to do to demonstrate that they have achieved the learning outcomes? Go beyond the basis for issuing a course grade and determine if the assessment plan meets your objectives for student learning. <br />Include multiple modes of assessment to both gauge their learning and effectiveness of teaching.<br />Reflect – Are there artificial constraints contained my assessment plan, i.e. is time truly essential? Is my wording clear, concise, and unambiguous? Are my graphic elements clear, readable, scalable in size? Do my assessment and feedback strategies include a rubric? Is my assessment plan flexible to allow for adjustments without difficulty?<br />Teaching/Learning Activities (Instruction)<br />Identify a range of teaching and learning activities (lecture, discussion, project, etc.) that supports the objectives and relates to the assessment plan.<br />Identify enabling resources (to achieve learning outcomes/Universal Design)<br />Time, tools, personnel, materials and money<br />Learning activities (in and out of class)<br />Course materials (books, lab manuals, etc.)<br />Reflect – Will these activities achieve my objectives? Do they minimize the need for later adjustment? Do these activities support my assessment plan or are they a good idea or activity I’m trying to make fit? <br />3. Review you plan<br />Check to ensure that the three components of Backwards Design are all consistent with, and support each other. <br />Review your strategy for teaching and learning<br />Multiple modes of engaging learners<br />Multiple modes of presenting information<br />Multiple modes of expression of learner expression<br />Review the learning environment to reduce barriers to teaching and learning, both physical and cognitive. Anticipate barriers and adjust for them.<br />Plot the term on a calendar, create a timeline<br />If I need to create a new teaching strategy, how long will it take?<br />When can I implement a new assessment tool and do I have the resources to do it?<br />What if a discussion does not reach my learning objective, do I have time to implement a different activity?<br />Adapted from:<br />Designing Courses for Significant Learning<br />L. Dee Fink, PhD (2003) <br />Universal Design of Instruction<br />University of Connecticut<br /><br />Being Concrete as a Teacher: From Course Outcomes Through Practical Activities <br />David Langley, UMN Center for Teaching and Learning <br />Taxonomy of educational objectives <br />Bloom, B. S., et al. (1956)<br />Design Exercise – First week of the term<br />Course Name:Course Objectives:Objective(s) for the First Week of the Term:Assessment/Feedback Plan for the First Week’s Objective(s)Teaching/Learning ActivitiesReflectionBefore instruction:After instruction:What changes based on the scenarios?<br />Classroom Scenarios for Incorporating Universal Design Principles<br />1. New to This Educational Culture<br />In the department, you overhear a colleague talking about the international students who were in her 1000-level course last fall. Because many of them were freshmen who were new to the U.S., she found herself spending more time than usual with them after class and during office hours answering questions about the material and clarifying expectations for the assignments and exams. Their academic performance was on par with their local peers, but she lamented the amount of extra help these students seemed to need. Upon hearing this, you look more closely at your class list and find that this fall you will have several international students who appear to be students in their first semester at the U. Given that they will be adjusting to a new educational culture, as well as perhaps adjusting to learning in a second language, what can you do given these factors to maximize their learning in ways that will benefit all your students? <br />2. Formal Accommodations Request<br />It is the first week of the semester and you receive an email (excerpted below) from a student in your class (John). He is transmitting a Disability Services letter which notes accommodations that the student will need; you have not yet met this student in person. On reading the email, you wonder, what can you do in light of this situation to maximize this student’s learning in ways that will benefit all your students?<br />--------------<br />This student is registered with Disability Services and has a documented disability that impacts vision. Therefore, I recommend that the student meet with you to discuss the following accommodations:<br />Classroom Accommodations<br /><ul><li>Note taking assistance provided by a peer note taker. Please assist John in finding a student in the class to provide copies of his/her notes. John will provide an announcement for you to read to the class explaining this process.
  3. 3. Preferred seating. Please allow John to choose seating in the classroom.
  4. 4. Audio recorder, provided by student, for lectures.</li></ul>Coursework Adaptation Accommodations<br /><ul><li>Class handouts provided in large print: 20 pt font. Bold, sans serif</li></ul>Recommended Best Practices/Universal Design<br /><ul><li>Instructor provides verbal description of all visual materials shown in the classroom.
  5. 5. Instructor provides presentation slides to the student prior to the class.</li></ul>Testing Accommodations<br /><ul><li>Extended time for all exams: double time
  6. 6. Alternate format testing materials provided by Disability Services: Large print, 20 pt font.
  7. 7. Use of computer to provide large print display.</li></ul>3. A Textbook Case<br />You’ve made your syllabus available to students ahead of the semester – you know from past experience that a number of students like to start collecting and reviewing course readings during the couple of weeks before classes begin. This year a number of students have emailed or dropped by to ask whether they might buy an earlier edition of the textbook since it’s nearly $75 less expensive than one they could order online (which costs less than the text at the local campus bookstore). Cuts in grants, student loans and increased tuition, some say is impacting their textbook budget. One first generation student who is an engaged student in your department thinks she might have to shift her classes in order to balance out the book costs. Classes start next week and you wonder, what can you do about this situation to maximize their learning in ways that will benefit all your students?<br />4. Learning and Teaching Interrupted<br />You have a student who does not appear to be intentionally rude or abusive, but constantly interrupts, often offering personal information or opinion that has little relevance to the topic being discussed.  During the first week, you notice the student sometimes dominates discussion, generally by asking repeated follow up questions, and at times by making repeated movements to switch chairs or stand up. Other students in the class have begun to avoid sitting nearby. Given that the course features a series of group activities requiring consistent collaborative participation, you are now thinking about how to structure those activities and you wonder, what can you do with regard to this situation to maximize their learning in ways that will benefit all your students?<br />UNIVERSAL DESIGN RESOURCES<br />University of Minnesota:<br />Center for Teaching & Learning<br />Disability Services<br />Accessibility in Learning<br />Office of Information Technology<br />Additional information on Universal Design, Instruction, Course Syllabus, Technology, and more:<br />Center for University Design<br />The Faculty Room<br />Technology<br />Course Design<br />How to Rethink Your Syllabus <br />Course Syllabus<br />Syllabus Development<br />Merlot (search “universal design”)<br />UDI for Moodle<br />