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Reinventing Year-Round
Local Food Production in
Minnesota
P.I.s: John Erwin, Julie Grossman, Mary Rogers, Carl Rosen,
Greg...
Red Dot Potato Chip Greenhouses in Wisconsin ca. 1956
Historically, food in Minnesota was grown
in greenhouses…
Pork and Plants, Altura, MN
Project objectives
• Identify 5 ‘high opportunity’ vegetable/fruit/herb crops to sell at local
grocery stores, Coops, rest...
How did we choose the vegetables?
• Five high-opportunity
crops
• Focus group of
restaurateurs, existing
growers, co-op an...
An Overview:
Commercial
Survey
• Explore existing
greenhouse
conditions
Organic
Fertility Study
• Evaluate different
ferti...
The Crops
Commercial Survey
1. Bachmans
2. Bergens
3. Engwalls
4. Pork and Plants
5. Tangletown Gardens
6. UMN Twin Cities
A. Garden Goddess
B. Lida F...
Conventional and Deep Winter
Conventional Greenhouse Deep Winter Greenhouse
Conventional Greenhouse
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
Nov 01 Nov 08 Nov 15 Nov 22 Nov 29 Dec 06 Dec 13 Dec 20 Dec 27
*F
St...
Deep Winter Greenhouse
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
110.0
120.0
Nov 01 Nov 08 Nov 15 Nov 22 Nov 29 Dec 06 Dec ...
What we’re growing and
measuring
1. Mesclun Mix –
Arugula, Mizuna, Red
Giant Mustard
2. Kale
3. Strawberries
1. Spinach
2....
Organic Fertility Study
Treatments
1. Conventional Comparison – CalMag (15-5-15)
2. Fish Emulsion – Drammatic (2-5-0.2)
3. Poultry Litter – Sustan...
Guiding Questions
• Which fertilizer grows the best yield?
• Is there a difference in nutritional value for
consumers?
• D...
Mesclun Harvest
All in One Conventional
Comparison
Carol’s Mix Fish
Emulsion
Poultry Litter
Conventional
Comparison
yield ...
Vitamin C Concentration
Mizuna Red Giant Mustard
Conventional
Comparison
PoultryLitter
FishEmulsion
Allinone
Carol’sMix
Co...
Day/Night Temperature Study
Growth Chamber
• Using growth chamber
• Can control
– Light
– Temperature
– Humidity
– Wavelength spectrum
http://www.aiko...
Treatments
10°C 15°C 20°C 25°C 30°C
10°C 10-10 10-15 10-20 10-25 10-30
15°C 15-10 15-15 15-20 15-25 15-30
20°C 20-10 20-15...
Kale Plants
Kale Leaves
Acknowledgements
• MnDrive
• Bachman’s, Bergen’s, Engwall’s, Pork and Plants,
Tangletown Gardens
• Garden Goddess, Lida Fa...
Acknowledgements
Questions?
Liz Perkus – eaperkus@umn.edu
Reinventing year round local food production in Minnesota, 2015
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Reinventing year round local food production in Minnesota, 2015

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by John Erwin, Julie Grossman, Mary Rogers, Carl Rosen,
Greg Schweser, Joanne Slavin, Justin Carlson, Esther Gesick, Liz Perkus | University of Minnesota

Presented at the 2015 Minnesota Statewide High Tunnel Conference.

Published in: Education
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Reinventing year round local food production in Minnesota, 2015

