The online tutorial Search and write empowers the students through exercises and demonstration to take a stand on the sources they find. We understand information search as sense-making, and as an action where the source is not the authoritative voice. Students must decide and evaluate whether the information at hand will be useful for their research, and they must demonstrate how (and why) the sources they find are relevant for their assignment; where they use and present these sources in an ethical manner. Search and write empowers the students to an active use of sources where we point to the importance of using these in an ethical manner.
The term ’ ethics ’ comes from greek etos and deals with moral rules on how to live according to some guidelines and how to behave and act in a good way. According to Encyclpaedia Britannica ethics is “ the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad, right and wrong. The term is also applied to any system or theory of moral values or principles.” A reaction against this might be that what is morally good for some people can be morally bad in for someone els. The same goes with what is right might be wrong in another setting. To set the scene the University of Bergen (UoB) has come to terms with some ground rules that staff and students at the university are to follow.
To enable the students to meet theese «moral» demands from the research society the first version of S&S aimed to articulate what we perceived as tacit knowledge to the students. It seemed as “everybody” expected the students, both the undergraduate students, and the postgraduate students, to know the codes behind academic texts. There seemed to be an expectation that if just the students read articles and textbooks, referencing and presentation of sources will be obivious to them. SADLY this was, and still is, NOT the case.
Not all students are studying to become midwifes, middle-east experts or economists
Like Derwin we understand information search as sense-making, and as an action where the source alone is not the authoritative voice, but is dependent on the student who must define the value of the text, and take a stand regarding the text as a source. This also coincides with the use of Stephen Toulmins model on argumentation (Toulmin, 2003, Rienecker 2012, pp.299-319) both in the text the students are reading, and in the text they are to write themselves.
We urge the student to define the value of the text, and take a stand regarding the text as a source.
Uskg so s_kavli_13.
Writing and ethical use of sources in students’ work A presentation of the online tutorial Søk & Skriv (Search and Write), used in students’ work. For the UKSG Break out sessions April 8 and 9, 2013 By Academic Librarian Solveig Kavli email@example.com
Outline• Ethics• Search & Write as a pedagogical construction• Findings from the evaluation used as a tool to improve the product• How Search & Write promotes ethical awareness• The new version Bigger, Better, Stronger?
Information Literacy” An information literate person is someonewho knows when and why they needinformation, how to find the information andhow to evaluate, use and communicate theinformation in an ethical way.” (Chartered Institute ofLibrary and Information Professionals 2004).
‘Ethics’” The discipline concerned with what is morally good andbad, right and wrong. The term is also applied to anysystem or theory of moral values or principles.” (Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 2011)For staff at UoB:“The fundamental values for academic activities at UoBare openness, verifiability, scientific integrity and criticaldiscussion.” (Action plan for the work on academic integrity at theUniversity of Bergen 2009-2012)
‘Morality’Morality (from the Latin moralitas "manner, character,proper behavior") is the differentiation of intentions,decisions, and actions between those that are "good" (orright) and those that are "bad" (or wrong). Thephilosophy of morality is ethics. A moral code is a systemof morality (...) and a moral is any one practice orteaching within a moral code. Morality may also bespecifically synonymous with "goodness" or "rightness.”(Wikipedia, 2013)
‘Moral’“It is your duty as a student to learn the rulesthat apply to how you should refer to sources ofdifferent kinds in written work. This duty is notlimited to learning how to include references; italso includes you following the rules andreferring to sources in a proper and honestmanner.” (The use of sources in written work at the University ofBergen, Handout from UoB)
Search & Write as a pedagogical constructionFrom 2007-20111.Emphasis on Dewey’s Learning by doingcombined with Khulthau’s Seeking Meaning.2.Learning through information searching processcombined with Bean’s view on writing as a process.
Learning objects Information Writing actions Other actions or search process (Dysthe, strategies (Khulthau, 2004) Hertzberg, & Hoel, 2000)1. Task initiation Task initiation (stage 1) Brain storming Mind mapping Reflecting on research ethics The focus of the Topic selection Think texts first product was (Stage 2) on process.2. Obtain an Pre-focus Annotatedoverview exploration bibliography (Stage 3)3. Find and Focus formulation Listing andcombine (Stage 4) structuringkeywords keywords4. Search and Information Draft writing Critical evaluationwrite collection of sources Referencing5. Closure Search closure Conclusion Ethical use of writing sources (Skagen et al., 2008, p.88) Final writing up Presenting one’s work
DID WE REACH OUT?- Numbers from Google Analytics indicated heavy use of the part on referencing and ethics.- A satisfied academic staff regarded the part on critical evaluation on sources as important
Findings from the evaluations1. All students were very satisfied with the part on how to evaluate sources and the part on referencing.2. Students found the differentiation in two levels confusing3. The intention on process from the developers did not reach the students (Hyldegård et al.,2011).4. Divided when it came to the use of student- stories.
