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Minnesota High Tunnel Disease Survey

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by Dr. Angela Orshinksy, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist | Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota

Presented at the 2015 Minnesota Statewide High Tunnel Conference.

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Minnesota High Tunnel Disease Survey

  1. 1. 1 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. 11 High Tunnel Disease Survey Summary of results, management recommendations, and future research DR. ANGELA ORSHINSKY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR AND EXTENSION SPECIALIST DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
  2. 2. 2 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. TODAY’S TALK  The MN High Tunnel Network Survey – What it is – What we found  Management of disease in high tunnels – IPM – Fungicides  Future of high tunnel disease research
  3. 3. 3 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY  MN High Tunnel Network Survey  USDA-MDA Specialty Crop Block Grant  Initially subsidized sample submissions to the PDC – low response rate  Starting summer 2014 – sample 15+ high tunnels across MN 3 times per year  Tomato, pepper, eggplant only  >200 samples collected and diagnosed this summer
  4. 4. 4 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Diagnosis of plant pathogens:  Macroscopic symptoms  Microscopy (fungi only)  Isolation of bacteria and fungi  Electron microscopy (viruses)  Test strips (viruses)  DNA isolation and sequencing
  5. 5. 5 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY 2013 results: – Only 10 samples sent in to PDC despite subsidy Found: – Impatiens necrotic spot virus on pepper (1) – Leaf mold (5) – Unknown (1) – Fusarium root and crown rot (1) – Herbicide injury (3) – Early blight (1)
  6. 6. 6 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY 2014 results: > 200 samples • 100 % had leaf mold • 100 % had early blight • 90 % had gray mold • Phoma fruit rot (1) • Anthracnose (2) • Bacterial spot (4) • Bacterial speck (1) • TMV/ToMV (3) • White mold (3) • Powdery mildew (5) • Fusarium crown and root rot (5) • Septoria leaf spot (3) • Late blight (1)
  7. 7. 7 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY MFVGA 2014: Is leaf mold a problem in your high tunnels?
  8. 8. 8 2015: Is leaf mold a problem in your high tunnels? 58%23% 10% 9% I see it every year I see it some years I have never seen it I am unsure
  9. 9. 9 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY 2014 high tunnel results • Every high tunnel visited had at least some leaf mold • Many tunnels experienced severe defoliation • Severe cases had fruit infection • Seen as early as June in northern Minnesota
  10. 10. 10 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY 2014 high tunnel results • Severe cases often ended up with multiple pathogens • Leaf mold  Botrytis  Trichothecium
  11. 11. 11 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. TOMATO LEAF MOLD – PASSALORA FULVA • Spore germination at 58 % RH, optimal 75 – 90 % • Sporulates 10-12 days after infection • Conidia survive “up to” one year • Transmitted on seed, wind, rain, equipment • Survives as tiny bundles of cells in leaf debris
  12. 12. 12 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. TOMATO LEAF MOLD – PASSALORA FULVA Diagram from Dhou and Zhou. 2012.Cell Host and Microbe. 12: 484
  13. 13. 13 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. TOMATO LEAF MOLD – PASSALORA FULVA Symptoms - Early
  14. 14. 14 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. TOMATO LEAF MOLD – PASSALORA FULVA
  15. 15. 15 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. TOMATO LEAF MOLD – PASSALORA FULVA UMN Research  Research to determine – What pathogen races are here = Cultivar recommendations – Seed infection and treatment = heirloom growers – Organic options and high tunnel fungicide options – Timing of fungicide sprays – Fungicide resistance  Research is only possible because of your support!
  16. 16. 16 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY 2014: Has early blight been a problem in your high tunnels?
  17. 17. 17 MN high tunnel Network survey 2015: Has early blight been a problem in your high tunnels?
  18. 18. 18 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY 2014 high tunnel results • Found at every high tunnel • Two different Alternaria species – both were found. • Stem infection, fruit infection, leaf infection all found • Found on tomato, pepper, and eggplant
  19. 19. 19 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. EARLY BLIGHT – SYMPTOMS
  20. 20. 20 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. EARLY BLIGHT – SYMPTOMS
