CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The acquisition of the language is natural and is inside of the brain. Everybody has
the ability to ...
age, people are able to learn. It is important to know that everybody is different, so
that there are different ways and t...
strengthen community desires and outcomes, and promote the understanding of a
community’s culture and history (Reardon 200...
It is important to make new and interesting material to teach adults. The use of new
methodology and the creation of inter...
always wanted to do, might not be going for a job or for a promotion. They may be
going because they really want to learn,...
population

in

developing

countries

has

access

to

this

technology.

(hhtt://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ict/gr...
1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Which one should be the most effective way to teach a second language to an
older adult?

1.5 GENER...
abolished army instead follows a social reform. Most of Central American and Latin
American countries spend a large amount...
1.8 VARIABLES

Teaching strategies

Interest of participation

Fears on second language learning.

1.9 COVERAGE AND LIMITA...
environment and the best resources this will make the students believe they are
able to learn something new no matter thei...
CHAPTER II
THEORICAL FRAMEWORK

12
2.1 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

Magister University is a private law body serving the purposes of cultural
promotion, spreadi...
work with indigenous communities, social problems attention centers, Red Cross,
senior citizens programs, and more.

FIGUR...
The Universidad Magister is in a searching of new sponsors, individual or
collective, who want to be part of the Social Co...
both national and abroad; and promoting the scientific, artistic, cultural and civic
Costa Rican people’s spirit.

2.1.2 S...
FIGURE Nº 2. VALUES OF THE UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER

FIGURE Nº 3. ORGANIZATION CHART OF THE UNIVERSIDAD MAGÍSTER

Source: Rect...
FIGURE Nº 4. GRAPHIC EXPRESSION OF THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
OF THE UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER

Source: Rectoría Universidad Magis...
Language teaching has been using technology for teaching. Nowadays language
labs are equipped with high-tech that enables ...
the students competition linguistics. The phonetic, syntactic, morphological and
semantic levels are supported through the...
Nowadays, technology is immersed into educational projects, reflected in curricular
projects and in teaching units. It is ...
defining their goals, making design decisions, and evaluating
their progress”.
(http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/Ed...
experience without leaving the classroom. Some English teachers use Word
processing and hypertext tools in their classroom...
The process of language instruction may be digitized since the texts can be
scanned as well as photos and voice recording ...
cultures, access to foreign news sources, study a book from another culture with a
group of students who know and belong t...
the learning language. They can choose to enter into discussions on thematic
channels with several people at once or estab...
or mystery to be easier to see and hear the information as many times as
necessary. A video is a great tool to demonstrate...
“The focus on learner differences in SLA has been most
concerned with the question of why some learners are more
successfu...
The teacher‘s task is not only filling the students ‘empty minds with some
information; however, teachers must develop in ...
Teachers should be facilitators, and tolerate some mistakes, due to it helps
learners communicate more confidently when ta...
Those errors that learners commit, guide teachers toward what to teach.
Consequently, the learners’ speeches are a feedbac...
Theories in language acquisition, in an effort to explain how language is acquired,
present different and controversial po...
Teaching is an art and the quality of teaching depends on the love, dedication and
devotion of the teacher towards the sub...
Teachers should use a soft voice, the silent way holds that errors are not only
natural but also necessary to language lea...
Once each of these needs has been satisfied, if at some future time a deficiency is
detected, the individual will act to r...
Third age education should be provided to the elderly to maintain their selfsufficiency, social adjustment and how to main...
into the last stage of life. When they have this feeling they will enjoy life, instead of
fearing death, and also they wil...
2.2.5 CHARACTERISTIS OF SENIOR CITIZENS
“In this perspective, old age becomes a period requiring active
coping with multip...
It is important to know that elderly showed less deterioration in their mental
faculties as long as they keep active and p...
2.2.6 AGING AND OLD AGE
The issues of aging and old age are usually used inappropriately by people in
general. They confus...
According to Hidalgo (2009), old age is the last stage of life of a human being,
when accentuate the signs and effects of ...
2.2.7 TERMS RELATED TO SENIOR CITIZEN’S POPULATION

2.2.7.1 THIRD AGE

Third age is something not easy to understand. Ther...
and gerontology studies of the onset of old age, mainly because in many countries
it is used by the pension systems to beg...
“Ageing concerns. Adults frequently worry about being the oldest
person in a class and are concerned about the impact this...
Initives must be taken to encourage opportunity, reduce vulnerability, and improve
institutions to empower senior citizens...
According to Findsen (2005) many elderly people think about returning to learning
courses at the age they are. They do not...
 Questions about their study skills, e.g. note taking, reading - when to stop
as they become more immersed in a subject
...
2.2.9 TECHNICS AND STRATEGIES TO TEACH ENGLISH TO OLDER ADULTS

Second language acquisition is not simple. Teachers and le...
will be more clear for both students and teacher. Since this teacher will know their
desires and also take into account th...
CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

50
3.1 METHODOLOGY FRAMEWORK

This research tries to determine if the use of technology and motivation could be
used to teach...
According to Chris Brown (2003) in Educational Research explains that Descriptive
Research also known as statistical resea...
3.3 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

This investigation provides important data. It looks for the characteristics of old
adults lea...
3.3.2 SECONDARY SOURCES

Secondary sources are developed by someone who did not experienced or
perform the situations. Thi...
related with the courses given to seniors using technology as well as the
motivation, training, and knowledge that her tea...
It is worth to mention that to provide these questionnaires with a sense of relativity
and validity; they were based on so...
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: Teaching strategies will be referred as the use of
different techniques used by the teachers to pr...
INSTRUMENTAL DEFINITION: In order to obtain the information for this variable
data was extracted from two groups: seniors ...
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS

This research uses careful steps to get information. The recollection of information
involves fifty-six...
CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS

60
4.1 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS

The objective of this chapter is to determine relevant information by form...
TABLE #2 AGE RANGE
AGE

ABSOLUTE VALUE

PERCENTAGE

60-65

30

53.6

MORE THAN 65

26

46.4

TOTAL

56

100

Source: Own e...
TABLE #3 DISTRIBUTION BY OCCUPATION

OCCUPATION

ABSOLUTE VALUE

PERCENTAGE

WORKING

15

26.8

RETIRED

41

73.2

TOTAL

...
TABLE #4 PLACE WHERE THEY LIVE

PLACE WHERE THEY
LIVE

ABSOLUTE VALUE

PERCENTAGE

SAN JOSE

48

85.7%

HEREDIA

5

8.9%

...
TABLE #5 KNOWLEDGE OF THE EXISTENCE OF UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER

KNOWLEDGE OF THE
EXISTENCE OF
UNIVERSIDAD
MAGISTER

ABSOLUTE ...
TABLE #6 KNOWLEDGE OF THAT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER HAS A
PROGRAM OF TECHNICAL COURSES TO LEARN ENGLISH FOR SENIOR
CITIZENS
KN...
TABLE #7 INTEREST ON ENROLL A COURSE

INTEREST ON ENROLL

ABSOLUTE VALUE

PERCENTAGE

YES

25

44.6

NO

31

55.4

TOTAL

...
TABLE #8 AVAILABLE AMOUNTS TO INVEST IN THE COURSES

AVAILABLE AMOUNT
TO INVEST IN THE
COURSES

ABSOLUTE VALUE

PERCENTAGE...
TABLE #9 SCHEDULE OF THE COURSE

SCHEDULE OF THE
COURSE

ABSOLUTE VALUE

PERCENTAGE

MORNING

19

76

AFTERNOON

5

20

NI...
TABLE #10 TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY THEY USE

TYPE TECHNOLOGY
USED

ABSOLUTE VALUE

PERCENTAGE

USE DIGITAL CAMERA

50

89.3

USE...
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
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PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER

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Bienvenidos a nuestro sitio virtual de la UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER en Slide Share donde podrá encontrar los resultados de importantes trabajos de investigación prácticos producidos por nuestros profesionales. Esperamos que estos Mares Azules que les ponemos a su disposición sirvan de base para otras investigaciones y juntos cooperemos en el Desarrollo Económico y Social de Costa Rica y otras latitudes.

Queremos ser enfáticos en que estos trabajos tienen Propiedad Intelectual por lo que queda totalmente prohibida su reproducción parcial o total, así como ser utilizados por otro autor, a excepción de que los compartan como citas de autor o referencias bibliográficas. Toda esta información también quedará a su disposición desde nuestro sitio web www.umagister.com,

Disfruten con nosotros de este magno contenido bibliográfico Magister esperando sus amables comentarios, no sin antes agradecer a nuestro Ing. Jerry González quien está administrando este sitio.

Rectoría, Universidad Magister. – 2014.

