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IPTC Photo Metadata Conference - Digital images and digital preservation

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Slides from Ed Pinsent's talk the International Press Telecommunications Council’s (IPTC) Photo Metadata Conference 2016, which took place on May 26 in Zagreb (Croatia), and focused on how to “Keep Metadata Alive and Intact” throughout the life cycle of images.

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IPTC Photo Metadata Conference - Digital images and digital preservation

  1. 1. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Digital images and digital preservation IPTC Photo Metadata Conference, Zagreb, 2016 Ed Pinsent, ULCC
  2. 2. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk About me • Digital Archivist at ULCC since 2004 • Teaches digital preservation on the DPTP • Background as archivist / records manager • Experience in web-archiving, repository management, metadata projects, migration, digitisation, project management, etc. • See more at digital archives blog http://dart.blogs.ulcc.ac.uk/
  3. 3. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Digital preservation • Digital preservation means ensuring sustained, continued access to your content, over along time; not just backing-up • For image collections, this might mean: 1. Preservation of digital image files 2. Preservation (and continued management) of metadata This presentation will define these targets of preservation, and propose some interventions
  4. 4. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Drivers for doing digital preservation • You might want it, e.g. – To respond to threats caused by software changes / format changes – To respond to an entire system failure – To have a definitive preservation copy, in case of exports going wrong • If you’re managing an image collection, then you might want to: – Protect your work – Protect your investment – Recognise that digitisation / image creation takes time and money – Recognise that metadata curation takes time and money • Other possible scenarios: – You have a user community whose needs you must meet – You have a commercial operation which would be strengthened by good preservation of the assets
  5. 5. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Production chain Creators Digital images Archived digital images Access copies Authoritative library- approved Metadata Online DAM
  6. 6. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Metadata creation - embedded Digital images Photographer Image software IPTC Metadata EXIF Metadata Technical Metadata Creators Camera
  7. 7. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Metadata creation – not embedded, descriptive Authoritative library-approved Metadata Online DAM Descriptive metadata Names Titles Dates Keywords Places
  8. 8. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Intervention 1: preservation storage Archived digital images Fixity / checksum
  9. 9. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Long-term storage • Ideally, we’d want preservation-standard storage • This is not the same as “backing-up” a network, or storing content on HD / USB Drives • Preservation-standard storage is: – Dedicated archival storage – Little if any network traffic – Fixity, validation, monitoring and reporting – Multiple independent geo-redundant copies • A place to keep our “master copies” of digital images, probably hi-res images stored in lossless formats, so they have a big footprint
  10. 10. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Fixity • Crucial part of archival storage / long-term preservation • Means of detecting change or corruption • We must generate a checksum for each file • Checksum = “fingerprint” of digital object; also called hash or fixity • If checksum changes, this is an indicator that object has changed • Regular validation of checksums is strongly recommended
  11. 11. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Intervention 2: metadata management Technical Metadata Archived digital images Preservation Database
  12. 12. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Technical metadata • Metadata about the digital image, very often embedded in the file header • Helps us identify the format with high degree of certainty • <identity format="Graphics Interchange Format" mimetype="image/gif”>
  13. 13. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Technical metadata • Helps us identify specific elements of the image encoding that are necessary for rendition • <byteOrder>little endian</byteOrder> • <compressionScheme>LZW</compressionSchem e> • <imageWidth>550</imageWidth> • <imageHeight>428</imageHeight> • <colorSpace>RGB Palette</colorSpace> • <orientation>normal*</orientation> • <bitsPerSample>8</bitsPerSample>
  14. 14. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk EXIF metadata • EXIF metadata: very detailed record of camera (or scanner) information • Embedded (automatically) in the file when the image is created • May have some value / meaning as: – a history of the file’s creation – a history of hardware use – a history of the production chain of the image
  15. 15. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk IPTC metadata • IPTC metadata: rights metadata and descriptive metadata; used for expressing copyright, IPR and ownership of a digital image • Tends to be authored / created by the photographer, agency, image owner • In some image file formats, such as JPEG, TIFF, and PSD, the metadata is standard and supported • Likely to have long-term value: – Protects the owner’s rights – Protects the image from unauthorised copying – Adds meaning and context to the image – Translates into a business / commercial value
  16. 16. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Intervention 2: metadata management Technical metadata + EXIF metadata + IPTC metadata + UID Archived digital images Preservation Database
  17. 17. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Intervention 3: migration Archived digital images Access copies Migration Migration Another file format Another file format Migration
  18. 18. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Migration • Common and well-understood approach to digital preservation • E.g. migrate TIFF to JPEG 2000, if JP2 gives you more confidence as a long-term format for preservation • E.g. migrate TIFF to PNG, to create access copies for dissemination or sale • You would need to support migration tools, and target formats • However, migration also introduces risks of loss, especially metadata
  19. 19. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Risks of loss Digital images IPTC Metadata EXIF Metadata Technical Metadata Migration process Digital images
  20. 20. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Intervention 4: Preserve metadata from the DAMS Online DAM Descriptive metadata Names Titles Dates Keywords Places Export action Any metadata created here goes beyond the original IPTC description, and is separate. Add this to the Preservation Database
  21. 21. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk How this all joins up… Online DAM Archival digital images All metadata about digital images UID PRESERVATION ENVIRONMENT
  22. 22. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk View of your preserved assets and metadata in preservation storage 19807
  23. 23. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Next steps… • How do we do all this? • What is the software / who are the service providers? • Is it expensive? • What are the steps towards doing preservation? • Who is usually responsible for preservation? • How can we as archivists/image library people get the process going? • What do we need to say to IT people to achieve best preservation? • Who else is doing it? • Is it commercially viable to preserve images in commercial image libraries? • How do we adjust our workflow now to encompass the need for preservation later? • How does a DAM system relate to preservation?
  24. 24. @dart_ulcc http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk Free ULCC Resources • AOR Toolkit: info.ulcc.ac.uk/aortoolkit-iptc • Free OAIS Course: info.ulcc.ac.uk/oais-iptc • Cheat Sheet: info.ulcc.ac.uk/metadata-iptc16

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