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Patrick Geddes in Dublin: Civic engagement and vacant sites
Philip Crowe
UCD School of Architecture: Landscape Architecture
philip.crowe.1@ucdconnect.ie
@filupcro	
  
Part 1: Patrick Geddes
Patrick Geddes in Dublin: Civic engagement and vacant sites
Part 2: Civic Engagement Part 3: Vacant sites
This	
  presenta,on	
  is	
  in	
  3	
  parts,	
  as	
  set	
  out	
  on	
  this	
  slide.	
  
Commentary	
  is	
  provided	
  in	
  these	
  grey	
  boxes.	
  
	
  
Part	
  1:	
  Patrick	
  Geddes	
  (1854-­‐1932)	
  
So	
  who	
  is	
  Patrick	
  Geddes?	
  	
  
He	
  was	
  a	
  polymath	
  who	
  has	
  been	
  described	
  as	
  an	
  
evolu,onary	
  biologist,	
  ecologist,	
  conserva,onist,	
  
town	
  planner,	
  sociologist,	
  economist	
  and	
  botanist.	
  
	
  
‘The indefatigable folder of paper and drawer
of diagrams here conducts an
incomprehensible experiment on himself.’
Hall, 2002, 145
Geddes	
  was	
  living	
  in	
  a	
  period	
  of	
  rapid	
  and	
  unprecedented	
  technological,	
  social	
  and	
  
environmental	
  change.	
  	
  
The	
  discipline	
  of	
  town	
  planning,	
  of	
  which	
  Geddes	
  was	
  a	
  founder,	
  effec,vely	
  emerged	
  as	
  a	
  
reac,on	
  to	
  the	
  ills	
  of	
  the	
  polluted	
  industrial	
  city.	
  
He	
  understood	
  the	
  world	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  social	
  and	
  ecological	
  systems.	
  
Specifically	
  he	
  understood	
  that	
  man	
  was	
  an	
  integral	
  part	
  of	
  nature,	
  albeit	
  an	
  intelligent	
  one.	
  	
  
His	
  most	
  famous	
  ‘thinking	
  machine’	
  or	
  diagram,	
  the	
  Valley	
  Sec,on,	
  is	
  an	
  illustra,on	
  of	
  
interdependent	
  and	
  interconnected	
  social	
  and	
  ecological	
  systems	
  over	
  space	
  and	
  ,me.	
  
	
  
Edinburgh University Library Centre for Research Collections: Patrick Geddes Collection,
Volume I, A1.13, The Valley Section.
‘How many people think twice about a leaf? Yet the leaf is the chief product and phenomenon of
Life: this is a green world, with animals comparatively few and small, and all dependent on the
leaves. By leaves we live. Some people have strange ideas that they live by money. They think
energy is generated by the circulation of coins. Whereas the world is mainly a leaf-colony, growing
on and forming a leafy soil, not a mere mineral mass: and we live not by the jingling of coins, but
by the fullness of our harvests.’
Patrick Geddes
Macdonald, 2004, 62; as reported by Defries, 1927, of Geddes’s final lecture as Professor of Botany in the University of
Dundee, 1919.
This	
  famous	
  quote	
  illustrates	
  the	
  clarity	
  of	
  his	
  understanding	
  of	
  social	
  and	
  ecological	
  
systems.	
  	
  
Geddes	
  was	
  thinking	
  about	
  natural	
  resource	
  deple,on	
  and	
  limits	
  of	
  non-­‐renewable	
  resources	
  in	
  the	
  
late	
  1800s.	
  
	
  
National Library of Scotland
Archives, Miscellaneous Geddes
Papers, Excerpt from a thinking
machine sketch (undated), MS
10656.
‘The paleotechnic order should, then, be faced and shown at its very worst, as dissipating
resources and energies, as depressing life, under the rule of machine and mammon, and as
working out accordingly its specific results, in unemployment and misemployment, in disease and
folly, in vice and apathy, in indolence and crime.’
Geddes, 1915, 86.
 
The neotechnic order moves ‘towards a finer skill, a more subtle and more economic mastery of
natural energies..’
Geddes, 1915, 93.
Geddes	
  applied	
  this	
  understanding	
  of	
  social-­‐ecological	
  systems	
  to	
  the	
  industrial	
  ci,es	
  he	
  
saw	
  around	
  him	
  at	
  that	
  ,me.	
  	
  
And	
  he	
  provides	
  us	
  with	
  a	
  vision	
  of	
  the	
  future	
  city	
  –	
  a	
  new	
  era	
  of	
  advanced	
  technologies	
  
and	
  ways	
  of	
  doing	
  things	
  that	
  are	
  efficient,	
  low	
  impact,	
  and	
  within	
  the	
  renewable	
  and	
  
assimila,ve	
  capaci,es	
  of	
  the	
  planet.	
  	
  
Geddesian	
  thinking	
  in	
  the	
  early	
  1900s	
  reflects	
  the	
  contemporary	
  prevalent	
  discourse	
  in	
  
urban	
  planning	
  and	
  policy	
  -­‐	
  the	
  shiny	
  new	
  concept	
  of	
  ‘urban	
  resilience’.	
  	
  
This	
  concept	
  requires	
  us	
  to	
  interpret	
  ci,es	
  as	
  social-­‐ecological	
  systems.	
  This	
  is	
  a	
  
mechanism	
  for	
  thinking	
  differently	
  about	
  the	
  city.	
  
Every	
  conference	
  on	
  the	
  city	
  is	
  now	
  on	
  the	
  ‘resilient	
  city’.	
  But	
  no	
  one	
  is	
  very	
  sure	
  what	
  this	
  
actually	
  means	
  on	
  the	
  ground	
  or	
  in	
  prac,ce	
  to	
  urban	
  planning	
  and	
  policy.	
  	
  
Perhaps	
  Geddesian	
  thinking	
  can	
  help	
  us	
  understand	
  this	
  concept	
  of	
  urban	
  resilience…	
  
Part 1: Patrick Geddes
Patrick Geddes in Dublin: Civic engagement and vacant sites
Part 2: Civic Engagement Part 3: Vacant sites
‘Whether one goes back to the greatest or to the simplest towns, there is little to be learnt of civics
by asking their inhabitants.’
Geddes, 1915, 18
 
‘the “civil service” is familiar to all, but civic service a seldom-heard phrase, a still rarer ambition.’
Geddes, 1915, 19
One	
  of	
  Geddes’s	
  main	
  pre-­‐occupa,ons	
  was	
  that	
  people	
  were	
  ‘half-­‐blind’	
  to	
  the	
  city	
  and	
  its	
  
history.	
  They	
  were	
  not	
  aware	
  or	
  engaged.	
  
