中国海上风电场勘测设计与施工Investigation ,Design and Construction of China Offshore Wind Farm —暨上海东海大桥100MW海上风电示范项目 Shanghai Donghai Bridge 100MW Offshore Wind Power Works A Pilot Project 上海勘测设计研究院新能源设计研究分院院长 Chief of New Energy Design & Research Branch of Shanghai Investigation, Design & Research Institute 中国国家能源局风电技术标准化委员会委员 Member of Wind Power Technology Standardization Committee of China National Energy Administration 李健英 Li Jian Ying
风电场概况 General Description of the Wind Farm 总装机容量102MW，安装34台华锐风电SL3000离岸型风电机组 Lingang New City 34 WTGs of offshore type and SL3000 series provided by SINOVEL are erected, creating a total installed capacity of 102MW. 上海勘测设计研究院承担该项目全建设过程的规划、勘测设计和招 Shanghai 升压变电站 Substation 标咨询工作 标咨询 作 Municipality M i i li Shanghai Investigation, Design & Research Institute (SIDRI) took on the work covering the entire construction process of the project such as planning, investigation, design and consultation at tendering stage. 中国交通第三航务工程局承担风场基础施工和风机安装 Auxiliary Navigational Opening China Communications Construction Group, the Third Harbor Engineering Co., Ltd. undertook the foundation construction and erection of WTGs . Main Navigational Opening Donghai Bridge
东海大桥海上风电场建设过程 Construction Process 2010.6.8全部并网 2011.3.29竣工验收2005年开始规划设计 2009.9.25开工建设 The project passed the Power grid connection The planning and Construction commenced was entirely completed completion acceptanceDesign started in 2005 g on Sept. 25, 2009 p , on Jun 8, 2010 Jun. 8 on Mar 29, 2011 Mar. 29
上勘院海上风场设计研究经历 SIDRI’s Experience in Design and Research on Offshore Wind Farm 2005年，上海勘测设计研究院启动东海大桥海上风场规划设计工作，迈出了中 国海上风电场设计研究的第一步 In 2005, SIDRI launched the planning and design work of Donghai Bridge Offshore Wind Farm, symbolizing the first step toward the development of offshore wind farm in China. 经历了学习吸收－自主研究－设计实践三个阶段 Experienced three stages, i.e. study and absorption, independent research, design practice. 学习吸收 自主研究 Study and Absorption Independent Research 设计实践 Design Practice
设计经历Ⅰ-广泛学习，充分吸收 Design Experience I – Extensive Study and Sufficient Absorption 向国际知名风电设备商、咨询认证机构学习，了解海上风场的特点和技术关键 Learning from wind power equipment manufacturers and consulting and certification institutions for gaining the characteristics of offshore wind farm and critical technologies. Simens GH Repower Vestas GL GE DNV Riso 国外海上风场技术规程规范的学习：DNV,GL,IEC 国外海上风场技术规程规范的学习：DNV GL IEC Study on foreign technical specifications and codes of offshore wind farm from DNV, GL, IEC.
设计经历Ⅱ- 把握中国海上风场特点的自主研究 Design Experience II – Independent Research on the Basis of Characteristics of Offshore Wind Farms in China 通过国家和省市的海上风电场科技项目计划，开展海上风电场的系统性研究工作，初步形成了海上风电场设计的成套技术方案。 Under the development plans on offshore wind farms at national and provincial and municipal levels, systematic research was performed and a set of technologies has eventually been established for the design of offshore wind farm. 通过承担科技部11.5科技支撑计划“海上风电场开发关键技术研究”和上海科委登山计划项目 “海上风电场风能源资源评估关键技术研 通过承担科技部 科技支撑计划“海上风电场开发关键技术研究”和上海科委登山计划项目 究”，掌握了海上风能资源的特点和评估关键技术 。 After executed “Study on Critical Technologies for Development of Offshore Wind Farm” as part of 11.5 Scientific Technology Supporting Plan of the Ministry of Science and Technology, and “Study on Critical Technologies for Assessment of Wind Energy Resources for Offshore Wind Farm" which is one of mountaineering plans of Shanghai Municipal Committee of Science and Technology, the engineers from SIDRI have mastered the characteristics of offshore wind energy resources and critical technologies for assessment. 通过承担上海科委科技创新项目 “海上风电场风机基础关键技术研究”、 “大容量风机系统集成关键技术研究”项目，掌握了我国特 定环境条件下海上风机基础设计施工关键技术。 Through “Study on Critical Technologies about Foundation of Wind Turbine of Offshore Wind Farm” and “Study on Critical Technologies on Large capacity Wind Turbine System Integration” which are innovative projects of Shanghai Municipal Committee of Large-capacity Science and Technology, our engineers have mastered critical technologies of the design and construction of offshore wind farm foundation under China’s specific environmental conditions.
