Hegemonic Masculinity and the Psychological
Well-being of Young Sexual Minority Men
Laura Jadwin-Čakmak, MPH
Steven Meanle...
Presenter Disclosures
Laura Jadwin-Čakmak
(1)
The following personal financial relationships
with commercial interests rel...
Agenda
 Background and theoretical rationale
 Sample description and procedures
 Relationship between caregiver-based h...
Objectives
 Identify how parental imposition of hegemonic

masculinity impacts the psychological well-being of
young sexu...
Background
 Primary caregivers regularly ‘police’

boys’ gendered behavior
 Hegemonic masculinity - a set of socially

a...
Background
 Pressures of hegemonic masculinity negatively linked

to health and well-being of gay and bisexual youth and
...
Theoretical Rationale
 Minority stress theory
 Messages designed to impose hegemonic masculinity

are forms of discrimin...
Sample
 Online cross-sectional observational study
 N = 1,507
 Eligibility criteria:
 Self-identify as male
 Have sex...
Measures
 Did your parent(s) or the person(s) who raised you

ever tell you to act less feminine?
 What did they do to t...
Measures
 Self-Esteem
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Pr...
Data Analysis
 Two multivariant models
 Model 1: Relationship between being told to act less

feminine and psychological...
Results
Did your parent(s) or the person(s) who raised you
ever tell you to act less feminine?
Yes
N = 564
37%

No
N = 943...
Number of Disciplinary Actions
Experienced

Results

2.6%

4 or more

What did they do to try to
make you change?
Told to ...
Self-Esteem
Being told to act less feminine associated with lower
self-esteem

Adjusted for age, education, race, and stud...
Self-Esteem
Dose response relationship between number of
disciplinary actions and self-esteem

Adjusted for age, education...
Depression
Being told to act less feminine associated with increased
depression symptoms

Adjusted for age, education, rac...
Depression
Dose response relationship between number of
disciplinary actions and depression

Adjusted for age, education, ...
Anxiety
Being told to act less feminine associated with increased
anxiety symptoms

Adjusted for age, education, race, and...
Anxiety
Dose response relationship between number of
disciplinary actions and anxiety

Adjusted for age, education, race, ...
Implications
 Practice
 Family-based interventions
 Family counseling

 Redirect parents’ motivation to protect their ...
Strengths & Limitations
 Strengths
 Large national sample of young men

 Dosage hypothesis
 Carrying over from one dev...
Thank You
Acknowledgements
National Institutes of Mental Health
Center for Sexuality & Health Disparities (SexLab)
Virtual...
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Hegemonic Masculinity and the Psychological Well-being of Young Sexual Minority Men

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Hegemonic Masculinity and the Psychological Well-being of Young Sexual Minority Men

  1. 1. Hegemonic Masculinity and the Psychological Well-being of Young Sexual Minority Men Laura Jadwin-Čakmak, MPH Steven Meanley, MPH Emily Yeagley, MPH Emily S. Pingel, MPH Gary W. Harper, PhD, MPH José A. Bauermeister, PhD, MPH
  2. 2. Presenter Disclosures Laura Jadwin-Čakmak (1) The following personal financial relationships with commercial interests relevant to this presentation existed during the past 12 months: No relationships to disclose
  3. 3. Agenda  Background and theoretical rationale  Sample description and procedures  Relationship between caregiver-based hegemonic masculinity and young gay and bisexual men’s psychological well-being  Implications for practice and future research
  4. 4. Objectives  Identify how parental imposition of hegemonic masculinity impacts the psychological well-being of young sexual minority men.  Consider how family-level interventions might use these findings.
  5. 5. Background  Primary caregivers regularly ‘police’ boys’ gendered behavior  Hegemonic masculinity - a set of socially accepted masculine behaviors and beliefs designed to legitimate male power  Caregivers may respond to gender nonconformity with disciplinary actions  Own discomfort with behavior  Fear societal stigma (child or self)
  6. 6. Background  Pressures of hegemonic masculinity negatively linked to health and well-being of gay and bisexual youth and young men  Limited research on relationship between parentbased hegemonic masculinity and mental health in young adulthood
  7. 7. Theoretical Rationale  Minority stress theory  Messages designed to impose hegemonic masculinity are forms of discrimination and societal stigma  May facilitate gay and bisexual men’s susceptibility to psychological stress
  8. 8. Sample  Online cross-sectional observational study  N = 1,507  Eligibility criteria:  Self-identify as male  Have sex with men  Ages 18-24  Single  Resident of United States  Most (94%) identified as gay
  9. 9. Measures  Did your parent(s) or the person(s) who raised you ever tell you to act less feminine?  What did they do to try to make you change?  Told me to change my behavior  Punished me or restricted my activities  Sent me to counseling  Sent me to talk to a priest/minister/religious figure  Other; please specify ___________________
  10. 10. Measures  Self-Esteem Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.  Depression (CES-D) Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401.  Anxiety (BSI) Derogatis, L. R., & Melisaratos, N. (1983). The Brief Symptom Inventory: an introductory report. Psychological Medicine, 3, 595605.  Sociodemographics
  11. 11. Data Analysis  Two multivariant models  Model 1: Relationship between being told to act less feminine and psychological well-being  Model 2: Dose-response relationship between number of disciplinary actions experienced and psychological well-being
  12. 12. Results Did your parent(s) or the person(s) who raised you ever tell you to act less feminine? Yes N = 564 37% No N = 943 63%
  13. 13. Number of Disciplinary Actions Experienced Results 2.6% 4 or more What did they do to try to make you change? Told to Change Behavior Punished / Restricted Actions 4.2% 3 9.6% 2 524 34.8% 20.6% 1 184 12.2% 0 Sent to Counseling 111 7.4% 0 Sent to Religious Figure 80 5.3% Abuse 38 2.5% 9 0.6% Placed in Masculine Activities 63.0% 200 400 600 800 1000
  14. 14. Self-Esteem Being told to act less feminine associated with lower self-esteem Adjusted for age, education, race, and student status (full-time or part-time)
  15. 15. Self-Esteem Dose response relationship between number of disciplinary actions and self-esteem Adjusted for age, education, race, and student status (full-time or part-time)
  16. 16. Depression Being told to act less feminine associated with increased depression symptoms Adjusted for age, education, race, and student status (full-time or part-time)
  17. 17. Depression Dose response relationship between number of disciplinary actions and depression Adjusted for age, education, race, and student status (full-time or part-time)
  18. 18. Anxiety Being told to act less feminine associated with increased anxiety symptoms Adjusted for age, education, race, and student status (full-time or part-time)
  19. 19. Anxiety Dose response relationship between number of disciplinary actions and anxiety Adjusted for age, education, race, and student status (full-time or part-time)
  20. 20. Implications  Practice  Family-based interventions  Family counseling  Redirect parents’ motivation to protect their sons away from enforcing hegemonic masculinity and toward enhancing their own sensitivity around issues of gender and sexuality.
  21. 21. Strengths & Limitations  Strengths  Large national sample of young men  Dosage hypothesis  Carrying over from one developmental period to another  Limitations  Non-representative sample  Cross-sectional  Self-report / recall bias  Measurement of disciplinary actions  Gender vs. other policing
  22. 22. Thank You Acknowledgements National Institutes of Mental Health Center for Sexuality & Health Disparities (SexLab) Virtual Love Study Participants Contact Information Laura Jadwin-Čakmak Communications Director Center for Sexuality & Health Disparities (SexLab) University of Michigan School of Public Health ljadwin@umich.edu

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