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PROPOLSAL OF AN ENGLISH EDUCATION MODEL FOR SENIOR CITIZENS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER

  1. 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. 1.1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The acquisition of the language is natural and is inside of the brain. Everybody has the ability to produce language. People learn in a natural way and acquire the language. Students require instruction that is cognitively challenging and demanding of analysis and critical thinking, not just drills and repetition. Teachers should set challenging standards for their students and then prepare lessons that facilitate students ascension to these standards. The person acquires the language in diagrams. The language has a role to develop knowledge, and the environment has a very important part during the process. Vigostky says that the language acquisition takes place during the human interaction. Brunner has almost the same thoughts as his colleague who is about the environment is important in the process of learning a new language and the human interaction is crucial. Krashen is one of the researchers who have presented one of the most important theories about the acquisition of a second language. He sets there is an order to acquire knowledge, there are rules and learning. Teachers should pay attention to this order to help their students to get the proficiency they need in this language. There are many myths that say that the older is somebody the hardest is to learn. Motivation is a very important aspect teachers and learners should use when learning. There are different strategies teachers can use to teach seniors, those activities interfere in the way students interact and learn the language. There are also important rules that can be used in a classroom, as technology. Understanding and analysing these factors, it is demonstrated that no matter the 2
  3. 3. age, people are able to learn. It is important to know that everybody is different, so that there are different ways and techniques to learn. When seniors are learning, teachers need to know they could have fears, due to their ages. However the teacher can use activities in order to encourage them to learn. The environment, the treat, the teachers attitude and the correct use of technological environment and devices, are great mechanisms to help this group of people to improve a new goal in the old age and ageing process. 1.2 PROBLEM BACKGROUND Nowadays in Costa Rica, the knowledge of a second language has become very important due to one of the biggest issues of economy, the tourism, as well as the opening of international market. The different industry in Costa Rica is in need of people who speak another language, especially English. In a globalized world, English is becoming a very important tool not only to communicate abroad, also inside Costa Rica. Universities and colleges around Costa Rica are preparing people not only in their major, also to speak English in their specific fields. Lately, the different institutions have the priority to prepare children and teenagers, and they forget about the adults, especially elderly people. Some important people are denied an education, particularly senior citizens. Education affects both the individual and the country. It contains several interests and results for a modernizing world (Reardon 2007). Educational programs 3
  4. 4. strengthen community desires and outcomes, and promote the understanding of a community’s culture and history (Reardon 2007). At the turn of the 21st century Costa Rica is building new trails for adult education. There is a strong desire to raise the levels of development. Some adult’s education programs are sponsored by universities. When people are under an educational atmosphere, it provides a space in which each person can discover, express and appreciate new ideas, values and beliefs (Freire 2000; Horton 2003). Adults and senior citizens are an integral part of Costa Rica and through education, development and change most certainly will occur. Development, however, can only occur when the students, in this case adults take the knowledge acquired through the programs and actively participate in the improvement of their communities (Zapparolli 2005; John Dewey 1898; Freire 2000). There is a difference between the way young people and adults learn. Every English teacher when preparing their classes must take into account that children, young people and adults don’t learn the same way. In the other hand there are methodological strategies and activities that teachers forget that can help both adults and children. When educators have in charge the task of teaching adults, they need to recognize that there are advantages and disadvantages, and must have the skill to take advantage of it, for a success in the acquisition of the language. English educators should know there are fears and prejudices, and in their hands is the big assignment to help adults feel comfortable to get over and feel confident to learn a second language. 4
  5. 5. It is important to make new and interesting material to teach adults. The use of new methodology and the creation of interesting supplies and teaching material is a good starting to teach adults. Nowadays, teachers can implement the use of technology in their classes. They can use it as a tool in the acquisition in a grupal situation, but also as an individual way to practice English. There is a myth that adults need classes a little dynamic and very grammatical, but it looks like it is not true, they also like to have fun. They can learn through games and in interactive classes where is not necessary to translate everything. Technology could become a great method to get the adventure of learning a second language. To learn another language, people must have some requirements among them, to be willing and have the desire to learn, and very important be motivated. To teach adults, teachers can break the rules and create classes more real, avoid magisterial, grammatical and the translation classes. In those classes adults can be taken to field trips and have the adventure of this virtual trips. Taking the advantage of technology and the desires that adults have, the acquisition of the second language will become more interesting and it will not be only a great experience, it will be also a success. Harmer (2007) divides these factors into two groups, emotional and practical. No matter which group students’ motivation factors come from, “the desire to achieve some goal provokes a decision to act”. (Harmer 2007:20). Motivation is one of the most important qualities to succeed and achieve the goals that people are looking forward to. These people go because it is something that 5
  6. 6. always wanted to do, might not be going for a job or for a promotion. They may be going because they really want to learn, and feel that they are useful. The biggest help teachers can give is to create interesting classes where they really break their fears and have fun while learning. 1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM English has become an important advantage for any age. The need of learning a second language is not just for the future of children and young people. English is becoming a global language. It is one of the most important languages. English is not only a subject in schools; it is also a very important tool for the social side. For the acquisition of a second language it is necessary guides and programs, as well as value sources to prepare adults with strong desires of learning English. There is a disadvantage in the adults teaching called fear. They have fear because they have not had the ideal way to learn. To get another language, people must invest many hours on it. This is one of the reasons of this research, to make a proposal to help adults to get a goal of leaning a second language, and having fun with the best methodology and the best resources as technology. According to Wikipedia (2012) the digital divide is the socioeconomically difference between countries with internet access and countries without it, although these differences can be also in the access to all information and communication technology (ICT), like the personal computer, cellular phone, broadband information and other devices. Data of the International Telecommunication Union in 2006 show that 58.6% of the population in developed countries has access to Internet, instead 10.2% of 6
  7. 7. population in developing countries has access to this technology. (hhtt://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ict/graphs/internet.jpg, 2012) People in the world are getting old. It is happening due to the low birth rates and the improvement of quality in health, increasing life expectancy, especially among elderly. Some differences between rich and developed countries are also the significant treatment that senior citizens receive. The access to ICT one of the keys aspects and that manner access to labor opportunities and general knowledge is limited in a society that changes permanently. A right use to technology adults not only will get the acquisition, instead they will learn how to write it, read it and listen to it, and they will improve their pronunciation, with activities related to all of it. Computer programs can help them both in classes and places they live. Teachers have the task of finding the best methodology to help their students. Teachers need to keep their eyes open to see what are the fears that people have when they are interested in learning and when they get them, it is the perfect time to take the advantage to make it disappear and show people they are able to learn when they are motivated, as well as the sources they use. When people feel that are learning they give more effort and they believe, and make their fears disappear. When an adult enroll an English course, it is because they want to communicate with their foreign neighbors, understand movies, visit different countries and feel that they are able to ask for their own food. They are in classes for the only reason they are motivated to learn, give them the right treatment is the best help a teacher can give. 7
  8. 8. 1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT Which one should be the most effective way to teach a second language to an older adult? 1.5 GENERAL OBJECTIVE To find strategies that teachers can implement to teach the acquisition of a second language to elderly adults. 1.6 RESEARCHING QUESTIONS This research will analyse the effect to adult education programs on adults in Universidad Magister. This thesis will be based on the development of a proposal of a teaching program. In order to find this, there are the following questions:  What is motivation?  How to motivate adults to learn English?  Why do adults get afraid when they want to learn a second language?  What are the most common fears an adult have when learning a second language?  What is language acquisition?  Why technology is a good tool when learning English?  What is the teacher’s opinion about the use of technology in the classroom?  What are the benefits of the use of technology in the classroom?  What are the best procedures to apply in second language acquisition?  What actions (physical, mental and emotional) do adults take in order to integrate education into their lives? This is a proposal to address in a specific institution in San Pedro, in order to motivate these adults to take courses. Costa Rica is a unique country that 8
  9. 9. abolished army instead follows a social reform. Most of Central American and Latin American countries spend a large amount of its money in the maintenance of the armies. In Costa Rica its capital is used to maintain education, healthcare and pension plans. Costa Rica is well known as a democratic country with peace, equity, and with access to education. State officials in Costa Rica are elected democratically, the voting rate is at 80 percent, education is free through the age of 12 and compulsory through age 14 (Helmuth 2000). Besides the democratic system and the dedication to have social programs, and the high expectative in education, Costa Rica is one of the most visited countries in Latin America, the past few decades have witnessed escalated levels of tourism. Costa Rica’s expresident Oscar Arias affirms that the primary means to further Costa Rican development is through education (Cox 2007). 1.7 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1.7.1 To determine the teaching strategies that promotes learning in senior citizens. 1.7.2 To know the interest of participation that senior citizens have in English courses through technology for acquiring better knowledge in this subject. 1.7.3 To identify the most common fears toward second language learning for developing a teaching model proposal. 1.7.4 To propose a general English teaching model for senior citizens using technology for enhancing their skills using new learning strategies. 9
  10. 10. 1.8 VARIABLES Teaching strategies Interest of participation Fears on second language learning. 1.9 COVERAGE AND LIMITATIONS 1.9.1 COVERAGE This proposal points on the different strategies that teachers can implement in their classes in order to help adults achieve their goal of learning English as well as to improve the acquisition of the second language. When adults want to learn a second language they have many fears. One of the objectives of this proposal is to find that panic and try to avoid it in order to help and motivate adults to get their purpose of learning and to be able to communicate without any anxiety and trusting in themselves. When teachers are informed of the best methodology to teach it is a great help due to create an accurate environment when teaching. Every group of students is different but when teachers feel that they have a manual to guide them they will be delighted to give a precise class. As teachers follow or are informed about activities or know about some fears their students have it is a big help to have a proper environment in their rooms, look for the right and accepted resources in order to encourage adult for the acquisition of the second language. In addition, this project is made to show teachers that they can try different methodology to teach, not only with old and antique techniques. With a nice 10