设计经历Ⅱ- 把握中国海上风场特点的自主研究 Design Experience II – Independent Research to Gain Characteristics of Offshore Wind Farms in China 我们的体会：中国海上风电场的设计建设在充分借鉴国外经验的基础上，必须结合中国具体建设条件开展专门研究 As we learned from practice: sufficiently based on successful experience of foreign countries, the design and construction of China’s offshore wind farms must cooperate with special study on realistic construction condition in China. 多兆级大容量海上风机的对风场设计建设的技术挑战 Technical challenge of multi-megawatt-scaled offshore wind turbines to the design and construction of wind farm 风电场海域综合环境条件的特殊性 Particularity of comprehensive environment of sea area where wind farm to be built. 我国复杂软土地基条件的特殊性 Particularity of complicated soft soil foundation in China 我国沿海复杂通航条件的特殊性 海流流速大 Particularity of complicated navigational conditions in China’s coastal areas High velocity of ocean current Mud Muddy silty clay Muddy clay clay Silty clay Auxiliary Navigational Yellow silt Fine silty sand Opening(1000t) Fine silty sand 深厚软土地基 Fine silty sand Deep soft soil foundation Fine silty sand Donghai Bridge 复杂通航条件 Complicated conditions of navigation
设计经历Ⅲ-东海风电全过程设计实践及大容量样机设计探索 Design Experience III – Design in the Whole Process of Wind Power Development in East China Sea and Design Explorations in Large-capacity Wind Turbine Prototype 东海大桥海上风场全过程咨询设计 Consultation and Design of Donghai Bridge Offshore Wind Farm throughout the Whole Process 规划选址 承担中国4台最大单机容量海上风机试验风场设计研究工作 Planning and Siting Performed the design and study on four wind turbine prototypes with largest unit capacity for pilot offshore wind farms in China 可行性研究 Feasibility Study 上海电气3.6MW海上样机（上海，2011.8.23完成安装） 3.6MW offshore wind turbine prototype provided by Shanghai Electric 项目业主招标 (erected on Aug. 23, 2011 in Shanghai ) Tendering for 华锐5MW海上样机（上海，2011.9.4完成安装） Project Owner 5MW offshore wind turbine prototype provided by Sinovel (erected on p yp p y ( Sept. 4, 2011 in Shanghai ) 建设招标 Tendering for 华锐6MW海上样机（江苏射阳，2011，在建） Project Construction 6MW offshore wind turbine prototype provided by Sinovel (in Sheyang of Jiangsu province and under construction in 2011) 施工图勘测设计 Investigation and 湘电5MW海上样机（福建福清，2011，在建）Design for Construction Drawings 5MW offshore wind turbine prototype provided by XEMC (in Fuqing of Fujian province and under construction in 2011) 建设后评估 Post-evaluation for Construction
海上风机基础设计关键技术－准确把握海上风机基础工程特性的一体化设计技术 Critical Technologies for Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation – Integrated Design Technology Based on the Accurate Engineering Features of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation. g g 海上风机基础同时具有大型动力设备、海洋结构工程、高耸结构等多种工程特性，上述多种工程特性的交叉导致其具有不同于一般单一结构工程 的独特工程特性，设计规范和基础设计必须要在准确把握这种特性的前提下进行。 Offshore wind turbine foundation is characterized by multi-engineering features including large-scaled power plant, ocean engineering structure and high-rise structure etc. The interaction of above features naturally results in unique engineering characteristics which are different from that of a common single-structure works. Thus it is required to determine technical specification and conduct specific design of foundation on a basis of accurately gained characteristics. 上述工程特性要求海上风机基础必须和上部 Supporting Structure for Large- 风机作为一个整体进行联合设计，这是海上 机作 个 体 scaled Power Plant (Wind Turbine) 风机基础设计的技术关键。 It is required by the above engineering characteristics that offshore wind turbine foundation should be designed together with wind turbine as an integral body body, which turns out to be a critical technology in the foundation design. 上勘院——华锐风电联合完成了东海大桥 3WM海上风机及基础整体分析，为我国海 上风机基础的科学合理设计迈出了可贵的第 一步。 SIDRI and SINOVEL jointly completed the integral analysis of 3MW offshore High-rise Structure Ocean Structure Works wind turbine and corresponding foundation for Donghai Bridge Offshore GH-bladed的 风机-塔架-基础整体分析模型 Wind Farm, which is known as the first Integral Analysis Model of GH-bladed Wind step of high value in the scientific and Turbine – Tower Frame -- Foundation rational design of offshore wind turbine foundation in China.