To	
  address	
  this	
  he	
  proposed	
  using	
  civic	
  engagement	
  to	
  help	
  people	
  understand	
  the	
  forces	
  
that	
  had	
  shaped	
  their	
  regional	
  environment.	
  
The Outlook Tower, Edinburgh
Geddes, 1915, Cities in Evolution
Survey categories in Cities in Evolution.
Geddes, 1915, 345
Geddes	
  had	
  2	
  main	
  mechanisms:	
  
The	
  civic	
  museum:	
  this	
  developed	
  first	
  in	
  the	
  Outlook	
  Tower	
  in	
  Edinburgh	
  and	
  then	
  
evolved	
  into	
  a	
  roadshow	
  version	
  called	
  the	
  Ci,es	
  and	
  Town	
  Planning	
  Exhibi,on	
  (CTPE).	
  
The	
  civic	
  survey:	
  a	
  mul,-­‐disciplinary,	
  dynamic,	
  inclusive	
  process	
  of	
  understanding	
  the	
  city	
  
and	
  its	
  drivers	
  of	
  change	
  over	
  ,me	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  interpret	
  the	
  present	
  and	
  to	
  inform	
  future	
  
planning.	
  	
  
Cornell University Library, John Nolen Papers, Pamphlet for
the Civic Exhibition
Both	
  elements	
  came	
  together	
  in	
  an	
  
event	
  in	
  Dublin	
  in	
  1914	
  –	
  the	
  Civic	
  
Exhibi,on.	
  
This	
  was	
  organised	
  by	
  the	
  Civics	
  
Ins,tute	
  of	
  Ireland	
  that	
  Geddes	
  had	
  
helped	
  set	
  up	
  a_er	
  a	
  previous	
  visit	
  of	
  
the	
  CTPE	
  in	
  1911.	
  	
  	
  	
  
	
  
Image of Dublin circa 1914, included in the Report of the Dept. Committee appointed ‘to Inquiry into the Housing Conditions of
the Working Class in the City of Dublin, Cd.7317, Dublin, 1914.
In	
  1914	
  Dublin	
  was	
  in	
  a	
  state	
  of	
  social,	
  economic,	
  poli,cal	
  turmoil.	
  The	
  city	
  had	
  a	
  severe	
  
housing	
  crisis.	
  
	
  
Lilian Davidson, Poster for the Civic
Exhibition 1914
Letterhead for the Civics Institute of Ireland dated 28th July 1914.
University of Strathclyde Archives T-GED 6/11/6
The	
  ambi,on	
  of	
  the	
  Civic	
  Exhibi,on	
  was	
  to	
  include	
  the	
  
en,re	
  community	
  in	
  the	
  be`erment	
  of	
  their	
  city.	
  	
  
The	
  mechanism	
  of	
  an	
  exhibi,on	
  was	
  to	
  raise	
  awareness	
  
while	
  simultaneously	
  entertaining	
  and	
  building	
  
community	
  capital.	
  
The	
  symbol	
  of	
  the	
  exhibi,on	
  was	
  the	
  Phoenix	
  –	
  so	
  it	
  was	
  
about	
  transforma,on	
  	
  /	
  rising	
  from	
  the	
  ashes.	
  
The	
  Phoenix	
  was	
  used	
  in	
  the	
  official	
  poster	
  and	
  the	
  logo	
  
of	
  the	
  Civics	
  Ins,tute	
  of	
  Ireland	
  –	
  with	
  the	
  mo`o	
  
‘resurgam’	
  (rise	
  again).	
  
The	
  civic	
  exhibi,on	
  took	
  place	
  from	
  
July	
  15	
  to	
  August	
  31,	
  1914,	
  in	
  the	
  
Linen	
  Hall	
  (on	
  the	
  corner	
  of	
  North	
  
King	
  Street	
  and	
  Cons,tu,on	
  Hill	
  -­‐	
  
now	
  demolished),	
  Henrie`a	
  Street,	
  
the	
  Kings	
  Inns,	
  and	
  the	
  Temple	
  
Gardens.	
  
The	
  exhibi,on	
  was	
  opened	
  by	
  a	
  
procession	
  of	
  dignitaries	
  through	
  
the	
  city	
  centre	
  with	
  much	
  
pageantry	
  and	
  reportedly	
  received	
  
9000	
  visitors	
  on	
  the	
  opening	
  day.	
  	
  
Special	
  trains	
  brought	
  people	
  from	
  
outside	
  the	
  capital	
  and	
  department	
  
stores	
  ran	
  ‘Exhibi,on	
  Sales’	
  for	
  the	
  
dura,on.	
  
	
  
 	
  
	
  
Irish	
  Times,	
  June	
  20,	
  1914,	
  9,	
  ‘	
  Civic	
  Exhibi,on:	
  The	
  Arrangements;	
  Lady	
  Aberdeen;	
  A	
  Survey	
  of	
  the	
  Exhibi,on.’	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Final	
  a`endance	
  figures	
  are	
  
not	
  clear	
  as	
  the	
  
announcement	
  of	
  WW1	
  
disrupted	
  the	
  proceedings.	
  
There	
  was	
  an	
  expecta,on	
  of	
  
250,000	
  visitors	
  over	
  the	
  6	
  
weeks.	
  
	
  
TheSurveyofCities,PatrickGeddes,1915
Geddes Town Planning Exhibition 1914
- Included School of Civics, July 27 - August 15
Plan of the Ghent Exhibition, 1913, Two Steps in
Civics: “Cities and Town Planning Exhibition” and the
“International Congress of Cities,”: Ghent
International Exhibition, 1913. The Town Planning
Review, Vol.4, No.2 (Jul., 1913), p84
National Library of Scotland Archives,
Miscellaneous Geddes Papers, Photograph
of the Cities and Town Planning Exhibition
1913, MS 21205.3.
The	
  centerpiece	
  was	
  the	
  expanded	
  Ci,es	
  and	
  Town	
  Planning	
  Exhibi,on	
  (CTPE).	
  
This	
  was	
  an	
  eclec,c	
  exhibi,on	
  that	
  documented	
  the	
  origins	
  and	
  evolu,on	
  of	
  urban	
  civiliza,ons	
  
through	
  drawings,	
  illustra,ons	
  and	
  models.	
  	
  
The	
  CTPE	
  had	
  been	
  in	
  Dublin	
  previously	
  in	
  1911	
  at	
  the	
  RDS.	
  	
  
Cornell University Library, John Nolen Papers, Pamphlet for
the Civic Exhibition
The	
  Civic	
  Exhibi,on	
  was	
  in	
  effect	
  a	
  vast	
  
pop-­‐up	
  exhibi,on	
  and	
  community	
  
space	
  in	
  a	
  re-­‐used	
  public	
  building	
  in	
  
the	
  north	
  inner	
  city	
  of	
  Dublin.	
  