  1. 1. Reinventing Year-Round Local Food Production in Minnesota P.I.s: John Erwin, Julie Grossman, Mary Rogers, Carl Rosen, Greg Schweser, Joanne Slavin Scientists: Justin Carlson, Esther Gesick, Liz Perkus
  2. 2. Red Dot Potato Chip Greenhouses in Wisconsin ca. 1956 Historically, food in Minnesota was grown in greenhouses…
  3. 3. Pork and Plants, Altura, MN
  4. 4. Project objectives • Identify 5 ‘high opportunity’ vegetable/fruit/herb crops to sell at local grocery stores, Coops, restaurants and farmers markets that can be produced in MN greenhouses • Determine how environment and production system affects crop growth and yield • Determine how environment, and production system affect nutritive value of selected crops, and whether the nutritive value of locally produced produce differs from imported produce • Conduct an economic analysis of deep winter greenhouse production of selected crops • Reach out to growers to maximize their success and establish an advisory committee
  5. 5. How did we choose the vegetables? • Five high-opportunity crops • Focus group of restaurateurs, existing growers, co-op and grocery stores • Crops selected based on: – public interest – potential for year round production – feasibility of targeted production during high profitability periods – perceived health benefits
  6. 6. An Overview: Commercial Survey • Explore existing greenhouse conditions Organic Fertility Study • Evaluate different fertility options Day/Night Temperature Study • Determine optimal temperature conditions
  7. 7. The Crops
  8. 8. Commercial Survey
  9. 9. 1. Bachmans 2. Bergens 3. Engwalls 4. Pork and Plants 5. Tangletown Gardens 6. UMN Twin Cities A. Garden Goddess B. Lida Farm C.Paradox Farm http://geography.about.com/library/blank/blxusmn.htm Commercial Survey Test Sites 32 6 4 5 1 A B C
  10. 10. Conventional and Deep Winter Conventional Greenhouse Deep Winter Greenhouse
  11. 11. Conventional Greenhouse 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 Nov 01 Nov 08 Nov 15 Nov 22 Nov 29 Dec 06 Dec 13 Dec 20 Dec 27 *F St Paul Greenhouse TMPA TMPD Heated Greenhouse – St Paul 75°F 50°F
  12. 12. Deep Winter Greenhouse 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 120.0 Nov 01 Nov 08 Nov 15 Nov 22 Nov 29 Dec 06 Dec 13 Dec 20 Dec 27 *F Paradox TMPA TMPD 75°F 50°F Deep Winter Greenhouse – Ashby
  13. 13. What we’re growing and measuring 1. Mesclun Mix – Arugula, Mizuna, Red Giant Mustard 2. Kale 3. Strawberries 1. Spinach 2. Cucumber Measuring: • Harvest yield • Environmental conditions • Vitamin C content of select crop • Photosynthesis light and CO2 curves
  14. 14. Organic Fertility Study
  15. 15. Treatments 1. Conventional Comparison – CalMag (15-5-15) 2. Fish Emulsion – Drammatic (2-5-0.2) 3. Poultry Litter – Sustane (8-4-4) 4. All in One Potting Mix – Purple Cow (0.5-0.2-0.4) 5. Carol’s Mix – Greensand, Rock Phosphate, Blood Meal, and Lime; from “The Northlands Winter Greenhouse Manual” Mesclun mix (Arugula, Mizuna, and Red Giant Mustard), Spinach, and Strawberries
  16. 16. Guiding Questions • Which fertilizer grows the best yield? • Is there a difference in nutritional value for consumers? • Do these fertilizers work well in greenhouses? • Is there microbial activity breaking down organic matter? • Do different fertilizers have more plant available nitrogen at different times?
  17. 17. Mesclun Harvest All in One Conventional Comparison Carol’s Mix Fish Emulsion Poultry Litter Conventional Comparison yield very similar to organic treatments All in One has highest yield for Mizuna and Red Giant Mustard Arugula yields similar across all fertility treatments
  18. 18. Vitamin C Concentration Mizuna Red Giant Mustard Conventional Comparison PoultryLitter FishEmulsion Allinone Carol’sMix Conventional Comparison PoultryLitter FishEmulsion Allinone Carol’sMix
  19. 19. Day/Night Temperature Study
  20. 20. Growth Chamber • Using growth chamber • Can control – Light – Temperature – Humidity – Wavelength spectrum http://www.aikonchem.com/upload/topimg/120930161250.jpg
  21. 21. Treatments 10°C 15°C 20°C 25°C 30°C 10°C 10-10 10-15 10-20 10-25 10-30 15°C 15-10 15-15 15-20 15-25 15-30 20°C 20-10 20-15 20-20 20-25 20-30 25°C 25-10 25-15 25-20 25-25 25-30 30°C 30-10 30-15 30-20 30-25 30-30 Day Temperature NightTemperature Mesclun Mix (Arugula, Mizuna, Red Giant Mustard), Kale, Strawberry, Spinach, Cucumber
  22. 22. Kale Plants
  23. 23. Kale Leaves
  24. 24. Acknowledgements • MnDrive • Bachman’s, Bergen’s, Engwall’s, Pork and Plants, Tangletown Gardens • Garden Goddess, Lida Farm, Paradox Farm • Minnesota Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association, Minnesota Nursery and Landscape Association • Seward Cooperative, Lunds/Byerlys, Kim Barton
  25. 25. Acknowledgements Questions? Liz Perkus – eaperkus@umn.edu

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