  11. 11. environment and the best resources this will make the students believe they are able to learn something new no matter their age. Making a better job and looking at the results teachers can also improve their selfesteem giving to themselves motivation to develop their professional activity. 1.9.2 LIMITATIONS The sources of information are limited and the data concentration is about few people. Another limitation is the little participation elderlies have to complete the survey, because of their fear to make a mistake. Limited time available. Elderlies like to talk, while they were filling the survey they wanted to talk about their achieves, family, activities they do during the day, and on the part of the researcher it was hard to provide more time for them. 11
  12. 12. CHAPTER II THEORICAL FRAMEWORK 12
  13. 13. 2.1 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK Magister University is a private law body serving the purposes of cultural promotion, spreading and preservation. This model fulfills this purpose in permanent direct contact with the universal thought and attaches particular importance to Costa Rican problems. It contributes to the development of the culture through humanistic studies, scientific and technological research and artistic creation. The ideas, the conquests of science and artistic achievements are disseminated through education. This in turn is a community of teachers, students and graduates, who seek the integral and harmonic components and it also instills in them the spirit of moral rectitude and social responsibility. The University train original researchers, suitable professionals, career professors, socially effective and willingness to serve the country. The university graduates are guided in teaching and research tasks through the close relationship with the society. The Universidad Magister is dispensable in ideological, political, religious and cultural matter, within its walls there is research and expression freedom, however does not ignore social, political and ideological problems, but rather it studies them scientifically. In addition of its specific labor of studies and higher education center intends to disseminate the benefits of its cultural and social action through the university extension. The institutional work is supported by three pillars: Social Responsibility, Environment Commitment and Humanized Technology, principles that are used to 13
  14. 14. work with indigenous communities, social problems attention centers, Red Cross, senior citizens programs, and more. FIGURE Nº 1. SAMPLE OF THE THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER Source: Rectoría Universidad Magister The Universidad Magister as part of its approach to the community has created a indigenous support group, where youth are able to cooperate, as well as different institutions. The Continuing Education Program for indigenous has been created in the Social Responsibility framework in order to work directly with the 24 Territories and the National Commission of Indigenous Affairs (CONAI), The Youth Indigenous Groups, The Groups of Women and The Local Government Groups, in a joint searching for a definitive and sustainable solution to the increasing level of impoverishment of our indigenous people. 14
  15. 15. The Universidad Magister is in a searching of new sponsors, individual or collective, who want to be part of the Social Corporate Responsibility proposal, and give a hand to this intense work. 2.1.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES The Universidad Magister is a non-denominational higher education organization that offers an organic, integral and systematic training, in order to find an open for a dialogue and coexistent professional. Someone engaged with the scientific and technological knowledge. A person who respects the human rights, nature and the environment conservation. All of them as conditions for the transformation of society and the world, in search of a freer national and universal reality, fairer and more humane. The guiding principles that guide the University in fulfilling its mission, inspire the academic activity and based the belonging of its members to a university life are: the strengthening of democratic and freedom that are based the Costa Rican government values; thought and expression freedom; the pluralism; and the participation of its life institutional members, protecting the inherent hierarchies of the university work, providing higher education through the use of the best teaching methods and technics. Part of these guiding principles are also the reflexive, dialogue and critical attitude in the practice of the intellectual tasks, serving as means of culture dissemination; equity and merit appreciation in the entrance, promotion and graduation in the University; the ethical, civic and social solidarity people training; the people and goods respect; the institution commitment; the university functions integrity and balanced development; the dialogue promoting and the interaction between disciplines and commitment with the country contributing the university education, establishing cooperation and coordination systems with specialized institutions 15
  16. 16. both national and abroad; and promoting the scientific, artistic, cultural and civic Costa Rican people’s spirit. 2.1.2 STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK 2.1.3 MISSION We are an open heart and permeable mind home school, linked to the needs of our environment with the management knowledge of our students, teachers, administrative assistants and providers as an integral developmental platform. 2.1.4 VISION We will be a private higher education institution without borders, to serve to the universal development strategies of the different economic sectors, socially responsible and in harmony with the environment. 2.1.5 VALUES • Peace • Ethics • Discipline • Perseverance • Humility • Charity • Beauty The following figures show the values, organizational and graphic expression of the current Strategic Plan of the Universidad Magister: 16
  17. 17. FIGURE Nº 2. VALUES OF THE UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER FIGURE Nº 3. ORGANIZATION CHART OF THE UNIVERSIDAD MAGÍSTER Source: Rectoría Universidad Magíster The Universidad Magister is rethinking its Strategic Plan below it is showed the graphic expression of the Strategic Framework: 17
  18. 18. FIGURE Nº 4. GRAPHIC EXPRESSION OF THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK OF THE UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER Source: Rectoría Universidad Magister The strategic seal of Universidad Magister frames the three institutional pillars of the Social Responsibility, Environment Commitment and The Humanized Technology work; also the Strategic Framework involves the graphic expression of its Strategic Plan. 2.2 THEORICAL FRAMEWORK 2.2.1 THE USE OF TECHONOLOGY FOR THE TEACHING AND LEARNING LANGUAGE “As the use of English has increased in popularity so has the need for qualified teachers to instruct students in the language. It is true that there are teachers who use ‘cutting edge’ technology, but the majority of teachers still teach in the traditional manner. None of these traditional manners are bad or damaging the students. In fact, till date they are proving to be useful also. However, there are many more opportunities for students to gain confidence practice and extend themselves, especially for ESL students who learn the language for more than just fun. For them to keep pace with ELT and gain more confidence they have to stride into the world of multimedia technology”. (International Conference on Language, Medias and Culture, 2012) 18
  19. 19. Language teaching has been using technology for teaching. Nowadays language labs are equipped with high-tech that enables higher education quality and efficiency. The use of technology help educational syllabus due to it allows the design and development of a large number of complementary sources, develop individualized assessment processes, and implement self-assessment as a teaching resource. Technology not only helps in the learning process, it is a great tool for teachers, since it adapts to the competence level of each student's curriculum, for the variety of programs that provide it allows to design different activities for learning styles of student, remembering that the level of motivation is significantly much higher than when using other resources. This opens the possibility to interact with resources and the student become in an active learner, because of the process of the language learning. According to Gisbert (2003) telematics networks constitute powerful containers and transmitters of information and that computers become important tools central to teaching and learning processes, their educational potentiality can be minimum if it is not accompanied by other pedagogical measures. (p. 256) Facilitating the independent in learning, the students will be able to have a feedback and improve since their errors, needs, and interests. “The branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering, applied science, and pure science”. (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/technology, 2012) Technology is a great tool for learning another language; it overcomes the problems of overcrowded classrooms. Students could study at home, it makes possible a heterogeneous instruction at the time in which look for programs that fit 19
  20. 20. the students competition linguistics. The phonetic, syntactic, morphological and semantic levels are supported through these means. The concept of technology has changed throughout history and incidentally in the course of last century. The result of the continuous cultural, economic and social changes have influenced directly on the quality of life, in the work transformation, communication and leisure, among others. The term refers to the set of knowledge, skills and resources necessary to reach a predetermined end by using artificial objects (devices) and the organization of tasks. This definition is insufficient because it does not differentiate this term from the arts and science, which would have then to analyze the functions and purposes of the technologies to make a difference more clearly. Blázquez (2003) emphasizes the fact that the participants in these teaching and learning processes set in new virtual environments will have to develop a critical distance in order to benefit from the enormous advantages they account for: "We are aware that the Internet is not and will not be the panacea, it will not even become - to our judgment- a suitable educational means in all situations, furthermore, a proper critical distancing will be required to educate with it". (p.14) Accoding to Margaret Rouse, 2005 “ICT (information and communications technology - or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries” Currently people are immersed into Technology Information and Communication. New society has found an affordable way to use technology as an educational resource, for new teaching practices, a new school, and new values. It is an affordable way that is inside of equality of opportunity for everybody. 20
  21. 21. Nowadays, technology is immersed into educational projects, reflected in curricular projects and in teaching units. It is supposed to develop the didactic and methodological level modifying the teaching practices. “Products and services based on new technology, such as ICT are developing rapidly, and are used by large parts of the population, including elderly people. Increasingly people between the ages of 55-74 are adapting to use of the internet, mobile telephones, and tablets and gaming technologies” (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2007; Haukka, 2011). Language teaching of using Technology for the acquisition of learning has changed in recent decades, going from teaching a new language to window necessary opportunities for all ages. Salinas (2003) agrees in the fact that the integration of ICT into education generates a set of transformations which modify all the elements which take part in the educational process: organization, student, curriculum and mainly, they affect the teacher’s role, function and attitude. (p.133) The acquisition of another language will not be useful to practice; it will be also a possibility of establishing meaningful relationships with people from different countries and be able to interact to through email or chat. In addition, this skill will allow learners interact with people from faraway places, develop relationships with people who are not physically present in their daily environment. The exchange of educational experiences between students and professionals through computers will contribute to a multicultural society overcoming geographic barriers, language and culture. “When students are using technology as a tool or a support for communicating with others, they are in an active role rather than the passive role of recipient of information transmitted by a teacher, textbook, or broadcast. The student is actively making choices about how to generate, obtain, manipulate, or display information. Technology use allows many more students to be actively thinking about information, making choices, and executing skills than is typical in teacher-led lessons. Moreover, when technology is used as a tool to support students in performing authentic tasks, the students are in the position of 21