There	
  was	
  a	
  wide	
  range	
  of	
  exhibits	
  in	
  
addi,on	
  to	
  the	
  CTPE,	
  for	
  example	
  on	
  
agricultural	
  co-­‐opera,ves	
  in	
  Ireland,	
  
the	
  work	
  of	
  public	
  agencies,	
  and	
  on	
  
towns	
  and	
  ci,es	
  throughout	
  Ireland,	
  
the	
  Bri,sh	
  Isles,	
  Europe	
  and	
  the	
  USA.	
  
It	
  was	
  a	
  civic	
  fes,val	
  with	
  fireworks,	
  a	
  
ballroom,	
  playground,	
  outdoor	
  
exhibits,	
  rooms	
  for	
  refreshments,	
  
concerts,	
  and	
  lectures.	
  There	
  were	
  
compe,,ons	
  in	
  musical	
  performance,	
  
dancing,	
  gymnas,cs	
  and	
  bu`er-­‐
making.	
  	
  
	
  
CivicExhibitionIreland1914
Cornell University Library, John Nolen Papers. Cornell University Library, John Nolen Papers, Pamphlet for
the Civic Exhibition
The	
  very	
  act	
  of	
  holding	
  it	
  in	
  the	
  Linen	
  Hall	
  directly	
  engaged	
  people	
  with	
  the	
  pressing	
  problem	
  at	
  
hand	
  as	
  the	
  Linen	
  Hall	
  was	
  right	
  in	
  the	
  core	
  area	
  of	
  housing	
  depriva,on.	
  
The	
  renova,on	
  of	
  the	
  Linen	
  Hall	
  reflected	
  the	
  idea	
  of	
  rising	
  from	
  the	
  ashes	
  -­‐	
  the	
  Phoenix.	
  
In	
  1914	
  the	
  Linen	
  Hall	
  was	
  derelict	
  –	
  trade	
  had	
  long	
  since	
  moved	
  to	
  Belfast	
  and	
  the	
  building	
  had	
  
been	
  converted	
  into	
  barracks	
  that	
  were	
  now	
  abandoned.	
  	
  
It	
  was	
  subsequently	
  burnt	
  down	
  in	
  1916.	
  
DUBLIN CIVIC EXIBITION: PROGRESS OF THE SHEME VIEW OF THE BUILDINGS
The Irish Times (1874-1920); May 13, 1914;
ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Irish Times (1859-2012) and The Weekly Irish Times (1876-1958)
pg. 5
	
  
Irish	
  Times,	
  May	
  13,	
  1914,	
  5,	
  ‘Dublin	
  Civic	
  Exhibi,on:	
  Progress	
  of	
  the	
  scheme;	
  View	
  of	
  the	
  buildings.’	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
The	
  transforma,on	
  of	
  the	
  Linen	
  Hall	
  was	
  
reported	
  in	
  the	
  Irish	
  Times.	
  
This	
  was	
  seen	
  as	
  a	
  microcosm	
  of	
  what	
  
could	
  be	
  achieved	
  in	
  the	
  city	
  as	
  a	
  whole	
  –	
  
a	
  transforma,on	
  of	
  Dublin	
  to	
  a	
  be`er	
  
situa,on.	
  
And	
  there	
  was	
  to	
  be	
  a	
  posi,ve	
  impact	
  on	
  
the	
  surrounding	
  area.	
  	
  
Part 1: Patrick Geddes
Patrick Geddes in Dublin: Civic engagement and vacant sites
Part 2: Civic Engagement Part 3: Vacant sites
‘The preparation of such more detailed surveys is in progress… and is well advanced, for instance,
in Edinburgh and Dublin: and though these surveys are as yet voluntary and unofficial, there are
indications that they may before long be found worthy of municipal adoption.’
Geddes, 1915, 357.
Geddes’s	
  other	
  mechanism	
  for	
  civic	
  engagement	
  -­‐	
  the	
  Civic	
  Survey	
  –	
  was	
  also	
  evident	
  in	
  
the	
  Civic	
  Exhibi,on	
  through	
  the	
  display	
  of	
  the	
  progress	
  of	
  civic	
  surveys	
  of	
  Edinburgh	
  and	
  
Dublin	
  in	
  the	
  CTPE.	
  
	
  	
  
The	
  civic	
  surveys	
  were	
  to	
  be	
  realised	
  through	
  an	
  inclusive	
  and	
  dynamic	
  process	
  that	
  
examined	
  all	
  aspects	
  of	
  the	
  city	
  before	
  a`emp,ng	
  to	
  plan,	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  avoid	
  ‘designs	
  which	
  
the	
  coming	
  genera,on	
  may	
  deplore’	
  (Geddes,	
  1915,	
  Ci,es	
  in	
  Evolu,on).	
  
	
  
But	
  we	
  don’t	
  know	
  what	
  was	
  shown	
  of	
  the	
  Dublin	
  survey	
  at	
  the	
  CTPE.	
  	
  
University	
  of	
  Edinburgh,	
  Centre	
  for	
  Research	
  Collec,ons:	
  Patrick	
  Geddes	
  Collec,on,	
  Volume	
  I,	
  A1.98.A.	
  Ci,es	
  Exhibi,on	
  140	
  	
  
	
  	
  
Archives	
  contain	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  maps	
  that	
  may	
  have	
  been	
  exhibited.	
  
	
  
University of Strathclyde Archives, ‘2 slides relating to the open space survey Dublin ‘, T-GED 22/1/358.
And	
  these	
  slides	
  of	
  a	
  survey	
  of	
  open	
  space.	
  Geddes’s	
  concern	
  was	
  that	
  Dublin	
  didn’t	
  have	
  
enough	
  small	
  parks	
  that	
  were	
  local	
  to	
  where	
  people	
  lived.	
  He	
  felt	
  that	
  the	
  Phoenix	
  Park	
  
skewed	
  all	
  sta,s,cs.	
  
	
  
Map of the City of Dublin showing derelict sites, Report of the Dept. Committee appointed ‘to Inquiry into the
Housing Conditions of the Working Class in the City of Dublin, Cd.7317, Dublin, 1914, between 324 and 325.
	
  
The	
  report	
  for	
  the	
  inquiry	
  into	
  The	
  Housing	
  Condi,ons	
  of	
  the	
  Working	
  Classes	
  in	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  
Dublin,	
  at	
  which	
  Geddes	
  gave	
  evidence	
  in	
  1913,	
  includes	
  a	
  ‘Central	
  Area	
  Showing	
  Derelict	
  Sites	
  
and	
  Tenements’	
  plan	
  that	
  locates	
  a	
  total	
  of	
  1,359	
  derelict	
  sites	
  and	
  buildings	
  across	
  the	
  city.	
  	