海上风机基础设计关键技术－海上风机基础结构方案选型研究 Critical Technologies for Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation – Study on Selection of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Type 东海大桥海上风场设计过程中，对单桩、多桩导管架和高桩混凝土承台基础进行了广泛深入的计算分析和技术经济比较 In the design course, extensive and in-depth calculation, analysis and comparison in technology and economy were conducted for a few solutions, i.e. single-pile foundation, multi-pile plus jacket foundation and elevated piles plus concrete caps foundation. 在东海风场的软土地基条件下，单桩基础的桩径超过5m，在2006年的时候，国内缺乏如此大直径单桩的沉桩设备（需要S800及以上级别 的液压锤） In the soft soil foundation of the wind farm, single-pile foundation needs the pile diameter bigger than 5m. There was no , g p p gg equipment for pile sinking available for single pile with that large diameter in the year of 2006 in China (hydraulic hammer capable of that work must be up to S800 and above). 受软土地基条件和当时施工技术限制，导管架基础施工调平存在比较大的困难和风险，且东海风场通航条件恶劣，1000t级航道从风场中 间穿越，导管架基础防撞击性能难以满足要求 Owing to the limitation of soft soil and construction technology at that time, relatively large difficulty and high risk existed in the leveling construction of jacket foundation. Furthermore, due to severe navigational condition in the site, including an 1000t- grade navigational channel passing through the middle of the site, the resistance to impact that jacket foundation possesses is hard to meet requirement.
海上风机基础设计关键技术－海上风机基础结构方案选型研究 Critical Technologies for Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation – Study on Selection of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Type 东海风电场高桩混凝土承台方案针对场地特殊地质、通航条件，并充分考虑当时国内施工设备及能力情况的合理选择 Foundation solution of elevated piles plus concrete caps – which is recommendedto address the site’s specific geological condition and navigational environment, and p g g g ,rationally selected in full consideration of local construction machinery and capability. 基础防撞性能高 Strong resistance of foundation to impact 施工工艺成熟，经验丰富，风险可控 Mature construction technique, rich experience and controllable risk 高桩混凝土结构首次应用于海上风机基础所带来的设计技术新问题可以通过专题计算和实 验研究得到解决 Any new problem probably arising from the design technology for the initial application of the foundation can be solved through specific calculation and experiment and study. 2年多的建设和运行实践表明，该基础方案的质量、施工进度和投资控制完全符合设计和运 行要求 It is proved, through more than 2 years of construction and the operation afterwards, that the foundation solution has thoroughly met the demand of design and operation in quality, construction progress and investment control. 基础冲刷和波浪荷载模型试验 Model Test on Current Scour and Wave Load on Foundation 基础的三维有限元分析 风机过渡段连接件 3-D Finite Element Analysis of Coupling Part of Transition Foundation Section of Wind Turbine
海上风机基础设计关键技术－正在开展的深化研究 Critical Technologies for Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation – In-depth Study being Underway 适合中国海域条件的5MW以上大容量风机导管架基础 Jacket Foundation of Large-capacity (Over 50MW) Wind Turbines Available for China Sea Areas 随着海上风机往5WM及以上大容量发展的趋势，导管架基础成为未来海上风机基础的主要发展方向，为此需要研究： 随着海上风机往5WM及以上大容量发展的趋势 导管架基础成为未来海上风机基础的主要发展方向 为此需要研究： Along with the trend to develop large-capacity (50MW and above) offshore wind turbines, jacket foundation has become an orientation to develop in the future, for which in-depth is required: 结合中国近海风电场海洋水文、工程地质、通航条件等外部环境条件，针对5MW以上海上大容量风机的载荷和变形特 点，研究导管架基础的适用性。 点 研究导管架基础的适用性 In consideration of external environment including marine hydrology, engineering geology, navigational conditions in the sea areas suitable for building offshore wind farm in China, certain study is conducted on the availability of the jacket foundation, especially in terms of loading and deformation characteristics of large-capacity offshore wind turbines. turbines 根据软土地基条件下海上基础施工的特点和难点，从桩基施工、导管架安装、灌浆连接等方面研究导管架基础的结构 布置和结构型式。 