  22. 22. defining their goals, making design decisions, and evaluating their progress”. (http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdTech/effectsstude nts.html, 2012) The importance of technology in general and in teaching English as a second language particularly, is widely recognized and accepted. Efficient use of technology greatly depends on that teachers take full advantage of this tool: internet, video, software. Technology should be used to maximize education, however a considerable amount of teachers do not do it for lack of knowledge or access to educational software because they don’t have or for lack of a computer room, or they have no taken any training. Computers as well as video and other technological tools, can be useful for the acquisition and learning of foreign languages. There are different theories about learning methods and how these tools can be used in teaching another language. “Today’s computer-based technologies offer powerful new ways to provide students with direct experience in the classroom curriculum. And, through using teaching and learning resources that can be manipulated electronically, technology can extend the experience of students far beyond the time and space limitations of conventional materials”. (http://www.writesite.org, 2012) The ability to communicate in English through computer makes easier the interchange between students whose first mother tongue is not English. However students are often motivated to write correctly. English teachers have designed very good English telecommunications projects on creative writing, such as development and comparison of information, stories and poems. There is another way to support the process and acquisition of a foreign language, it is the using of Word, which offers a comprehensive assistance of different activities, it assists the language learning by computer, that encourages the practice of grammar, vocabulary and translation with multimedia capabilities with more powerful hardware it is possible that the student get a language immersion 22
  23. 23. experience without leaving the classroom. Some English teachers use Word processing and hypertext tools in their classrooms. These applications are useful for students to apply what they know and help others with learning. Other uses of software help students who have a limited vocabulary by using graphics of word processing to help overcome the frustration. Students could be able to apply knowledge of language development writing their autobiographies. Some programs give all information in the required language. Other programs offer dozens of video clips of the English or American TV. There is different software for the acquisition and evaluation of a variety of skills and components (comprehension, oral production, phonetics, intonation features among others). Teachers can give a very important use to technology, currently phonetic and intonation that can be working in language laboratories, with the use of digital and interactive dictionaries. Students are allowed to repeat correctly the words even lexical acquisition, pronunciation of sounds, words and phrases of simultaneously can be work by the students in their own. Some programs have phonetic-prosodic error detection, and hear their own errors and speech, and the students can correct themselves. Technology makes easy the practice of the language in real contexts. Hearing digitized videos gives the students the possibility to keep a conversation both inside and outside the classroom. The use of audiovisual equipment develops the listening comprehension with entertainment contents and it multiplies the possibilities of knowledge. The acquisition of a new language does not occur in isolation, but in a linguistic and cultural nature it will be meaningful. 23
  24. 24. The process of language instruction may be digitized since the texts can be scanned as well as photos and voice recording and video and e-mail help students use the language in real situations. Knowing languages is going to provide an interaction with people from other countries at the moment where the distances are not any problem for communication. Internet use makes the students possible to learn languages on multiple pages and free. Approach to language, from the computer gives learners a pleasant and attractive practice, a playful and interactive teaching. It offers different where people can find learning courses with different levels of difficulty, additionally gives resources that facilitate them to have contact with the language chosen. The variety of content areas and the integration between each can give the appropriate resources to each user level. Teachers can also find plenty of additional material to design and plan use their teaching sessions. “The internet in simple terms is a network of the interlinked computer networking worldwide, which is accessible to the general public. These interconnected computers work by transmitting data through a special type of packet switching which is known as the IP or the internet protocol”. http://www.yourmaindomain.com/web-articles/what-isinternet.asp Internet can be used in different ways due to the development of amount and quality of websites that provides another great resource for teachers and students. They would be able to chat and exchange emails with native speakers English, organize trips to countries where people speak a foreign language, and emails can be written in that language, get quickly information about different countries and 24
  25. 25. cultures, access to foreign news sources, study a book from another culture with a group of students who know and belong to that culture, have videoconferences where they are able to have a conversation face to face with native English speakers. “Globalization has introduced a widespread need for jobs that didn’t exist five years ago. Students must learn about the internet and come to the realization that it is the future of learning. This means it is creating opportunities through jobs, products and services that never exist before. In order to be successful, one must educate oneself on the Internet and what it holds in order to be prepared for their future” (http://www.ehow.com/facts_5758670_importance-interneteducation.html, 2012) It is essential to consider the importance of the use of the internet in teaching and learning English, since it offers both teachers and students the opportunity to practice what they learn in class and experience the accurate use of the language in the real world. Internet is an important tool that a person has to be successful, due to it provides practices, jobs, different ways and resources to communicate all over the world but it is important to know that it should not replace the teacher. It should be considered as a mean or tool to practice the skills of the students. Most of the internet courses offer different levels and allow the student to access to exercises, practices, activities, books, readings, and vocabulary as well as let the learners choosing of the best option for their preferences and interests. Aguaded (2002) places within this context other factors: significant learning, content globalization, resource diversification, organizational flexibility and curricular adaptation to student´s needs. On internet, it is possible to find both a variety of courses and the possibility of the use of other resources which will assistance the chance to practice the language in a real word as the chats. It is necessary to complete exercises and fill practices but chats allow students to communicate with people around the world, in real time, in 25
  26. 26. the learning language. They can choose to enter into discussions on thematic channels with several people at once or establish a private conversation with a single user. There are a lot of webpages and addresses that provide users a diversity of options, some are places to practice English or Spanish and make friends. There are several places where learners can find people who want to communicate through this mean, especially with people who are seeking for friends with the same interests, in this case they could practice the language and help each other. Another way of learning and practicing is reading, listening to music and watching movies in the target language. By internet students are able to access to magazines and newspapers, as well as to watch a movie with subtitles. “For decades, teacher educators have looked for innovative ways to help preservice and inservice teachers learn to teach. As video equipment became more portable and less costly in the early 1960s, many believed that this technology now held great potential for improving teacher education…The introduction of video-based cases demonstrated the field's long-standing interest in using video in teacher education Here was a situation where an existing, and successful, innovation was adapted in order to incorporate video”. (JERE BROPHY, 2007, p.1) Videos are the technology that capture, record, process, storage, transmit and reconstruct electronic digital or analog sequences of images representing scenes in motion. English teachers use video technology to teach foreign languages in order to show the context of native cultures. Some of these programs exhibit feature of classic stories and provide the user the access to different scenes to analyze the history. These programs are usually divided into short segments with short chapters that relate segments of the students’ books. Another use of video technology in teaching foreign language is telling a story of people getting involved in a problem 26
  27. 27. or mystery to be easier to see and hear the information as many times as necessary. A video is a great tool to demonstrate foreign stereotypes and culture. Teachers also could use a video camera to create and film a foreign language program or conversation in his or her classroom. Technology can have a good use in the classroom, the use of video resources and a large screen can immerse students in the acquisition of the foreign language. The projection of travel videos give the students’ knowledge of the culture of the country where people speak the language that they are learning. 2.2.2 METHODS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING A SECOND OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE “In many modern language institutes, a sizeable percentage of time is given over to “self-study. Typically, the institute will have a large room equipped with textbooks, exercises, tape and video recorders (with individual headphones), reference books such as dictionaries, grammars, etc., fiction and non-fiction books and magazines. There will be a competent teacher on duty to offer help and advice, but the idea is that the students should go in to this “self-access” centre and choose what they want to do based on their own interest and needs. They can decide whether they want to go to the centre in other words, and once there, they can take charge, do what they think is best, take responsibility for their own learning” ( Harmmer 2007) Since this point of view, researchers of second language think that human learning errors can be considered as a positive way of language learning. It is crucial for this investigation to be clear on what error, method approach are. Errors may be also be viewed as either global or local errors. An important aspect in the participation of second language patterns is to focus attention in the way how errors are treated. The emphasis which classroom researchers have given to corrective feedback is easy to understand. 27
  28. 28. “The focus on learner differences in SLA has been most concerned with the question of why some learners are more successful than others…. This framework calls for consideration of emotional involvement in learning, such as affective factors of attitude, motivation, and anxiety level. This focus also considers biological differences associated with age and sex, as well as some differences associated with aspects of processing” (SavilleTroike, 2006,p. 27) Second language research has come to attach great significance to the role of errors in acquisition. Errors have been viewed as windows to the language acquisition process; errors are seen as overt reflections of a learner’s internalized knowledge of the language. They are furthermore regarded as an inevitable part of acquiring a second language; indeed some, errors are the best evidence that acquisition is taking place. In turn, methodologists have abandoned a global approach to error correction in the classroom and have sought a basis on which errors might be selectively treated. An important finding is that when teachers treat errors in the second language classroom, they do not necessarily provide over corrections. Several researchers have offered taxonomies or models of error treatment options and the decisionmaking process which governs choices. Strand (2005) believes that each person needs to find who is he/herself, the true identity and integrity of oneself in order to make the teaching activity his or her own vocation. People who are planning to teach must be conscious about the advantages or disadvantages of being a teacher. Teachers must know about the people‘s aspects as temperament, learning process, health, home background and other aspects. All of this in order to do the best while they are teaching. Much research needs to be determine how choices reflect teachers ‘awareness of the need to find the proper balance, both for individual students and for the classes as a whole, between feedback which focuses attention on an error, negative cognitive feedback, and feedback which encourages the learner to make further attempts at communication, positive affective channel feedback. 28