  
	
  
This	
  was	
  used	
  a	
  tool	
  for	
  strategic	
  management	
  of	
  a	
  severe	
  housing	
  crisis.	
  
Map of the City of Dublin showing derelict sites, Report of the Dept. Committee appointed ‘to Inquiry into the
Housing Conditions of the Working Class in the City of Dublin, Cd.7317, Dublin, 1914, between 324 and 325.
	
  
The	
  plan	
  iden,fies	
  ‘Derelict	
  Sites’,	
  ‘Land	
  available	
  for	
  building’,	
  ‘Insanitary	
  areas’,	
  ‘Areas	
  for	
  
which	
  schemes	
  are	
  in	
  prepara,on’	
  and	
  ‘Dangerous	
  Buildings’.	
  
	
  
What	
  we	
  don’t	
  know	
  about	
  the	
  Dublin	
  plan	
  is	
  to	
  what	
  extent	
  the	
  gathering	
  of	
  informa,on	
  was	
  
dynamic	
  and	
  inclusive	
  and	
  involved	
  a	
  wide	
  community	
  of	
  contributors.	
  
University of Edinburgh, Centre for Research Collections: Patrick Geddes Collection, Volume II, Map shewing the open spaces in the Old Town
of Edinburgh, A2.	
  
Survey Progress displayed at Civic Exhibition 1914
The	
  Dublin	
  plan	
  of	
  1914	
  clearly	
  shows	
  the	
  influence	
  of	
  Geddesian	
  thinking	
  as	
  we	
  know	
  of	
  2	
  
earlier	
  drawings	
  of	
  Edinburgh	
  along	
  the	
  same	
  lines	
  that	
  were	
  included	
  in	
  the	
  CTPE	
  in	
  1911	
  and	
  
presumably	
  1914.	
  Edinburgh	
  was	
  always	
  the	
  exemplar	
  for	
  the	
  civic	
  survey	
  work.	
  
University of Edinburgh, Centre for Research Collections: Patrick Geddes Collection, Volume II, Map of derelict sites 1910 A2.
Survey Progress displayed at Civic Exhibition 1914
The	
  Dublin	
  plan	
  of	
  1914	
  clearly	
  shows	
  the	
  influence	
  of	
  Geddesian	
  thinking	
  as	
  we	
  know	
  of	
  2	
  
earlier	
  drawings	
  of	
  Edinburgh	
  along	
  the	
  same	
  lines	
  that	
  were	
  included	
  in	
  the	
  CTPE	
  in	
  1911	
  and	
  
presumably	
  1914.	
  Edinburgh	
  was	
  always	
  the	
  exemplar	
  for	
  the	
  civic	
  survey	
  work.	
  
King’s Wall Garden, Old Town, Edinburgh.
Edinburgh University Library , Centre for Research Collections: Patrick
Geddes Collection, Volume II, Outline of a Survey of Edinburgh
Gardening as a means to engage citizens in ‘vigorous health and activity, guided by vivid intelligence’
(Geddes 1915, 99).
	
  
Edinburgh	
  was	
  also	
  the	
  exemplar	
  for	
  work	
  with	
  individual	
  vacant	
  sites,	
  which	
  he	
  considered	
  
spaces	
  of	
  opportunity	
  for	
  engaging	
  with	
  ci,zens	
  and	
  reinven,ng	
  the	
  city.	
  	
  
	
  
It	
  is	
  s,ll	
  possible	
  to	
  take	
  a	
  walking	
  tour	
  of	
  these	
  secret	
  community	
  gardens	
  in	
  Edinburgh	
  
today.	
  
Notice for the opening of St Monicas Garden Playground,
Dublin, 1912. University of Strathclyde Archives T-GED
1/10/1
In	
  Dublin,	
  Geddes	
  and	
  his	
  daughter	
  Norah	
  
were	
  involved	
  with	
  the	
  Womens	
  Na,onal	
  
Health	
  Associa,on’s	
  work	
  on	
  vacant	
  sites	
  
from	
  1911.	
  	
  
	
  
Here	
  is	
  an	
  example	
  from	
  1912	
  –	
  the	
  St	
  
Monica’s	
  Playground	
  and	
  Garden	
  at	
  St	
  
Augus,ne	
  Street.	
  
Notice for the opening of St Monicas Garden Playground, Dublin,
1912. University of Strathclyde Archives T-GED 1/10/1
The	
  Women’s	
  Na,onal	
  Health	
  Associa,on	
  were	
  ‘transforming	
  derelict	
  spaces	
  into	
  centres	
  of	
  
brightness	
  and	
  happiness’.	
  
1914 [Cd. 7317] Appendix to the report..
House of Commons Parliamentary Papers Online
We	
  get	
  more	
  insight	
  into	
  his	
  ideas	
  for	
  civic	
  
engagement	
  through	
  vacant	
  sites	
  from	
  his	
  
evidence	
  to	
  the	
  inquiry	
  –	
  where	
  he	
  suggests:	
  
•  Giving	
  communi,es	
  agency	
  to	
  look	
  a_er	
  
their	
  own	
  local	
  environment;	
  
•  Using	
  the	
  vacant	
  sites	
  for	
  urban	
  
agriculture;	
  
•  Reclaiming	
  all	
  vacant	
  land..	
  ‘in	
  the	
  public	
  
interest’	
  and	
  alloca,ng	
  it	
  amongst	
  the	
  
poorer	
  classes	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  create	
  a	
  level	
  of	
  
income.	
  
Red Luas Line, Dublin, 2014. Photograph by UCD MRUP students.
There	
  are	
  many	
  opportuni,es	
  in	
  this	
  re-­‐examina,on	
  of	
  Geddesian	
  ideas	
  about	
  civic	
  engagement	
  
in	
  Dublin	
  to	
  make	
  parallels	
  with	
  today.	
  
	
  
If	
  we	
  speed	
  forward	
  100	
  years	
  from	
  1914,	
  we	
  s,ll	
  have	
  many	
  vacant	
  sites	
  and	
  buildings,	
  a	
  
housing	
  crisis,	
  significant	
  social	
  inequity,	
  and	
  a	
  lack	
  of	
  engagement	
  with	
  planning	
  processes.	
  	
  
Red Luas Line, Dublin, 2014. Photograph by UCD MRUP students.
Red Luas Line, Dublin, 2014. Photograph by UCD MRUP students.
Red Luas Line, Dublin, 2014. Photograph by UCD MRUP students.
Map of vacant sites. Dublin City Council, 2014.
In	
  2014	
  Dublin	
  City	
  Council	
  generated	
  a	
  map	
  of	
  vacant	
  sites,	
  mo,vated	
  by	
  a	
  proposal	
  in	
  2013	
  
to	
  place	
  a	
  levy	
  on	
  vacant	
  sites	
  by	
  the	
  then	
  Lord	
  Mayor	
  of	
  Dublin,	
  Oisin	
  Quinn,	
  based	
  on	
  a	
  
concern	
  that	
  developers	
  are	
  holding	
  on	
  to	
  sites	
  in	
  the	
  expecta,on	
  of	
  higher	
  land	
  values	
  over	
  
,me.	
  