According to the specific features and difficulties to be confronted when a foundation is built on a soft soil foundation of sea area the study is conducted on structural arrangement and type of jacket foundation in terms construction of pile area, foundation, installation of jacket foundation, connection by grouting etc. 针对5MW以上海上大容量风机运行维护要求以及海洋环境条件，研究导管架基础平台的优化布置方案。 Based on the requirements for operation and maintenance of large-capacity (over 50MW) offshore wind turbines and the th ocean environment, th study f optimization i conducted on arrangement solution of caps f j k t f i t the t d for ti i ti is d t d t l ti f for jacket foundation. d ti
海上风机基础设计关键技术－正在开展的深化研究 Critical Technologies for Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation – In-depth Study being Underway 单桩基础 Single Pile Foundation 海上风机往5WM及以上大容量发展的趋势，给传统单桩基础的适用性带来了挑战。但是由于单桩具有结构简单、施工周期短等优点，很多国内投资商依然保持了浓厚的“单桩情结”，也有不少施工承包商和设备制造商为此做了高额的先期投资。为此，对单桩基础开展以增加其对大容量风机适用性为核心的进一步研究： The trend to develop large-capacity (50MW and above) offshore wind turbines has brought about challenge to the availability ofconventional single-pile foundation. However, a number of local investors still have kept unforgettable emotions to that single pile becauseof its advantages such as simple structure, shorter construction period etc. Even many construction contractors and equipmentmanufacturers have invested dearly in advance. They have given rise to a further study on single-pile foundation, which is focused onenhancing its availability for large-capacity wind turbines: 采用理论、计算和实验等综合手段，深化对单桩受力变形机理的研究，充分挖掘其潜力； By comprehensive means of theories, calculations, experiments etc., in-depth study is conducted on the deformation mechanism of single pile foundation when under loading to make the maximum use of the potential; 通过基础和上部风机的整体协同设计，进一步优化单桩的变形和刚度的控制标准，以增加单桩对大容量风机的适应性； Through coordinative design of foundation and wind turbine as a integrated body, to further optimize control criteria of single pile’s deformation and stiffness, eventually to enhance the single pile’s availability for large-capacity wind turbines; 扩宽设计思路，研究新型单桩结构； Broaden design ideas and develop a new type of single pile structure. 新型单桩结构 A New Type of Single Pile Structure 单桩承载机理研究 Study on Loading Mechanism of Single Pile
海上风机基础设计关键技术－正在开展的深化研究 Critical Technologies for Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation – In-depth Study being Underway 基础优化设计研究 Optimizing Study on Foundation Design 优化设计的几个途径： Several ways to optimize design: y p g “风机-塔架-基础”整体优化设计 Foundation 25% Submarine Cable 7.8% Integrated design of wind turbine – tower frame – foundation; 基础设计和施工紧密结合优化 Close combination of foundation design and construction; g ; 结合样机试验风场开展专题试验和监测，提出后续风场设计的优化方案 Erection 7.3% Other Costs 21% Putting forth optimized design of wind farm according to special test and supervision for wind turbine prototype in a pilot farm. Tower Frame 7.5% “风机-塔架-基础”整体优化设计： “风机 塔架 基础”整体优化设计 Integrated Design of Wind Turbine - Tower Frame – Foundation: Wind Turbine 31% 基础与上部风机是紧密相关的，目前设计院与设备厂家相对独立的设计容易导致过于严格的边界约束条件，不利于整体优化。应通过双方的紧密协同设计获得“风机-塔 某6MW单机容量海上风场造价比例架-基础 整体最优方案。上勘院和华锐风电正通过 海上风电研发中心 平台开展这架 基础”整体最优方案 上勘院和华锐风电正通过“海上风电研发中心”平台开展这 Cost Composition of an Offshore Wind Farm with方面研究 6MW (unit capacity) WTGs Erected Foundation is closely tied to wind turbine which is above part. Current practice,that design institute and manufacturer carry out their individual work separately, is aptto create excessive restraints for integrated optimization in design. Therefore, it isnecessary t ti htl coordinate th d i to tightly di t the design b t by two parties t complete an optimum ti to l t tiintegrated solution of wind turbine – tower frame – foundation. SIDRI and SINOVELhave been carrying out the study via a platform known as “Research & DevelopmentCenter of Offshore Wind Power”.
