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Using super-oxygenated water in high tunnel tomato and strawberry production, 2015

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by Terrance T. Nennich, Extension Professor | University of Minnesota

Presented at the 2015 Minnesota Statewide High Tunnel Conference.

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Using super-oxygenated water in high tunnel tomato and strawberry production, 2015

  1. 1. Using super oxygenated water in high tunnel tomato and strawberry production Terrance T. Nennich, Extension Professor Vegetable and Small Fruit Production University of Minnesota Extension nenni001@umn.edu
  2. 2. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Oxygen and plants • Uptake of nutrients • Root growth • Overall plant growth • Resistance to insect and disease • Fruit yield
  3. 3. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Oxygen and Plant Roots • No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present. At a molecular level oxygen is required to transmit nutrients across the cell wall and into the roots.
  4. 4. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Oxygen and Calcium • Oxygen is required to get nutrients in, but calcium is required to make nutrients mobile within plant tissue. This is critical if nutrients are to be used properly by the plant.
  5. 5. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Uptake of Nutrients • Root Level - 02 goes across the cell wall and into the roots Increased 02 levels at roots, nutrient absorption increases • Ideal temperature for absorption is 65 -75 degrees
  6. 6. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Uptake of Nutrients • Warmer –Increase plant growth • Cooler – slow down nutrient uptake. • Constant feeding – available may help. • Variance between crop and variety
  7. 7. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Research Question • If the oxygen levels in high tunnel irrigation water, used through the drip tape was maintained at about 12 ppm would the yield and or quality of strawberries and tomatoes and the fruit be affected.
  8. 8. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Crops that Demand High Fertiliity • Tomatoes • Cucumbers • Egg Plants • Okra • Peppers
  9. 9. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Crops that use medium fertility • Strawberries • Raspberries • Fruit Trees • Beans • Potatoes ?? • Carrots
  10. 10. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Low Fertility Crops • Lettuce • Spinach • Greens • Beans • Some cole crops
  11. 11. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Untreated Water • Most well water will contain about 1-3 ppm of oxygen • Some water sources can contain more • How the water is pumped and moved can make a difference.
  12. 12. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Machinery for water treatment • Water Dog Machine • Model WD2C-HD • Built for us by Gorecki MFG of Milaca Mn • This is a experimental machine and is not available at this time
  13. 13. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Annual Strawberry Production • Variety : Evie -2 • Planting date : Spring 2013 • First Harvest early August 2013 • Repricated in four blocks • 21X48 high tunnel
  16. 16. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. STRAWBERRY OXYGEN SUPPLEMENTATION SUMMARY Berry Yield thru Total Yield Size (gms) 9/16 (lbs) 10/14 (lbs) Block 1 Oxygen 10.7 28.3 53.7 Block 1 None 11.2 23.2 51.8 Block 2 Oxygen 10.6 24.9 47.2 Block 2 None 10.1 21.8 42.9 Total Oxygen 10.7 53.2 101.0 Total No Treatment 10.7 45.0 94.7 Percent O2 Advantage -0.2% 18.3% 6.6% Confidence Level % -- 99 71
  17. 17. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. 19.9% 24.1% 23.9% 19.7% 15.9% 16.8% 18.3% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 CumulativePounds ofFruit Strawberry Oxygen Supplementation 2013 Yields through mid-September Oxygen Treated Non-Treated % Difference
  18. 18. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. 19.9% 24.1% 23.9% 19.7% 15.9% 16.8% 18.3% 17.6% 15.4% 11.9% 10.6% 8.8% 6.9% 5.9% 6.6% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 CumulativePounds ofFruit Strawberry Oxygen Supplementation 2013 Oxygen Treated Non-Treated % Difference
  19. 19. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Strawberry research results • Data was analyzed until mid September and the entire season • Until Mid September the strawberry yield increased 18.3 % • No increase in berry weight, large increase in number of berries. • Increase was less after mid September, cool temperatures.
  21. 21. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Tomato oxygen study • Variety : BHN 589 grafted with Maxiford • Planted: spring 2013 • Harvest : August 2013 • Replicated in four blocks • 21X48 high tunnel
  23. 23. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Tomato research results • Data was analyzed until mid September and the entire season • Until Mid September the tomato yield increased 16 % • No increase in individual tomato weight, large increase in number of tomatoes. • Increase was less after mid September, cool temperatures.
  26. 26. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. 11.8% 17.2% 16.3% 17.9% 13.7% 15.8% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 8/23 8/26 8/29 9/1 9/4 9/7 9/10 9/13 9/16 Cumulative PoundsofTotalFruit Oxygen Supplementation - Tomatoes 2013 Yields through Mid-September Oxygen Treated Non-Treated % Difference
  27. 27. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. 11.8% 17.2% 16.3% 17.9% 13.7% 15.8% 11.5% 8.9% 6.8% 5.6% 5.7% 6.0% 5.1% 8.4% 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 8/23 8/27 8/31 9/4 9/8 9/12 9/16 9/20 9/24 9/28 10/2 10/6 10/10 10/14 Cumulative PoundsofTotalFruit Oxygen Supplementation - Tomatoes 2013 Oxygen Treated Non-Treated % Difference
  28. 28. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Total Yield Total Yield Total Yield Fruit thru 9/16 thru 10/14 thru 10/14 Size (Good & Imperfect) (Good & Imperfect) (Good, Imperfect, Green) (lb/fruit) (lbs) (lb) (lbs) Block 1 Oxygen 0.49 135 499 772 Block 1 None 0.50 131 466 699 Block 2 Oxygen 0.53 142 462 858 Block 2 None 0.53 109 421 809 Total Oxygen 0.51 278 961 1631 Total No Treatment 0.51 240 887 1508 Percent O2 Advantage -1.1% 15.8% 8.4% 8.2% Confidence Level % -- 83 89 84
  29. 29. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Research Summary • Research findings from this study indicates that annual strawberry yield and tomato yield was significantly increased using oxygenated water of 12 ppm. • With both strawberries and tomatoes the increase came from the number of fruit produced and not the weight of individual fruit.
  30. 30. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Research Summary • The better the weather growing conditions the more results • Planed on repeating trials again in 2014. • Also Flowers
  31. 31. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Research Observations • Followed by Disease 2014 study
  32. 32. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Managing Soil Oxygen • Non compacted loose soil • Organic Matter • Oxygen injection • High yields will need more oxygen • Variation in watering • Non soaked soils
  33. 33. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Water Yield Data • Cucumber plants without water going in peak production No break in watering 32 pounds plant 24 hours with out water 28 pounds plant 48 hours with out water 23 pounds plant 72 hours with out water 16 pounds plant 96 hours with out water 3 pounds plant.
  34. 34. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. • As you start your high tunnel up for the 2015 season I wish you all the best season ever.
  35. 35. © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Questions • ??????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ?????????????

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