	
  
This	
  directly	
  parallels	
  the	
  map	
  of	
  derelict	
  sites	
  100	
  years	
  previously.	
  
Irish Times, January 2, 2014Extract from evidence of Mr E.A. Aston, Report of the
Dept. Committee appointed ‘to Inquiry into the Housing
Conditions of the Working Class in the City of Dublin, Cd.
7317, Dublin, 1914, 220.
.	
  	
  
There	
  are	
  even	
  parallel	
  ideas	
  discussed	
  in	
  the	
  
evidence	
  for	
  levies:	
  
Granby Park, Dominick Street, Dublin 1. August 2013. Photograph by A2 Architects
And	
  temporary	
  re-­‐use	
  of	
  vacant	
  sites	
  is	
  quite	
  commonplace	
  around	
  Dublin	
  
today	
  –	
  for	
  example	
  at	
  Granby	
  Park	
  in	
  August	
  2013.	
  
Granby Park, Dominick Street, Dublin 1. August 2013.
Photograph by A2 Architects
Geddes	
  explores	
  ideas	
  in	
  rela,on	
  to	
  vacant	
  sites	
  that	
  may	
  be	
  useful	
  in	
  our	
  present	
  situa,on	
  –	
  for	
  
example:	
  
•  Using	
  the	
  map	
  for	
  strategic	
  planning,	
  for	
  example	
  in	
  housing,	
  not	
  just	
  for	
  tax	
  collec,on.	
  
•  Vacant	
  sites	
  represent	
  opportuni,es	
  for	
  reinven,ng	
  the	
  city	
  and	
  addressing	
  numerous	
  
challenges	
  that	
  could	
  be	
  related	
  to	
  food	
  and	
  energy	
  systems,	
  biodiversity,	
  ecosystems	
  services	
  –	
  
they	
  are	
  not	
  just	
  opportuni,es	
  for	
  more	
  buildings.	
  	
  
•  There	
  is	
  a	
  need	
  for	
  the	
  open	
  and	
  par,cipatory	
  process	
  that	
  Geddes	
  imagined,	
  that	
  engaged	
  
ci,zens	
  in	
  gathering	
  data	
  –	
  it	
  should	
  not	
  be	
  just	
  a	
  once	
  off	
  remote	
  exercise	
  by	
  planning	
  officials.	
  
In	
  UCD	
  we	
  are	
  trying	
  out	
  some	
  of	
  these	
  ideas	
  in	
  an	
  open-­‐source	
  web-­‐mapping	
  applica,on	
  
called	
  Reusing	
  Dublin,	
  that	
  iden,fies	
  underused	
  spaces	
  in	
  the	
  city.	
  
	
  
This	
  is	
  an	
  evolving	
  map	
  that	
  records	
  spaces	
  that	
  are	
  not	
  used	
  at	
  all,	
  are	
  only	
  partly	
  in	
  use,	
  or	
  
that	
  could	
  accommodate	
  addi,onal	
  uses	
  such	
  as	
  energy	
  crea,on	
  or	
  growing	
  plants	
  for	
  
biodiversity.	
  	
  
Users	
  can	
  discover	
  and	
  share	
  informa,on	
  (such	
  as	
  photographs,	
  reports)	
  on	
  an	
  iden,fied	
  
space,	
  and	
  connect	
  with	
  others	
  who	
  have	
  ideas	
  about	
  how	
  that	
  space	
  could	
  be	
  used	
  more	
  
efficiently.	
  	
  
Users	
  can	
  also	
  add	
  markers	
  for	
  underused	
  spaces	
  not	
  already	
  recorded	
  and	
  share	
  informa,on	
  
or	
  connect	
  with	
  others	
  about	
  that	
  space.	
  	
  
	
  
Please	
  visit	
  www.reusingdublin.ie	
  
‘The indefatigable folder of paper and drawer
of diagrams here conducts an
incomprehensible experiment on himself.’
Hall, 2002, 145
This	
  presenta,on	
  has	
  hopefully	
  
demonstrated	
  why	
  it	
  might	
  be	
  worth	
  
re-­‐examining	
  the	
  work	
  of	
  Patrick	
  
Geddes.	
  	
  
	
  
Geddesian	
  ideas	
  around	
  civic	
  
engagement	
  and	
  the	
  opportuni,es	
  
presented	
  by	
  vacant	
  sites	
  are	
  s,ll	
  very	
  
relevant	
  today.	
  	
  

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ULSARA AGM Apr15 Crowe on Geddes