  29. 29. The teacher‘s task is not only filling the students ‘empty minds with some information; however, teachers must develop in the students the sense of awareness towards the future. Saloma suggests is his essay that „Teaching is a vocation‟ that requires technical skill, selflessness and commitment (Teaching is a vocation, p.29, 2007). Much of this greater sensitivity to the complexity of language classroom processes is of course the result of having made direct observation a key component of classroom research. The language classroom is no longer a “black box “which complexity could be conveniently choose to ignore, and it is the intensive observation, description and analysis of classroom activity that makes current research so promising as a prelude to controlled investigation of the variables of second language teaching and learning. Teachers should provide some ways to correct oral and written mistakes, like parents correct their children’s mistakes in natural language learning environment. The error correcting is very useful with adult who wants to learn a second language. Correcting mistakes helps them to learn the exact environment in which to apply rules and discover the precise semantic range of lexical items. Deciding when learner errors should be corrected is one of the most serious tasks that any language educator might face. According to Harmer “Adults are frequently more nervous of learning than younger pupils are. The potential for losing face becomes greater the older you get. Adolescents dislike being made to look foolish in front of their classmates too, but there are probably other things which make them vulnerable in this way rather than an inability to learn (English). Older students, on the other hand, who are coming back to the classroom after a long absence, may have a high degree of anxiety about the process of learning itself.” (2007) 29
  30. 30. Teachers should be facilitators, and tolerate some mistakes, due to it helps learners communicate more confidently when talking in a foreign language. Teachers need to choose the best technique to correct learners when they talk, because of the risk that they are taking to produce. When teachers know their students and the best techniques to correct mistakes when speaking or practicing will help in the students ‘success. Students will feel comfortable to communicate in a foreign language regardless of communicating perfectly. It is important to know, that teachers should focus on the effects of the error correction, especially in adults. When learning a second language is something adults want to do for communicating, teachers first should study the students’ reasons of being in a classroom of a foreign language. Teachers should recognize which mistakes should be corrected first, and should consider which ones could be allowed. When teachers are native speakers sometimes have difficulty establishing criteria to distinguish those communicative errors. Language educators have suggested establishing priorities when correcting errors. There should be a great deal between important areas when learners are adults. Teachers should focus attention on some errors. Goodwin adds that rather than overwhelming the student with feedback on every possible error, teachers should focus their attention on certain kinds of errors. (2001, p. 130) She also points out that language teachers should correct errors which cause a breakdown in communication. Also, errors which occur as a pattern not as isolated mistakes and errors which relate to the pronunciation points those language educators are teaching. 30
  31. 31. Those errors that learners commit, guide teachers toward what to teach. Consequently, the learners’ speeches are a feedback for teachers to attend and navigate their teaching in the target language. All these will help language educators to determine how to correct their students’ errors. Celce- Muricia says that the teacher has many options available, from simply indicating lack of comprehension or otherwise signaling the occurrence of an error and getting the learner to self-correct to the most elaborate grammatical explanation. (2001, p. 40) She says that teachers frequently make the mistake of thinking that by providing statements with some slight change in the grammatical form, learners will perceive the correction and incorporate it into developing grammars (p. 40). Teachers should provide a feedback to the learners; this may contribute to the eradication of errors. The best technique for error treatment has many benefits for both teachers and students. It is important to know that, “Adults are intrinsically motivated. Learners increase their effort when motivated by a need, an interest, or a desire to learn. They are also motivated by the relevance of the material to be addressed and learn better when material is related to their own needs and interests. For learners to be fully engaged in learning their attention must be fully focused on the material presented”. (http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/anxie ties.htm, 2012) All this will contribute to the complexities of the classroom situations. Teachers will find the ways of students ‘learning to develop techniques that could help in the students learning process to improve their skills. It also will help teachers to modify their own teaching behaviors and strategies. 31
  32. 32. Theories in language acquisition, in an effort to explain how language is acquired, present different and controversial positions. It needs of imitation, practice, reinforcement, feedback and materials. Lightbown and Spada mention that adult beginners use simple structures in the target language just as children do: No understand or yesterday I meet my teacher. Such sentences look more like a child’s first language sentences than like translations from another language (2000, p. 36). Adults need different strategies and technics to learn. The use of technology and images will be a great helpful to practice and understand everything better. In addition, there is a lack of clear grammatical judgments among adults which has prompted some scholars to suggest that a third class of grammatically judgmentsindeterminate – is needed in the description of learner language. Harmer thinks: “There are two general rules for giving instructions: they must be kept as simple as possible, and they must be logical. Before giving instructions , therefore, teachers must ask themselves the following questions: What is the important information I am trying to convey? What must the students know if they are to complete this activity successfully?”(2007) In adults language learning the instruction has an important function. Another difference is that adults seem very concerned about understanding rules. Learning a foreign language needs correction, and affective factors such as personality, socialization, motivation, and attitude are an important part of the acquisition of a second language. Older students depend on more general learning abilities. It is important to mention that the relationship between age of acquisition and second language development is totally different with older learners because they are no capable of acquiring a native accent of the foreign language. 32
  33. 33. Teaching is an art and the quality of teaching depends on the love, dedication and devotion of the teacher towards the subject of the knowledge. It has been suggested that attitudes often mirror one's values and motivate behaviors (Antonak & Livneh; Brostrand, 2006) It is argued the developmental changes in the brain; it affects the nature of language acquisition. The Critical Period Hypothesis suggests that there is a time in human development when the brain is predisposed for success in language learning. Older learners depend on more general learning abilities the same ones they might use to learn other kinds of skills or information. There is another problem to learn a language older and it is said that adolescents and older learners are incapable of acquiring a native like accent of the second language. It is well known that people when learning make mistakes and those mistakes will help in the new skill, it does not matter the age. It is important that students receive a supportive feedback and guidance. On the other hand, The Direct Method stresses the need of self-correction, The Grammar Translation Method encourages the teacher to go directly to correct student’s errors, The Audio-Lingual Method tries that students errors are avoided, when there is an error the teacher should immediately correct the student, The Task-Based approach the teacher has to reformulate what the student have said. (Larsen-Freeman, 2000, p. 146-147). Adults will have different reason for learning a second language, but the role of the teacher is very important, no matter what method the teacher is using, the idea is to encourage them in order to get their goal, with different ways as technology and practices at home or anytime learners can. The most important is the way people are threated. 33
  34. 34. Teachers should use a soft voice, the silent way holds that errors are not only natural but also necessary to language learning as Desuggestopedia suggests. The total Physical Response holds that teachers should tolerate and only correct major errors, but as students’ progress in the target language, teachers can correct more minor errors; The Communicative Language teaching perceives errors as a normal outcome of the development of communication skills, conclusively, The Content-Based and Participatory Approaches do not suggest a specific treatment for oral errors. 2.2.3 MOTIVATION “The role of motivation in the teaching- learning process: Human behavior is complex and people are naturally curious. Therefore, instructional designers should meet the challenges of designing instruction assisted by motivation; because it is of paramount importance to student success”. (http://www.shabait.com/categoryblog/3200-what-motivation-isand-why-it-is-important-in-classroom-situation, 2012) Motivation and teaching activity are important to obtain that the personal necessities go on next to the educational necessities, because on the contrary, it could be possible to find individuals applying higher effort levels, but those in opposite way to the teaching activity. In that case, it can be told that the effort is guided in an unproductive way. There are several theories related with personal necessities, one of the most influential writers regarding it is Abraham Maslow (1954). He attempted to synthesize a large body of research related to human motivation. Prior to Maslow, researchers generally focused separately on such factors as biology, achievement, or power to explain what energizes, directs, and sustains human behavior. Maslow posited a hierarchy of human needs based on two groupings: -deficiency needs, and -growth needs. Within the deficiency needs, each lower need must be met before moving to the next higher level. 34
  35. 35. Once each of these needs has been satisfied, if at some future time a deficiency is detected, the individual will act to remove the deficiency. The first four levels are: 1) Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, among others; 2) Safety/security: out of danger; 3) Belongings and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted; & 4) Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition. Colás (2003) understands knowledge manager as the person who is able to manage the student´s skills, abilities and knowledge, motivating and taking benefit of the student´s both individual and collective learning possibilities.(p.33) 2.2.4 THIRD AGE EDUCATION “Education is about helping people value their own experiences so they can be something to learn from. An un examine experience is just a happening; it is something you know. Experiences don’t educate, but you can tear experiences apart and try to figure out all that is in there. Then it becomes the best educational experience”. (Myles Horton, 2003, p. 49) The exchange of experiences puts the learning process in motion. Learning and experience as well as the attainment of the objectives through journal articles, books and lectures are valuable; this leads to critical thinking (Freire 2000). The gained knowledge should be used in attacking… social and individual problems (Horton 2003). The power of education should be put into practice. Education is the practice of freedom which people can discover and develop their own identity and also are able to share it with the society and the world (Castro 2007). Society has changed through education and discussion of groups in the community. There is a progression of social consciousness (Singer and Pezone, 2007). 35
  36. 36. Third age education should be provided to the elderly to maintain their selfsufficiency, social adjustment and how to maintain links with the current social development. Findsen (2005) states that in the 21st century the society is confronting one of the major issues and it is the changing age demographic. Nowadays adults are living longer because of new medicines. st “In the 21 century third agers will prosper as larger numbers enter this domain of life with plenty of energy for and creativity in living. However, sooner or later, we all must die. What people desire is a fourth age which has dignity and caring as central components. Educators are guilty of largely ignoring this fourth age, yet there is a useful role her for the sensitive care of those who can no longer care properly for themselves”. (Findsen, 2005, p.13) Adult education in the 21st century is becoming very important and crucial; this is a result of an aging global population that is looking for more learning opportunities as they reach the third stage of life. Through education, older adults can be interested in the future. They will feel they are part of the society developing social roles. Health centers, schools, families, communities are important agents in the interaction of elderly in order to help them to work in the stimulation of being part of society. This provides an example of education for social change, as the older adults are able to spend the rest of their lives in a meaningful way that benefits themselves as well as society. “Contribute to the raising of the standard of living of elderly people by health building activities, sociocultural activities and research. They contribute to the improvement of living conditions of elderly people through multidisciplinary research…and the dissemination of information”. (Nussbaum and Coupland 2004,p. 528) Freire (2000) agrees that the third age education keep these people alive, healthy and positive. They will create a feeling of biophilic that means lover of life. Life will have a nice meaning. Education will help his/ her gracefully age as he/she heads 36