  21. 21. 21 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. EARLY BLIGHT – ALTERNARIA TOMATOPHILA, ALTERNARIA SOLANI  Very common disease  Some resistant varieties (resistance not complete)  Can cause severe yield loss (fruit infection, defoliation)  Will infect nightshade weeds  Temperatures of 59-86 F  90 % humidity  Survives in soil, seed, debris
  22. 22. 22 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Gray Mold – Botrytis cinerea  First observed in June  Severe damage by September  Loss of fruit, defoliation of plants, stem lesions  Spores infect in 5 h with free water, temperatures 65 – 75 F
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 24 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Powdery Mildew  Three types, only found one type in MN this year.  Late season disease  Severe in overcrowded tunnels  Defoliation  Very aggressive pathogen  Wide host range including weeds
  25. 25. 25 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. 26 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. 27 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Fusarium Root and Crown Rot Fusarium oxysporum fsp. radicis lycopersici (FORL)  Up to 60 % loss at two locations  Plants lost early in the season  Cool temperatures favor disease
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Fusarium Root and Crown Rot  3 + years tomatoes  Found on young pepper plants at one location  No fungicide options  Resistant varieties  Need rotation!
  30. 30. 30 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Fusarium Root and Crown Rot  Survives many years as chlamydospores in soil  VERY difficult to eliminate  Spread by water, people/clothing, infected pruning tools  There are no fungicides for crown and root rot!  Cultural practices become that much more important!
  31. 31. 31 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Tobacco/Tomato Mosaic Virus  Leaves - mottled, small, curled/distorted, plants stunted  Fruit - Distorted, uneven color, ripening delay, brown discoloration of inner walls  Common on ornamentals and weeds  Transmitted mechanically, seed, survives tobacco curing and burning! Photos: apsnet.org
  32. 32. 32 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Photos: apsnet.org
  33. 33. 33 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus  Leaf bronzing  Small darks spots on leaves  Streaks on petioles & stems  Spread by thrips Photo: apsnet.org
  34. 34. 34 Photo: apsnet.org Photo: apsnet.org
  35. 35. 35 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Bacterial Spot, Xanthomonas spp.  Dark, water-soaked lesions on leaves that turn red-brown  Lesions often bound by leaf veins and on leaf edges/tips  Fruit lesions are raised, brown, ¼ inch diameter  Secondary fungal infections on fruit
  36. 36. 36 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY On our radar - Bacterial canker  Seed transmitted (5 yr survival)  Survives 2-3 yr in plant debris  Causes wilt of the plant  Causes fruit lesions (bird eyes)
  37. 37. 37 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Other issues  Russetting of peppers  Caused by mites
  38. 38. 38 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Other Issues Herbicide Damage • Cupped leaves • Twisted growth • Thick leaf veins • Veins close together • New leaves most severely affected • Survives composting process, volatilizes
  39. 39. 39 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Other issues – Stink bug Damage
  40. 40. 40 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MN HIGH TUNNEL NETWORK SURVEY Insect/Vector Management
  41. 41. 41 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Management of High Tunnel Diseases SO WHAT DO WE DO WITH ALL OF THESE DISEASES?
  42. 42. 42 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Pathogen Host Environment No Disease No DiseaseNo Disease No DiseaseNo Disease No Disease THE DISEASE TRIANGLE
  43. 43. 43 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Exclusion: Certified seed; seed disinfestation; clean transplant; farm traffic management Plant Health: Site selection; choose appropriate varieties; proper fertility Cultural Management: Sanitation, Humidity control, rotation, mulch Fungicides
  44. 44. 44 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. PLANT HEALTH  Site selection/preparation – Light requirements – Soils: pH, drainage, organic matter  Variety selection: – Disease resistance – Temperature sensitivity
  45. 45. 45 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. PATHOGEN EXCLUSION  Do not let the pathogens into your crop  Use certified, disease-free seed  Treat harvested seed – Fermentation – Hot water treatment – Disinfectants  Transplants from trusted sources  Compost and mulch from trusted sources  Manage insect vectors  Physical barrier – plastic mulch