  • 1. Patrick Geddes in Dublin: Civic engagement and vacant sites Philip Crowe UCD School of Architecture: Landscape Architecture philip.crowe.1@ucdconnect.ie @filupcro  
  • 2. Part 1: Patrick Geddes Patrick Geddes in Dublin: Civic engagement and vacant sites Part 2: Civic Engagement Part 3: Vacant sites This  presenta,on  is  in  3  parts,  as  set  out  on  this  slide.   Commentary  is  provided  in  these  grey  boxes.    
  • 3. Part  1:  Patrick  Geddes  (1854-­‐1932)   So  who  is  Patrick  Geddes?     He  was  a  polymath  who  has  been  described  as  an   evolu,onary  biologist,  ecologist,  conserva,onist,   town  planner,  sociologist,  economist  and  botanist.     ‘The indefatigable folder of paper and drawer of diagrams here conducts an incomprehensible experiment on himself.’ Hall, 2002, 145
  • 4. Geddes  was  living  in  a  period  of  rapid  and  unprecedented  technological,  social  and   environmental  change.     The  discipline  of  town  planning,  of  which  Geddes  was  a  founder,  effec,vely  emerged  as  a   reac,on  to  the  ills  of  the  polluted  industrial  city.   He  understood  the  world  in  terms  of  social  and  ecological  systems.   Specifically  he  understood  that  man  was  an  integral  part  of  nature,  albeit  an  intelligent  one.     His  most  famous  ‘thinking  machine’  or  diagram,  the  Valley  Sec,on,  is  an  illustra,on  of   interdependent  and  interconnected  social  and  ecological  systems  over  space  and  ,me.     Edinburgh University Library Centre for Research Collections: Patrick Geddes Collection, Volume I, A1.13, The Valley Section.
  • 5. ‘How many people think twice about a leaf? Yet the leaf is the chief product and phenomenon of Life: this is a green world, with animals comparatively few and small, and all dependent on the leaves. By leaves we live. Some people have strange ideas that they live by money. They think energy is generated by the circulation of coins. Whereas the world is mainly a leaf-colony, growing on and forming a leafy soil, not a mere mineral mass: and we live not by the jingling of coins, but by the fullness of our harvests.’ Patrick Geddes Macdonald, 2004, 62; as reported by Defries, 1927, of Geddes’s final lecture as Professor of Botany in the University of Dundee, 1919. This  famous  quote  illustrates  the  clarity  of  his  understanding  of  social  and  ecological   systems.    
  • 6. Geddes  was  thinking  about  natural  resource  deple,on  and  limits  of  non-­‐renewable  resources  in  the   late  1800s.     National Library of Scotland Archives, Miscellaneous Geddes Papers, Excerpt from a thinking machine sketch (undated), MS 10656.
  • 7. ‘The paleotechnic order should, then, be faced and shown at its very worst, as dissipating resources and energies, as depressing life, under the rule of machine and mammon, and as working out accordingly its specific results, in unemployment and misemployment, in disease and folly, in vice and apathy, in indolence and crime.’ Geddes, 1915, 86.   The neotechnic order moves ‘towards a finer skill, a more subtle and more economic mastery of natural energies..’ Geddes, 1915, 93. Geddes  applied  this  understanding  of  social-­‐ecological  systems  to  the  industrial  ci,es  he   saw  around  him  at  that  ,me.     And  he  provides  us  with  a  vision  of  the  future  city  –  a  new  era  of  advanced  technologies   and  ways  of  doing  things  that  are  efficient,  low  impact,  and  within  the  renewable  and   assimila,ve  capaci,es  of  the  planet.    
  • 8. Geddesian  thinking  in  the  early  1900s  reflects  the  contemporary  prevalent  discourse  in   urban  planning  and  policy  -­‐  the  shiny  new  concept  of  ‘urban  resilience’.     This  concept  requires  us  to  interpret  ci,es  as  social-­‐ecological  systems.  This  is  a   mechanism  for  thinking  differently  about  the  city.   Every  conference  on  the  city  is  now  on  the  ‘resilient  city’.  But  no  one  is  very  sure  what  this   actually  means  on  the  ground  or  in  prac,ce  to  urban  planning  and  policy.     Perhaps  Geddesian  thinking  can  help  us  understand  this  concept  of  urban  resilience…  
  • 9. Part 1: Patrick Geddes Patrick Geddes in Dublin: Civic engagement and vacant sites Part 2: Civic Engagement Part 3: Vacant sites
  • 10. ‘Whether one goes back to the greatest or to the simplest towns, there is little to be learnt of civics by asking their inhabitants.’ Geddes, 1915, 18   ‘the “civil service” is familiar to all, but civic service a seldom-heard phrase, a still rarer ambition.’ Geddes, 1915, 19 One  of  Geddes’s  main  pre-­‐occupa,ons  was  that  people  were  ‘half-­‐blind’  to  the  city  and  its   history.  They  were  not  aware  or  engaged.   To  address  this  he  proposed  using  civic  engagement  to  help  people  understand  the  forces   that  had  shaped  their  regional  environment.  
  • 11. The Outlook Tower, Edinburgh Geddes, 1915, Cities in Evolution Survey categories in Cities in Evolution. Geddes, 1915, 345 Geddes  had  2  main  mechanisms:   The  civic  museum:  this  developed  first  in  the  Outlook  Tower  in  Edinburgh  and  then   evolved  into  a  roadshow  version  called  the  Ci,es  and  Town  Planning  Exhibi,on  (CTPE).   The  civic  survey:  a  mul,-­‐disciplinary,  dynamic,  inclusive  process  of  understanding  the  city   and  its  drivers  of  change  over  ,me  in  order  to  interpret  the  present  and  to  inform  future   planning.    
  • 12. Cornell University Library, John Nolen Papers, Pamphlet for the Civic Exhibition Both  elements  came  together  in  an   event  in  Dublin  in  1914  –  the  Civic   Exhibi,on.   This  was  organised  by  the  Civics   Ins,tute  of  Ireland  that  Geddes  had   helped  set  up  a_er  a  previous  visit  of   the  CTPE  in  1911.          
  • 13. Image of Dublin circa 1914, included in the Report of the Dept. Committee appointed ‘to Inquiry into the Housing Conditions of the Working Class in the City of Dublin, Cd.7317, Dublin, 1914. In  1914  Dublin  was  in  a  state  of  social,  economic,  poli,cal  turmoil.  The  city  had  a  severe   housing  crisis.    
  • 14. Lilian Davidson, Poster for the Civic Exhibition 1914 Letterhead for the Civics Institute of Ireland dated 28th July 1914. University of Strathclyde Archives T-GED 6/11/6 The  ambi,on  of  the  Civic  Exhibi,on  was  to  include  the   en,re  community  in  the  be`erment  of  their  city.     The  mechanism  of  an  exhibi,on  was  to  raise  awareness   while  simultaneously  entertaining  and  building   community  capital.   The  symbol  of  the  exhibi,on  was  the  Phoenix  –  so  it  was   about  transforma,on    /  rising  from  the  ashes.   The  Phoenix  was  used  in  the  official  poster  and  the  logo   of  the  Civics  Ins,tute  of  Ireland  –  with  the  mo`o   ‘resurgam’  (rise  again).  