  37. 37. into the last stage of life. When they have this feeling they will enjoy life, instead of fearing death, and also they will be driven to freedom. They will be centered in creativity and reality. They will become aware of their place in society and they know what they need in order to change the world around them. In 2008 in the Universidad de Costa Rica senior citizen education became a major priority, especially after the law 7539 that calls for that third age people have equal access to education, also stipulates that universities must offer courses from which senior citizens can be favored. It is important to see the process of education as a possibility to achieve health in the elderly both mentally and physically, like how to pass on technical elements and encourage nursing concepts and standards of conduct, stemming from their own discussions, experiences and comparison with other elderly. This is of importance for the maintenance of health in the elderly. It is undeniable that the present physical state of the subject will be more than likely to experience psychological well-being. “Adults have accumulated life experiences. Adults come to courses with experiences and knowledge in diverse areas. They tend to favor practical learning activities that enable them to draw on their prior skills and knowledge. Adults are realistic and have insights about what is likely to work and what is not. They are readily able to relate new facts to past experiences and enjoy having their talents and knowledge explored in a teaching situation”.(http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/be fore/anxieties.htm, 2012) The old people's education is a social necessity and should be directed to the performance of new roles and the search for a new place in society. According to Singer and Pezone (2007) social development is the process of organizing the population using education in order to improve society. Community development values equality, opportunity and participation through the eliminations of barriers. Therefore community and social development happen in Costa Rica with the help of education. 37
  38. 38. 2.2.5 CHARACTERISTIS OF SENIOR CITIZENS “In this perspective, old age becomes a period requiring active coping with multiple changes in which biological and social components are intimately related. A physical organism, itself experiencing changes, must deal with changes (often major) in its immediate social environment”. (http://psycnet.apa.org/books/10776/014, 2012) The mind must always keep on active. Human aging is a process that lasts the entire lifespan, and the “quality of life in the later years is a product of a lifetime” (Bond & Coleman 1990, 288). Cabanes (2005) says that old age is a process of physiological, anatomical, physiological and social changes. Most definitions of old age emphasize it as a biological state that is an unfavorable physiological and anatomical change that results of the passage of time and finishes with death". Traditionally, chronological age has been the parameter that determines the onset of old age and refers to the calendar age or number of years that an individual has lived. However, this is not the best parameter to determine how productive and able are for him/ herself, his/her family and society. In the elderly can be detected some individual differences due to personality characteristics and accentuated by the vast experience of each. There is a reduction in functional abilities in old age. They can be found declining in intellectual functions such as analysis, synthesis, arithmetic reasoning, ingenuity and imagination, perception and immediate visual memory. 38
  39. 39. It is important to know that elderly showed less deterioration in their mental faculties as long as they keep active and productive, whatever the employment activity performed. “Adults learn at various rates and in different ways according to their intellectual ability, educational level, personality and cognitive learning styles. Teaching strategies must anticipate and accommodate differing comprehension rates of learners”. (http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/anxie ties.htm, 2012) All ages carry with social opinions, undoubtedly the third age is a period of life greatly influenced rather determined by social opinion, by the culture in which it operates. Nowadays culture, somehow there is a main tendency to stimulate the old-age as a loneliness feeling, restrictions on sexual life and relationships, and the own functionality and social integration of the elderly. All these elements of identity are generally taken from the culture negative prejudices for old age. Elderly people start thinking that they are old, useless, incapable, and in the end retired. Depression and insecurity can be the result for old people to return to earlier stages of life. A dependent and insecure person at times of stress will return to child behaviors and will not be able to effort to solve the problems. Senior citizens need security especially when physical and psychological resources are declining. There is a feeling of powerless, which causes them frustration, fear and unhappiness to get their needs and goals. Retirement is another change that occurs in old age. 39
  40. 40. 2.2.6 AGING AND OLD AGE The issues of aging and old age are usually used inappropriately by people in general. They confuse their meanings or think that they are the same. It is usually believed that refer to the same stage of life. The World Health Organization states that a person is considered “senior” when it reaches the age of 60- 65, regardless to their medical history and situation. “Ageing, the process of growing old, is defined as the gradual biological impairment of normal function, probably as a result of changes made to cells (mitotic cells, such as neurons) and structural components (such as bone and muscle). These changes would consequently have a direct impact on the functional ability of organs (such as the heart, kidney and lungs), biological systems (such as the nervous, digestive and reproductive system) and ultimately the organism as a whole”. (http://ageing-research.blogspot.com/2007/12/definition-ofnormal-ageing.html, 2012) According to Gonzalez (2001) aging is a deteriorating process of the body due to the passage of time, so that aging is inevitable, even though the person is well nourished and living a lifestyle quite satisfactory. It is both a vital and natural process of life (people age from birth to death), where is demonstrating the functional status of each person, which it can be understood as "the ability of a person to carry each needed activity to achieve well-being." The same author points that it is also conceptualized as the integration of three functions: the biological, psychological (cognitive and affective) and social. “Old age has a dual definition. It is the last stage in the life processes of an individual, and it is an age group or generation comprising a segment of the oldest members of a population. The social aspects of old age are influenced by the relationship of the physiological effects of aging and the collective experiences and shared values of that generation to the particular organization of the society in which it exists”. (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/426737/old-age) 40
  41. 41. According to Hidalgo (2009), old age is the last stage of life of a human being, when accentuate the signs and effects of aging are exacerbated, and also there is the manifestation of chronicle conditions, which causes or etiology should be found in earliest ages. According to this author, at the biological level, old age is perceived through changes in physical appearance, physical condition, disease resistance or the way of in the life style of each person. It is clear that aging does not have the same way in all cases because each person has different care of his or her body, which will also be evident and influence on the aging process, body level, hearing, taste, vision and locomotor system. On a psychological level it is understood that people has changes in memory, learning, intelligence, impulses, emotions and motivations, due to different situations such as various losses throughout life and they increase old age , when children leave the house, retirement and a lack or loss of some biological functions such as vision or hearing. It is also a step in which the elderly must confront a series of myths and stereotypes about age, identity crisis, or the continuing thought that each day is closer to death, all of them become in anxiety and feelings that affect their health. According to Fernandez-Ballestero (2002) the ageing process could be normal or pathological. The pathological one is when some factors affect the person’s health, and bring with them different diseases that alter and reduce their quality of life. On the other hand, the normal ageing process is when the person faces the old age in an independent way, without many diseases that difficult the person to live in a calm way. 41
  42. 42. 2.2.7 TERMS RELATED TO SENIOR CITIZEN’S POPULATION 2.2.7.1 THIRD AGE Third age is something not easy to understand. There are different definitions such as senescence, old, and old age, that generally are associated to the stage of life after maturity. Those terms are attributed to cultural factors, regionals and even perspectives according to a given period… For this research older people will be used as the meaning for third age. According to Dr.J.A.Huet the third age is understood as… “an anthropic-social that refers to the population of older people, not necessarily retired, usually of 65 or more years” Old age is understood as a stage of life referred to people over 65 years. This term is often associated and confused with what is aging, which refers rather a biological degradation of the functions, therefore it is necessary to establish a difference between definitions. 2.2.7.2 RETIRIMENT Retirement is the name given to the administrative act through which an active worker, either on their own or in relation to subordination, change to a passive or non-employment stage. This step is obtained after reaching a certain legal maximum age which the worker is allowed to stop working and get a retribution for the rest of his/her life. It is a transformation from a work life to a life after work. Retirement is a new stage in life when people will have more time to spend in other interests. On April 1994, the Pan American Health Organization, an affiliate of the World Health Organization, decided to use the older adult term for people over 65 or more years old. This age has been traditionally used to define the demographic 42
  43. 43. and gerontology studies of the onset of old age, mainly because in many countries it is used by the pension systems to begin to provide retirement related benefits. 2.2.7.3 GOLDEN CITIZEN Since 1997 La Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS) is developing a program for everyone over age 65, with the purpose of giving to this group a new option of social benefits that the institution provides. The Golden Citizen Program seeks to encourage the quality of life of all older adults, including the residents not born in Costa Rica. The services and benefits that the program offers are health and public institutions preferential attention, the recreation and health, cultural workshops, trade discounts, social tourism, and other advantages supported with the Gold Citizen Card issued by CCSS. ( www.ccss.sa.cr/ciud_oro/fridcoro.htm) 2.2.8 FEARS According to Withnall (2000,p. 89), “Older people are frequently marginalized in educational policy circles by continued emphasis on economic competitiveness in tandem with a moral panic about the financial support of an aging population which, although of major importance, tends to conceptualize later life as primarily a social problem”. Elmore (2000) adds that every human being regardless of their age has the potential to make effective contributions to society. Many adults of third stage hesitate about entering a formal educational institution. They usually prefer more informal, vocational style programs. Older adults often feel uncomfortable in formal learning settings, especially at the university level. 43
  44. 44. “Ageing concerns. Adults frequently worry about being the oldest person in a class and are concerned about the impact this may have on their ability to participate with younger students. Creating an environment where all participants feel they have a valuable contribution can work to allay such concerns”. (http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/anxie ties.htm, 2012) This is due to the fact that they are mixing with the younger generation. Many mature adults also become part of the social construct that says that the third-age adult is too old to learn. Therefore universities for older adults have the major role in the third age educational process and the attitude towards the old age. This type of institutions must seek to create a culture of aging from educational opportunities and self-development through this process of education. “Adults may have insufficient confidence. Students come to class with varying levels of confidence. Some may have had poor prior experiences of education leading to feelings of inadequacy and fear of study and failure. This can manifest itself in many ways”. (http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/anxie ties.htm, 2012) Other type of fears old ager have is the isolation, as friends and families die or move away, bereavement, when spouses die, housing: old people often live in older housing, which may be deteriorating, the problems of careers. Many old people are looked after by women who are themselves ageing. There are different goals when an elderly return to a classroom. It is well know that English is becoming a very important language, sometimes old people get tired when attending classes. They need different methods of teaching. According to Williamson (2006) as a result of educational initiatives, society is transformed, and people’s presence in the world is recognized, transformed and firmed. Education has a humanistic basis that focuses on learning, and encompasses is complexities. In all countries and cultures of the world, education expresses societal norms and often privileges. 44