  46. 46. 46 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. CULTURAL MANAGEMENT  Varieties with disease resistance  Sanitation – Remove diseased plants or plant parts – Disinfest tools, equipment – Boots and clothing for your farm only – Remove plant debris regularly  Humidity – Allow for air flow by rolling up sides, vents, use fans – Prune out lower canopy in the afternoon  Crop rotation – Reduce the build up of pathogens
  47. 47. 47 SCOUTING BASICS  Pick a day and time each week  What is your disease history?  Know the biology of likely pathogens – What is a tolerable level? – How fast can it progress?  Bring a tool kit  Establish a route for scouting  Inspect entire plant – flip leaves, look at soil line and up
  48. 48. 48 SCOUTING TOOL KIT  Camera/smartphone  Notepad  Flagging tape – Mark plants of interest  Bags – Remove diseased plants – Collect samples for diagnosis  Hand lens  Disinfectant – Disinfect pruning tools and hands as you go  Disposable gloves – If viruses a problem, don’t touch symptomatic plant then healthy one
  49. 49. 49  Typical IPM recommendations: when you achieve an economic threshold  When you don’t have a threshold: – What amount of the disease can you tolerate? – Does this disease cause yield losses? – Will the disease kill the plant? – How quickly will the disease spread?  Fungicide resistance management: – DO NOT wait until you have massive sporulation  Fungicides do not actually kill, they reduce growth WHEN TO USE A FUNGICIDE
  50. 50. 50  Diagnose the disease – Pdc.umn.edu; smartphone apps; compendia (apsnet.org)  You cannot treat abiotic, bacteria, and viral diseases with fungicides!  Fungicides don’t work the same on all fungi HOW TO CHOOSE A FUNGICIDE pdc.umn.edu
  51. 51. 51  Once you have a diagnosis: – UMN Extension specialist – Midwest Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers HOW TO CHOOSE A FUNGICIDE mwvegguide.org
  52. 52. 52  Understand the label  What is the fungicide class?  What is a FRAC code?  Cross resistance  Adhere to restrictions on: – # applications in a row – Total # applications – Suggested tank mixes FUNGICIDE RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT
  53. 53. 53  Fungicide rotation – Rotating between fungicides from different classes.  Tank mixing – Spraying two fungicides of different classes at the same time – include one penetrant and one multisite, contact fungicide. – Some combinations are phytotoxic and could result in plant injury.  Label restrictions reduce fungicide resistance, environmental, and health hazards – maximum numbers of consecutive applications – maximum number of applications per season – maximum amount of product applied per season. FUNGICIDE RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT
  54. 54. 54  Mode of action – What cellular targets does the fungicide attach to? – Mitosis, nucleic acid synthesis, cell wall synthesis  Mobility – Contact: Don’t move from landing spot – Penetrant: Moves past the cuticle into the plant – Local penetrant, Acropetal penetrant, Systemic penetrant FUNGICIDE CHARACTERISTICS Contact Local Penetrant Acropetal Penetrant Systemic Penetrant
  55. 55. 55 GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR DISEASE MANAGEMENT What if you find something?  Diagnosis is key: – Email or call a specialist or educator! – Plant Disease Clinic: pdc.umn.edu – Tomato MD – UMN Extension website: www.extension.umn.edu
  56. 56. 56 ORGANIC OPTIONS  Biocontrols not tested at UMN yet  Will be tested in the next few years  Cultural management  Clean seed  ROTATION
  57. 57. 57 FINAL WORDS ON DISEASE MANAGEMENT  Rotate out of Solanaceae to prevent disease build up  Remove heavily sporulating plant material  Reduce density of plants to reduce disease  Cultural management is worth the effort
  58. 58. 58 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. WHAT’S NEXT FOR HIGH TUNNEL RESEARCH?  Last year of the survey is 2015  Continuing with leaf mold disease research (2015-2017) – What races are here? – Resistant cultivars? – Survival in high tunnels & sanitation practices – Organic options? Fungicides?
  59. 59. 59 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.  We depend on you for input and support:  We need your help to gather information to help us help you! – Participate in our survey (sign up) – Let us know what your disease problems are! Angela Orshinsky – aorshins@umn.edu 612-625-9274 WHAT’S NEXT FOR HIGH TUNNEL RESEARCH?
  60. 60. 60 © 2012 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. In accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, this PowerPoint is available in alternative formats upon request. Direct requests to the Extension Store at 800-876-8636. Thank you! Acknowledgements: Michelle Grabowski Terry Nennich Vince Fritz

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