海上风机安装 Erection of Offshore Wind Turbines 分体安装方案 海上风电安装船 Divided Installation Solution 最大起重量 800吨 分体安装工序： 起升高度 108米 Process of Divided Installation: 吃水深度 2.7米 拼装基地部件堆存、部分组装、装船； Parts piling and storing and assembled partially on the assembling site before loading on transportation vessels. g p 利用坐底式作业船或海上支腿式平台进行分体吊装。 Divided installation is carried out via bottom-based workboats or an outrigger type of platform. 坐底船 优点 Bottom-based workboats B b d kb Advantage: 对拼装基地和运输船舶的要求相对较低 Relatively low requirement for the assembling site and transportation vessels 缺点 Disadvantages: 海上工序多、高空作业量大，海上安装作业时间较长 Complicated working process, heavy work quantity at height, longer installation period on sea area 为满足船舶坐底或支腿稳定，对海床地质条件要求较高 Relatively high requirement for geological condition of seabed to 支腿平台 stabilize the bottom-based workboats or outriggers.Outrigger Type of Platform
海上风机安装Erection of Offshore Wind Turbines 整体安装方案 Integrated Installation 整体安装工序 Process of Integrated Installation 陆上整体拼装 拼装基地组装和整机拼装 Integrated Combination and assembly of whole machine on Assembly on Land assembling site 专用运输驳整体运输 Integrated transportation by special barges 专用起重船整体吊装 Integrated lift and erection by special crane ship 优点： Advantage： 海上作业工序少，海上安装作业时间较短 Relatively fewer working process, shorter installation period on sea area p 缺点： 海上整体吊装 Disadvantage： Integrated lifting and 对拼装基地和运输船舶的要求相对较高 Erection on Sea Area Relatively high requirement for the assembling site and transportation vessels. 风机整体安装缓冲技术复杂 Complicated buffering installation technology for Integrated lifting and Erection .
海上风机安装 Erection of Offshore Wind Turbines 东海大桥海上风电场风机安装方案－整体吊装方案 Installation Solution of Wind Turbines in Donghai Bridge Offshore Wind Farm -- Integrated Lift and Erection Water Snug anchorage for transportation for large-scaled vessels equipment parts Construction site 沈家湾拼装基地 Shenjiawan Assembling SiteNavigational line for integral 场地尺寸为200m*200m（长*宽），总面积4万平方米wind turbine transportation Shenjiawan Assembling Site The site has a dimension of 200m*200m (L * W) and a total area of 40,000m2. 基地上配备有移动轨道吊车、工装塔筒和1250t履带吊车 基地上配备有移动轨道吊车 装塔筒和 履带吊车 The site is provided with gantry crane, tubular tower and 1250t crawler crane.
海上风机安装 Erection of Offshore Wind Turbines 东海大桥海上风电场风机安装方案－整体吊装方案－陆地预组装Installation Solution of Wind Turbines in Donghai Bridge Offshore Wind Farm -- Integrated Lift and Erection – Pre-assembly on Land Assembly of blades Loading for blades Lifting of blades Wheel hub being mounted in nacelle 叶片起吊 轮毂安装到机舱
海上风机安装 Erection of Offshore Wind Turbines 东海大桥海上风电场风机安装方案－整体吊装方案－风机整体运输Installation Solution of Wind Turbines in Donghai Bridge Offshore Wind Farm -- Integrated Lift and Erection – Integrated Transportation of Wind Turbines Tugboat for bonding and WTGs dragging Tugboat for lifting and dragging Barge for transportation 关键技术 7500t运输驳 Critical Technology 7500t Barge 井字架 Derrick 平衡梁 Balance Beam
海上风机安装 Erection of Offshore Wind Turbines 东海大桥海上风电场风机安装方案－整体吊装方案－风机整体吊装 Installation Solution of Wind Turbines in Donghai Bridge Offshore Wind Farm -- Integrated Lift and Erection – Integrated Lift and Erection 风机和基础对接 Coupling of Wind Turbine and Foundation 开始起吊 风机吊离运输船 Begin to lift Depart from barge关键技术 完成吊装Critical Technology Installation Completed 大型起重船（奋进号，2600t;风范号，2400t) Large-scaled crane ships (Fenjin, 2600t; Fengfan, Fengfan 2400t) 兼有软着落及自动精确定位功能的吊装体系 Lifting system with functions of soft landing and automatically accurate positioning
建成后的上海东海大桥100MW海上风电场Full View of Shanghai Donghai Bridge 100MW Offshore Wind Farm after Built
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