  45. 45. Initives must be taken to encourage opportunity, reduce vulnerability, and improve institutions to empower senior citizens and their communities. “Adults are autonomous and self-directed. They are self-reliant learners and prefer to work at their own pace. Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn and when they have identified their own learning needs. Where a student is directed by someone else to attend a course, e.g. by an employer, then that individual may not be ready to learn or may not see the value in participating on that course. This can lead to a mismatch of goals between all parties - student, employer and trainer”. (http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/anxie ties.htm, 2012) Universities should offer educational programs to older adults and will draw connections between them and social development because of the changing age demographic in society and the increase of the number of senior citizens. There are different reasons to learn another language. If old people return to classes it is because of the interest of the English has increased. In the past the student was supposed to translate and understand written texts, but nowadays students are supposed to use English to communicate orally. “Adults may have many anxieties about learning and returning to an educational environment. Adult learners arrive at class with a wealth of experience that can be harnessed to generate interesting and dynamic debate. However, before this is to happen, we need to be aware that adults can also arrive full of anxieties, which if not managed correctly, can impair the learning process. These anxieties may be the legacy of their prior experience of education, or as a result of an extended absence from an educational environment”. (http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/anxie ties.htm, 2012) Through education older adults are able to cope with difficult situations, come to terms with their own lives, and understand the world around them (Freire 2000; Nussbaum and Coupland 2004; Long 1983; Maehl 2000). Adult learning programs provide the educational atmosphere where conscientization and dialogue occur, providing an opportunity for individuals to realize their potentials, and the strength to be assertive social activists in a crusade for social change. 45
  46. 46. According to Findsen (2005) many elderly people think about returning to learning courses at the age they are. They do not like formal learning courses because they will feel uncomfortable. They prefer informal classes with people of the same age. They feel frustrated when they are mixing with younger people, when that happens they say that they are too old to learn. Some of the fears seniors have to learn a second language are:  Concern about being the oldest member of the group  Fear of failure  Fear of being made to look foolish  Fear of the new technological environment and the implications this has for their study, e.g. use of the internet and email, producing assignments, accessing the library  Concern about their ability to contribute and make intelligent/worthwhile inputs in classroom discussion  Doubts about coping strategies - juggling family, career and social commitments with demands of studying  Consideration about physical impairments such as fading eyesight or hearing which may impact on their participation in class  Concern about application processes to colleges or education providers. For example, sometimes the language of course brochures and/or application forms can be confusing as it assumes a certain amount of knowledge about education systems and structures  Distrust about their own abilities and about how valid or worthwhile their experience is in relation to the topic at hand 46
  47. 47.  Questions about their study skills, e.g. note taking, reading - when to stop as they become more immersed in a subject  Fear of assessment and confusion about what is expected, particularly regarding more formal assessment exercises such as exams  Worry about the distinctions between academic writing and informal writing, and when it is necessary to use references and quotations  Concerns about external influences, e.g. a need to require a skill for employment purposes (http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/anxieties.htm, 2012) “People high in self-esteem value their personal qualities, generally think well of themselves, set appropriate and realistic goals and tend to cope more successfully with difficult situations. People low in self-esteem place little value on their own attributes, think poorly of themselves and are at greater risk for depression” (http://www.facetheissue.com/selfesteem.html, 2012) Thoughts are forms conceived in the mind, rather than the forms perceived through the five senses. Thoughts and thinking are the processes by which these concepts are perceived and manipulated. Thinking allows model the world and makes representations of it according to their objectives, plans, ends and desires. Similar concepts and processes include cognition, consciousness, ideas, and imagination (Webster's II New College Dictionary) Those affect attitudes, and consequently the self-concept and self-esteem according to the processes performed in the humans‘ mind. Likewise, thoughts are constructed in the mind in two general ways: --Rational thoughts, and –Irrational thoughts. It is very important to know about the thoughts in order to fight against negative thoughts; a famous phrase from Buda (566 to 478 BC) pointed something like “Even your worst enemies cannot make you a great damage as your own thoughts” 47
  48. 48. 2.2.9 TECHNICS AND STRATEGIES TO TEACH ENGLISH TO OLDER ADULTS Second language acquisition is not simple. Teachers and learners should accept errors and the learning process as a natural phenomenon integral when learning a second language. “It is important to create an atmosphere of respect where learners feel comfortable and are assured their contributions are valuable. Learning students' names is also vital and involving everyone at the first session is a good way to do this and establish contact between the facilitator and between the students themselves. Spending some time over introductions also helps alleviate tension and puts students at ease. You should aim to get as much information about the group, their interests, backgrounds and motivations as possible. This will be useful when planning content and materials”. (http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/anxie ties.htm, 2012) Teachers have to work deeply in the intrinsic factors because from those it is possible to spread positive changes in the external world. Teachers should accept the differences because of these they will give to elderly students the opportunity of learning and adaptation. They have the capacity of: being grateful, to learn, to produce, to be open to new challenges, to enjoy the daily classes, to express emotions, to give and to receive congratulations, to accept the success of the others, to take care of their personal image as well as their health, and to enjoy relationships among the rest of the people. However, it is important to analyze all aspects, even internal and external in order to understand how they operate in order to begin a personal fight against the negativity. When teaching older adults, teachers need to know that they want to stay active and they want to feel confidence in themselves. Meaningful integration is important, as well as give them activities to encourage companionship and socialization. Students and instructor could negotiate and agreed some aspects of the course; this will help the students feel involved and valued. When negotiating the program 48
  49. 49. will be more clear for both students and teacher. Since this teacher will know their desires and also take into account the supplies, material and knowledge existing to achieve the students’ intentions. After agreeing the obligation should not be onesided like normal learning programs. Obligation will be considered mutual between teacher and student. The instructor should know that the emotional needs are an important factor in the aging process. Some emotional needs in the old age can be named the companionship need, usefulness feeling, feel loved and acceptance by others. Senior citizens need affection and support from others. Feelings of abandon, loneliness, nonacceptance and uselessness are some of the feelings that could be presented during the old age. (Hernandez Zamora, 2004). The quality of life depends on each individual, since each person has a different life story what makes people unique and live in different ways, some successful and some not. According to Vera (2007) says that the quality of life of an older adult is the result of the interaction of the characteristics of human existence (housing, clothing, food, education and human freedoms), which contribute of different way to allow an optimal state of wellness. Quality of life depends on the way that the elderlies face up the stage of the old age they are, and all the family and social support they can get. For these reasons if a senior enroll a course it should allow this person to feel comfortable with him or herself as well as enjoys what he or she is doing. All this will help the person to have a meaningful stage. 49
  50. 50. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK 50
  51. 51. 3.1 METHODOLOGY FRAMEWORK This research tries to determine if the use of technology and motivation could be used to teach English to adults. In the recent decades there is much talking about teenagers and children, but the adulthood has been marginalized in some way. However universities and institutions have been giving priority to develop methodologies and tools for old ages. Currently, both public and private institutions have been putting more attention to this group of people. Teachers need to remember when preparing their classes that adults do not learn as children and adolescents. Although there are strategies used to teach children that work very good in old adults. In this complex process of learning the teacher must have the skill to recognized the advantages (prior knowledge, motivations, interests) as well as the disadvantages (prejudices and fears) that in this case they should help the learners for the effective acquisition. This research moves from generalizations. In the end theories and specific observations to give to develop some general conclusions and recommendations. 3.2 TYPES OF RESEARCH This research is based on a descriptive and explorative study. It is intended to describe and explain the way technology is used to teach English to adults at Universidad Magister. The implementation of this type of research will definitely be a great value for this study in the description of situations and events that might happen inside and outside the institution as well. 51
  52. 52. According to Chris Brown (2003) in Educational Research explains that Descriptive Research also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how. The data description is factual, accurate and systematic. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. This investigation applies Descriptive Research because using the information to gather from the sample as well as from the administrative and the specialists consulted. The facts analyzed about the problem are described and stated in the investigation. Trochim, W.M.K explains in Research Methods Knowledge Base that an Exploratory Research ‘provides insights into and comprehension of an issue or situation. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. It is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined and it helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects (2006). Therefore, this investigation uses Explorative Research because it attempts to determine the cause’s motivation among English teachers as well as the fears old adults have when learning a second language. Moreover, it determines the relation among different variables related with the topic investigated. And then, it tries to determine a research design, data collection method and selection of subjects taking into account. 52
  53. 53. 3.3 SOURCES OF INFORMATION This investigation provides important data. It looks for the characteristics of old adults learn, besides the use of technology in this target topic. For the developing of this research the sources of information were necessary to find information in books, journals, and on the Internet. There are a variety of sources to get information. However it is important to know where to find some types of information. Sources of information should be known as the instruments used to be informed about a specific topic as well as the knowledge provided or share from observations, books, documents, internet, dictionaries, surveys of a group of people, and speeches among others. This means that the information sources could be print or non-print. 3.3.1 PRIMARY SOURCES Primary sources are when the information is given in its original form. Also the information is produced by the person who experienced directly the event. This project uses as primary sources: surveys with educational administrators, and specialists related with the teaching and learning processes as well as learners. Also, theoretical information taken from books related with the educational and psychological activities as well as information taken from a previous investigation made with a topic related with teachers ‘vocation. 53