  • 15. The  civic  exhibi,on  took  place  from   July  15  to  August  31,  1914,  in  the   Linen  Hall  (on  the  corner  of  North   King  Street  and  Cons,tu,on  Hill  -­‐   now  demolished),  Henrie`a  Street,   the  Kings  Inns,  and  the  Temple   Gardens.   The  exhibi,on  was  opened  by  a   procession  of  dignitaries  through   the  city  centre  with  much   pageantry  and  reportedly  received   9000  visitors  on  the  opening  day.     Special  trains  brought  people  from   outside  the  capital  and  department   stores  ran  ‘Exhibi,on  Sales’  for  the   dura,on.    
  • 16.       Irish  Times,  June  20,  1914,  9,  ‘  Civic  Exhibi,on:  The  Arrangements;  Lady  Aberdeen;  A  Survey  of  the  Exhibi,on.’         Final  a`endance  figures  are   not  clear  as  the   announcement  of  WW1   disrupted  the  proceedings.   There  was  an  expecta,on  of   250,000  visitors  over  the  6   weeks.    
  • 17. TheSurveyofCities,PatrickGeddes,1915 Geddes Town Planning Exhibition 1914 - Included School of Civics, July 27 - August 15 Plan of the Ghent Exhibition, 1913, Two Steps in Civics: “Cities and Town Planning Exhibition” and the “International Congress of Cities,”: Ghent International Exhibition, 1913. The Town Planning Review, Vol.4, No.2 (Jul., 1913), p84 National Library of Scotland Archives, Miscellaneous Geddes Papers, Photograph of the Cities and Town Planning Exhibition 1913, MS 21205.3. The  centerpiece  was  the  expanded  Ci,es  and  Town  Planning  Exhibi,on  (CTPE).   This  was  an  eclec,c  exhibi,on  that  documented  the  origins  and  evolu,on  of  urban  civiliza,ons   through  drawings,  illustra,ons  and  models.     The  CTPE  had  been  in  Dublin  previously  in  1911  at  the  RDS.    
  • 18. Cornell University Library, John Nolen Papers, Pamphlet for the Civic Exhibition The  Civic  Exhibi,on  was  in  effect  a  vast   pop-­‐up  exhibi,on  and  community   space  in  a  re-­‐used  public  building  in   the  north  inner  city  of  Dublin.   There  was  a  wide  range  of  exhibits  in   addi,on  to  the  CTPE,  for  example  on   agricultural  co-­‐opera,ves  in  Ireland,   the  work  of  public  agencies,  and  on   towns  and  ci,es  throughout  Ireland,   the  Bri,sh  Isles,  Europe  and  the  USA.   It  was  a  civic  fes,val  with  fireworks,  a   ballroom,  playground,  outdoor   exhibits,  rooms  for  refreshments,   concerts,  and  lectures.  There  were   compe,,ons  in  musical  performance,   dancing,  gymnas,cs  and  bu`er-­‐ making.      
  • 19. CivicExhibitionIreland1914 Cornell University Library, John Nolen Papers. Cornell University Library, John Nolen Papers, Pamphlet for the Civic Exhibition The  very  act  of  holding  it  in  the  Linen  Hall  directly  engaged  people  with  the  pressing  problem  at   hand  as  the  Linen  Hall  was  right  in  the  core  area  of  housing  depriva,on.   The  renova,on  of  the  Linen  Hall  reflected  the  idea  of  rising  from  the  ashes  -­‐  the  Phoenix.   In  1914  the  Linen  Hall  was  derelict  –  trade  had  long  since  moved  to  Belfast  and  the  building  had   been  converted  into  barracks  that  were  now  abandoned.     It  was  subsequently  burnt  down  in  1916.  
  • 20. DUBLIN CIVIC EXIBITION: PROGRESS OF THE SHEME VIEW OF THE BUILDINGS The Irish Times (1874-1920); May 13, 1914; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Irish Times (1859-2012) and The Weekly Irish Times (1876-1958) pg. 5   Irish  Times,  May  13,  1914,  5,  ‘Dublin  Civic  Exhibi,on:  Progress  of  the  scheme;  View  of  the  buildings.’         The  transforma,on  of  the  Linen  Hall  was   reported  in  the  Irish  Times.   This  was  seen  as  a  microcosm  of  what   could  be  achieved  in  the  city  as  a  whole  –   a  transforma,on  of  Dublin  to  a  be`er   situa,on.   And  there  was  to  be  a  posi,ve  impact  on   the  surrounding  area.    
  • 21. Part 1: Patrick Geddes Patrick Geddes in Dublin: Civic engagement and vacant sites Part 2: Civic Engagement Part 3: Vacant sites
  • 22. ‘The preparation of such more detailed surveys is in progress… and is well advanced, for instance, in Edinburgh and Dublin: and though these surveys are as yet voluntary and unofficial, there are indications that they may before long be found worthy of municipal adoption.’ Geddes, 1915, 357. Geddes’s  other  mechanism  for  civic  engagement  -­‐  the  Civic  Survey  –  was  also  evident  in   the  Civic  Exhibi,on  through  the  display  of  the  progress  of  civic  surveys  of  Edinburgh  and   Dublin  in  the  CTPE.       The  civic  surveys  were  to  be  realised  through  an  inclusive  and  dynamic  process  that   examined  all  aspects  of  the  city  before  a`emp,ng  to  plan,  in  order  to  avoid  ‘designs  which   the  coming  genera,on  may  deplore’  (Geddes,  1915,  Ci,es  in  Evolu,on).     But  we  don’t  know  what  was  shown  of  the  Dublin  survey  at  the  CTPE.    
  • 23. University  of  Edinburgh,  Centre  for  Research  Collec,ons:  Patrick  Geddes  Collec,on,  Volume  I,  A1.98.A.  Ci,es  Exhibi,on  140         Archives  contain  a  number  of  maps  that  may  have  been  exhibited.    
  • 24. University of Strathclyde Archives, ‘2 slides relating to the open space survey Dublin ‘, T-GED 22/1/358. And  these  slides  of  a  survey  of  open  space.  Geddes’s  concern  was  that  Dublin  didn’t  have   enough  small  parks  that  were  local  to  where  people  lived.  He  felt  that  the  Phoenix  Park   skewed  all  sta,s,cs.    
  • 25. Map of the City of Dublin showing derelict sites, Report of the Dept. Committee appointed ‘to Inquiry into the Housing Conditions of the Working Class in the City of Dublin, Cd.7317, Dublin, 1914, between 324 and 325.   The  report  for  the  inquiry  into  The  Housing  Condi,ons  of  the  Working  Classes  in  the  City  of   Dublin,  at  which  Geddes  gave  evidence  in  1913,  includes  a  ‘Central  Area  Showing  Derelict  Sites   and  Tenements’  plan  that  locates  a  total  of  1,359  derelict  sites  and  buildings  across  the  city.       This  was  used  a  tool  for  strategic  management  of  a  severe  housing  crisis.  
  • 26. Map of the City of Dublin showing derelict sites, Report of the Dept. Committee appointed ‘to Inquiry into the Housing Conditions of the Working Class in the City of Dublin, Cd.7317, Dublin, 1914, between 324 and 325.   The  plan  iden,fies  ‘Derelict  Sites’,  ‘Land  available  for  building’,  ‘Insanitary  areas’,  ‘Areas  for   which  schemes  are  in  prepara,on’  and  ‘Dangerous  Buildings’.     What  we  don’t  know  about  the  Dublin  plan  is  to  what  extent  the  gathering  of  informa,on  was   dynamic  and  inclusive  and  involved  a  wide  community  of  contributors.  