  54. 54. 3.3.2 SECONDARY SOURCES Secondary sources are developed by someone who did not experienced or perform the situations. This information describes, examines, interprets, and discusses the given events. So, it is written after the facts. Some of the information collected for this study is from Internet which includes pages related with motivation, characteristics, teaching process. This information is put into a convenient easy to read form. It comes from secondary sources that were condensed. English Language dictionaries were used to translate some meanings, as well as Psychological and synonyms words . 3.4 POPULATION AND SAMPLE 3.3.1 POPULATION The population in a research is all the subjects involved in it. For the present project the protagonist are fifty-six senior citizens who were selected randomly. Through a questionnaire (the applied instrument) important information was gathered. Those people are a great source of help because without them and their collaboration this would not be possible. Furthermore, they are the most important population in this research. Also, another questionnaire was applied to ten English teachers. They are a fundamental piece and integral part of the research. Those teachers provided information about different factors they have faced through their experience in the classroom gotten from several years in the field of education. In the other hand, from the Universidad Magister principal, some elements were extracted from an interview to infer the truth among factual and subjective factors 54
  55. 55. related with the courses given to seniors using technology as well as the motivation, training, and knowledge that her teachers receive. 3.3.2 SAMPLE The sample taken for this research is based on not probalistic sample or directed sample, which according with Barrantes (1999) can be selected “by voluntary subjects, subject-type or by quatas” (p. 136). At first, this specific research selects the sample by subject-type taken into account fifty-six seniors. Then the sample had been selected by quotas, it took ten English teachers. Furthermore to enrich the information an interview was made to the Universidad Magister principal. 3.5 DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTRUMENTS The three variables for this research were measured by using three different instruments, survey, observation and interview. 3.5.1SURVEY For the survey the researcher designed a questionnaire of twenty questions for senior citizens (see annex 1) It has eighteen closed and two open questions. 3.5.2 OBSERVATION The observation guide was developed to know the knowledge and strategies that ten English teachers have toward old age students. It was a questionnaire of ten questions (see annex 2) nine closed and one open questions. This guide is based on general information about motivation, trainings and strategies they use in classes. 55
  56. 56. It is worth to mention that to provide these questionnaires with a sense of relativity and validity; they were based on some principles of ethnographic research. For example as Watson –Gegeo (1988) suggests informants should be considered as human beings with problems, interests and needs. The researchers should safeguard informants ‘rights, interests, and sensitivities, the informant has the right to know the research goals and all the information have the right to be anonymous. 3.5.3 INTERVIEW Finally, there was an interview applied to the Universidad Magister Principal in order to know her opinion about seniors’ education due to she offers course for them, as well as the services that the university has for these people. Therefore, some of the questions are related to the English teaching training (see annex 3). 3.6 CONCEPTUALIZATION OF VARIABLES This current project has three main variables: Teaching strategies, interest in participation and fears on second language.  OBJECTIVE N°1: To determine the teaching strategies that promotes learning in senior citizens. VARIABLE “TEACHING STRATEGIES” CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION: It is defined as all strategies used to encourage the student to learn. They are designed to develop skills, self-reflexing of learning as well as meaningful learning. Teaching strategies are the techniques, procedures, and supplies that the teacher believes and considers appropriate to use in classes. Taking also into account the students interests, abilities, educative needs, and experience to achieve effective English language. 56
  57. 57. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: Teaching strategies will be referred as the use of different techniques used by the teachers to provide and encourage learning on the students. The researcher will include five questions in the teachers ‘observation and two questions in the seniors questionnaire, related to teaching strategies. Moreover there is one question in the University principal’s interview. INSTRUMENTAL DEFINITION: The researcher will use two different questionnaires found in annexes 1, 2 and 3 to determine the use of different strategies when teaching elderly. Those questions are found in the teacher’s questionnaire questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, in the seniors’ questions 11, 12, 13 and in the interview question 11.  OBJECTIVE N°2: To know the interest of participation that seniors citizens have in English courses through technology for acquiring a better knowledge in the subject. VARIABLE: INTEREST OF PARTICIPATION CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION: The feeling of wanting to know or learn about something. It is an activity which one enjoys doing or studying. It is described as a relatively enduring predisposition to attend to certain objects and events to engage in certain activities. This behavior is associated with a psychological of positive affect and persistence and tends to result in increased learning. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: To measure this variable, the senior citizens are asked about their desire, wish or energy to learn and attend courses as well as the principal’s opinions about factors that influence seniors to study. Those include elements related with schedule, prices, and purposes of learning. Moreover, teachers and principal are consulted about some aspects in order to make comparisons. 57
  58. 58. INSTRUMENTAL DEFINITION: In order to obtain the information for this variable data was extracted from two groups: seniors and principal. The researcher designed some items in annexes 1, 2, and 3 to define the interest senior citizens could have to participate in an English course through technology. In seniors questionnaire they are the questions 6, 7, 8, 14, 16 .In the teachers observation the question 5 and in the interview questions 4, 5 and 8.  OBJECTIVE N°3: To identify the most common fears toward second language learning for developing a Teaching Modal Proposal. VARIABLE: FEARS ON SECOND LANGUAGE CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION: Fear is an ironic condition. While others may observe that it exists in a person’s life they may be hard pressed to answer the question of why the fear is present. This individual may also fear being ridiculed if they do try and then fail. It may be easier to never try then to try and fail. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: To measure this variable the information will be obtained by checking out seniors’ and University Principal’s answers to some specific questions in the questionnaire and interview carried out by the researcher. INSTRUMENTAL DEFINITION: In order to obtain this information, seniors involved in this study answered some items which are part of the survey designed to them (annexes 1, 2, and 3). During the survey, they answered some questions about fears of learning or returning to a classroom. The researcher will also interview the University Principal to obtain her point of view in this section. In seniors questionnaire those questions are the 17, 18, 19, 20. In the teachers observation it is the 9 question, and in the interview they are questions 5 and 8. 58
  59. 59. 3.7 DATA ANALYSIS This research uses careful steps to get information. The recollection of information involves fifty-six questionnaires made to senior citizens, ten questionnaires to gather information from ten English teachers, and one interview made to the University Principal. Graphs are calculated with the information gotten from the survey applied to the fifty-six seniors. Those graphs are confectioned with the results to have a visual representation of the data in order to understand in a simple and effective way the distribution of the information. To organize this information the researcher used the program Excel of Office 2010 of Windows XP to introduce all the obtained information, and then the graphs were designed. It will be allowed to find tendencies, similarities and differences to understand the information and create a plan. The information given by the English teachers is organized into charts to count and group some details. In those charts the information will be easier to see the results. Besides, it will be allowed to observe the tendencies, similarities and differences. 59
  60. 60. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS 60
  61. 61. 4.1 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS The objective of this chapter is to determine relevant information by formal, systematic and intensive means to make decisions. The determination of these aspects were developed by a structured questionnaire of twenty questions asked to fifty-six seniors, with the desire to obtain the results of the study made more clearly. Also to make comparisons between the Theoretical Framework searched and the real perception of the English Teachers were made some surveys directly to them related with the teachers‘activity. Besides those questionnaires, there is an interview made to the Universidad Magister Principal. 4.1.1 SENIORS’SURVEY RESULTS TABLE #1 GENDER DISTRIBUTION GENDER ABSOLUTE VALUE PERCENTAGE FEMALE 21 37.5 MALE 35 62.5 TOTAL 56 100 Source: Own elaboration, 2012 GRAPH #1 GENDER DISTRIBUTION Source: Table #1 62.5% of the seniors that filled out the form are male, and 37.5% are female. 61
  62. 62. TABLE #2 AGE RANGE AGE ABSOLUTE VALUE PERCENTAGE 60-65 30 53.6 MORE THAN 65 26 46.4 TOTAL 56 100 Source: Own elaboration, 2012 GRAPH #2 AGE RANGE Source: Table #2 53.6% of the seniors that filled out the form are between 60 and 65 years old and 46.4% are more than 65 years old. 62
  63. 63. TABLE #3 DISTRIBUTION BY OCCUPATION OCCUPATION ABSOLUTE VALUE PERCENTAGE WORKING 15 26.8 RETIRED 41 73.2 TOTAL 56 100 Source: Own elaboration, 2012 GRAPH #3 DISTRIBUTION BY OCCUPATION Source: Table #3 26.8% of the seniors that filled out the questionnaire are retired and 73.2% work. 63
  64. 64. TABLE #4 PLACE WHERE THEY LIVE PLACE WHERE THEY LIVE ABSOLUTE VALUE PERCENTAGE SAN JOSE 48 85.7% HEREDIA 5 8.9% GUANACASTE 2 3.6% ALAJUELA 1 1.8% CARTAGO 0 0% PUNTARENAS 0 0% LIMON 0 0% TOTAL 56% 100% Source: Own elaboration, 2012 GRAPH #4 PLACE WHERE THEY LIVE Source: Table #4 85.7% of the seniors come from San Jose, 8.9% are from Heredia, 3.6% from Guanacaste and 1.8% from Alajuela. 64
  65. 65. TABLE #5 KNOWLEDGE OF THE EXISTENCE OF UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER KNOWLEDGE OF THE EXISTENCE OF UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER ABSOLUTE VALUE PERCENTAGE YES 10 17.9 NO 46 82.1 TOTAL 56 100 Source: Own elaboration, 2012 GRAPH #5 KNOWLEDGE OF THE EXISTENCE OF UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER Source: Table #5 82.1% of the seniors that filled out the form do not know about Universidad Magister, and 17.9% of them know about the place. 65
  66. 66. TABLE #6 KNOWLEDGE OF THAT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER HAS A PROGRAM OF TECHNICAL COURSES TO LEARN ENGLISH FOR SENIOR CITIZENS KNOWLEDGE OF UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER’S PROGRAMS ABSOLUTE VALUE PERCENTAGE YES 6 10.7 NO 50 89.3 TOTAL 56 100 Source: Own elaboration, 2012 GRAPH #6 KNOWLEDGE OF THAT UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER HAS A PROGRAM OF TECHNICAL COURSES TO LEARN ENGLISH FOR SENIOR CITIZENS Source: Table #6 89.3% of the seniors that filled out the form do not know about the program of technical courses to learn English for the elderly, and 10.7% of them know about those courses. 66
  67. 67. TABLE #7 INTEREST ON ENROLL A COURSE INTEREST ON ENROLL ABSOLUTE VALUE PERCENTAGE YES 25 44.6 NO 31 55.4 TOTAL 56 100 A COURSE Source: Own elaboration, 2012 GRAPH #7 INTEREST ON ENROLL A COURSE Source: Table #7 55.4% of the seniors that filled out the form are not interested to take technical courses to learn English for the elderly, and 44.6% of them show interest for those courses. 67
  68. 68. TABLE #8 AVAILABLE AMOUNTS TO INVEST IN THE COURSES AVAILABLE AMOUNT TO INVEST IN THE COURSES ABSOLUTE VALUE PERCENTAGE 15000 – 25000 16 64 25000- 35000 6 24 MORE THAN 35000 3 12 TOTAL 25 100 (COLONES) Source: Own elaboration, 2012 GRAPH #8 AVAILABLE AMOUNTS TO INVEST IN THE COURSES Source: Table #8 Of the 25 seniors that filled out the form that are interested to take technical courses to learn English for the elderly,64% would be willing to pay 15 thousand to 25 thousand colon, 24% of them 25 thousand to 35 thousand colon and 12% more than 35 thousand colon. 68
  69. 69. TABLE #9 SCHEDULE OF THE COURSE SCHEDULE OF THE COURSE ABSOLUTE VALUE PERCENTAGE MORNING 19 76 AFTERNOON 5 20 NIGHT 1 4 TOTAL 25 100 Source: Own elaboration, 2012 GRAPH #9 SCHEDULE OF THE COURSE Source: Table #9 Of the 25 seniors that filled out the form that are interested to take technical courses to learn English for the elderly, 76% would like to receive the course in the morning, 20% in the afternoon, and 4% at night. 69
  70. 70. TABLE #10 TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY THEY USE TYPE TECHNOLOGY USED ABSOLUTE VALUE PERCENTAGE USE DIGITAL CAMERA 50 89.3 USE CABLE 50 89.3 WATCH TV 45 80.4 LISTEN TO THE RADIO 4 71.4 CELLPHONE 16 28.6 USE A COMPUTER 14 25 USE INTERNET 14 25 WATCH VIDEOS 10 17.9 Source: Own elaboration, 2012 GRAPH # 10 TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY THEY USE Source: Table # 10 For this question the 56 seniors could choose more than one 89.3% of them use digital cameras, and cable, 80.4% watch TV,71.4% listen to the radio, 28.6% have cell phone, 25% use a computer and internet and 17.9% like to watch videos. 70

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