  • 27. University of Edinburgh, Centre for Research Collections: Patrick Geddes Collection, Volume II, Map shewing the open spaces in the Old Town of Edinburgh, A2.   Survey Progress displayed at Civic Exhibition 1914 The  Dublin  plan  of  1914  clearly  shows  the  influence  of  Geddesian  thinking  as  we  know  of  2   earlier  drawings  of  Edinburgh  along  the  same  lines  that  were  included  in  the  CTPE  in  1911  and   presumably  1914.  Edinburgh  was  always  the  exemplar  for  the  civic  survey  work.  
  • 28. University of Edinburgh, Centre for Research Collections: Patrick Geddes Collection, Volume II, Map of derelict sites 1910 A2. Survey Progress displayed at Civic Exhibition 1914 The  Dublin  plan  of  1914  clearly  shows  the  influence  of  Geddesian  thinking  as  we  know  of  2   earlier  drawings  of  Edinburgh  along  the  same  lines  that  were  included  in  the  CTPE  in  1911  and   presumably  1914.  Edinburgh  was  always  the  exemplar  for  the  civic  survey  work.  
  • 29. King’s Wall Garden, Old Town, Edinburgh. Edinburgh University Library , Centre for Research Collections: Patrick Geddes Collection, Volume II, Outline of a Survey of Edinburgh Gardening as a means to engage citizens in ‘vigorous health and activity, guided by vivid intelligence’ (Geddes 1915, 99).   Edinburgh  was  also  the  exemplar  for  work  with  individual  vacant  sites,  which  he  considered   spaces  of  opportunity  for  engaging  with  ci,zens  and  reinven,ng  the  city.       It  is  s,ll  possible  to  take  a  walking  tour  of  these  secret  community  gardens  in  Edinburgh   today.  
  • 30. Notice for the opening of St Monicas Garden Playground, Dublin, 1912. University of Strathclyde Archives T-GED 1/10/1 In  Dublin,  Geddes  and  his  daughter  Norah   were  involved  with  the  Womens  Na,onal   Health  Associa,on’s  work  on  vacant  sites   from  1911.       Here  is  an  example  from  1912  –  the  St   Monica’s  Playground  and  Garden  at  St   Augus,ne  Street.  
  • 31. Notice for the opening of St Monicas Garden Playground, Dublin, 1912. University of Strathclyde Archives T-GED 1/10/1 The  Women’s  Na,onal  Health  Associa,on  were  ‘transforming  derelict  spaces  into  centres  of   brightness  and  happiness’.  
  • 32. 1914 [Cd. 7317] Appendix to the report.. House of Commons Parliamentary Papers Online We  get  more  insight  into  his  ideas  for  civic   engagement  through  vacant  sites  from  his   evidence  to  the  inquiry  –  where  he  suggests:   •  Giving  communi,es  agency  to  look  a_er   their  own  local  environment;   •  Using  the  vacant  sites  for  urban   agriculture;   •  Reclaiming  all  vacant  land..  ‘in  the  public   interest’  and  alloca,ng  it  amongst  the   poorer  classes  in  order  to  create  a  level  of   income.  
  • 33. Red Luas Line, Dublin, 2014. Photograph by UCD MRUP students. There  are  many  opportuni,es  in  this  re-­‐examina,on  of  Geddesian  ideas  about  civic  engagement   in  Dublin  to  make  parallels  with  today.     If  we  speed  forward  100  years  from  1914,  we  s,ll  have  many  vacant  sites  and  buildings,  a   housing  crisis,  significant  social  inequity,  and  a  lack  of  engagement  with  planning  processes.    
  • 34. Red Luas Line, Dublin, 2014. Photograph by UCD MRUP students.
  • 35. Red Luas Line, Dublin, 2014. Photograph by UCD MRUP students.
  • 36. Red Luas Line, Dublin, 2014. Photograph by UCD MRUP students.
  • 37. Map of vacant sites. Dublin City Council, 2014. In  2014  Dublin  City  Council  generated  a  map  of  vacant  sites,  mo,vated  by  a  proposal  in  2013   to  place  a  levy  on  vacant  sites  by  the  then  Lord  Mayor  of  Dublin,  Oisin  Quinn,  based  on  a   concern  that  developers  are  holding  on  to  sites  in  the  expecta,on  of  higher  land  values  over   ,me.     This  directly  parallels  the  map  of  derelict  sites  100  years  previously.  
  • 38. Irish Times, January 2, 2014Extract from evidence of Mr E.A. Aston, Report of the Dept. Committee appointed ‘to Inquiry into the Housing Conditions of the Working Class in the City of Dublin, Cd. 7317, Dublin, 1914, 220. .     There  are  even  parallel  ideas  discussed  in  the   evidence  for  levies:  
  • 39. Granby Park, Dominick Street, Dublin 1. August 2013. Photograph by A2 Architects And  temporary  re-­‐use  of  vacant  sites  is  quite  commonplace  around  Dublin   today  –  for  example  at  Granby  Park  in  August  2013.  
  • 40. Granby Park, Dominick Street, Dublin 1. August 2013. Photograph by A2 Architects Geddes  explores  ideas  in  rela,on  to  vacant  sites  that  may  be  useful  in  our  present  situa,on  –  for   example:   •  Using  the  map  for  strategic  planning,  for  example  in  housing,  not  just  for  tax  collec,on.   •  Vacant  sites  represent  opportuni,es  for  reinven,ng  the  city  and  addressing  numerous   challenges  that  could  be  related  to  food  and  energy  systems,  biodiversity,  ecosystems  services  –   they  are  not  just  opportuni,es  for  more  buildings.     •  There  is  a  need  for  the  open  and  par,cipatory  process  that  Geddes  imagined,  that  engaged   ci,zens  in  gathering  data  –  it  should  not  be  just  a  once  off  remote  exercise  by  planning  officials.  
  • 41. In  UCD  we  are  trying  out  some  of  these  ideas  in  an  open-­‐source  web-­‐mapping  applica,on   called  Reusing  Dublin,  that  iden,fies  underused  spaces  in  the  city.     This  is  an  evolving  map  that  records  spaces  that  are  not  used  at  all,  are  only  partly  in  use,  or   that  could  accommodate  addi,onal  uses  such  as  energy  crea,on  or  growing  plants  for   biodiversity.    
  • 42. Users  can  discover  and  share  informa,on  (such  as  photographs,  reports)  on  an  iden,fied   space,  and  connect  with  others  who  have  ideas  about  how  that  space  could  be  used  more   efficiently.     Users  can  also  add  markers  for  underused  spaces  not  already  recorded  and  share  informa,on   or  connect  with  others  about  that  space.       Please  visit  www.reusingdublin.ie  
  • 43. ‘The indefatigable folder of paper and drawer of diagrams here conducts an incomprehensible experiment on himself.’ Hall, 2002, 145 This  presenta,on  has  hopefully   demonstrated  why  it  might  be  worth   re-­‐examining  the  work  of  Patrick   Geddes.       Geddesian  ideas  around  civic   engagement  and  the  opportuni,es   presented  by  vacant  sites  are  s,ll  very   relevant  today.