”Miss: Templates for structuring assigments ”I think it is great that you have “ (What does an academic included three persons that thesis look like, really?) undergo a writing process, so Search field (so that it will that we can get an insight. I also like that it is possible to be easier to find different comment upon these matters, themes) Remove the though I haven’t done it, it is examples on students!!! great that it is possible to do so.” They are of NO relevance to others! Gives a childish impression. Make something that is directed to a reader(…)”(Student 3)(Forras et.al, 2011, p.16. (my translation)) (Student 4)
” My experience is that students are not conscious regarding what kind of information they need. A lot of the students are aware that they must use scholarly articles, when actually they will do just as fine by using a textbook, public information, or other kinds of documents.. There is some information on this in S&S, but that is far too much and boring, and I doubt that there are many students that actually read all that information. What about jazzing it up by adding some illustrations or photos? Exercises? A lot of this information is present in the part on source evaluation, but the choices you make as a student ( regarding choosing source/type of documentation) happens long before one applies source evaluation.”(Forras et.al, 2011, p.17. (my translation)) (Academic staff, 2)
1. Searching1. While searching students must decide and evaluate whether and how the information at hand will be useful for their research.2. Like Dervin we understand searching as sense- making (Dervin, B.,1999, p.745).3. The source alone is not the authoritative voice, but is dependent on the student who must define the value of the text.
2. Reading• Stephen Toulmins model on argumentation as a tool on how to read and evaluate the sources by questioning the sources at hand.• Is the source useful for your research?
Stephen Toulmins model on argumentation (http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~digger/305/toulmin_model.html)
3. Writing• Templates on how to write• Structuring your thesis• Writing as a process• Writing groups• Disseminating your text
4. Sources and referencing• Academic guidelines• Assurance of quality• Tools on ethics and academic integrity“Evaluate the sources for your thesis carefully. Take a stand on the sources you have chosen and explain why you rely on these particular sources.”
The improvement• From a being a joined project between the libraries of HiB, NHH and UoB, we have joined forces with the academic writing unit from UoB, and Oslo university library joined the group.
Choice of platform and design• Wordpress• Dialogue with the users• S&S is no longer a stand-alone product, but leans on other sources both nationally and internationally.
Some remarks from the students• The students get by well on searching. The information is good, and there are specific examples on information sources.• The students expect that the site gives them support from the start of their studies until they have completed their degrees.• One of the students tells us that she gets more than she expects, and brings up copy right issue as very important. (User evaluation fall 2012)
Ethics again• Use of Toulmin’s model on reading and writing shows the students through exercises the importance of backing your argument relying on scholarly authorities.• Sources must be evaluated• Students must take a stand on the sources they use and present them in an ethical manner.
Better!As a student I just wanted to say that the way Searchand Write now appears is close to perfection. Iespecially enjoyed reading"Structuring a thesis."(…)-Regards from a content student(e-mail from a content user 5 april 2013)
Questions?Contact firstname.lastname@example.orgVisit us at www.sokogskriv.no/enThanks for your attention!
ReferencesDervin, B. (1999) On studying information seeking methodologically: the implications of connecting metatheory to method.Information Processing and Management 35, p.727-750.Forras, P., Kavli, S., Mikki, S., Austrheim, G. og Elvebakk, E. (2011) Søk & Skriv iet brukerperspektiv: Rapport fra spørreundersøkelsen høsten 2010 . Availablefrom: <http://hdl.handle.net/1956/4781>[Accessed 2 april 2013]Hafstad, S., Hunskår, I.,Kavli, S.M.L., Mikki, S., Skagen, T., og Torras, M.C.(2007)Søk og skriv for kursholdere: Bibliotekundervising i høyere utdanning . Available from:<https://bora.uib.no/bitstream/1956/2205/1/SOS_kursholdere.pdf>Hyldegård, J, Lund, H., Moring, C., Pors, N.P., og Schreiber, T. (2011) Studerende, læring og webtutorials : En analyse af 3 norske læringssystemer. København : Det informationsvidenskabelige akademi. Available from:< http://pure.iva.dk/files/31062163/Studerende_l_ring_og_webtutorials.pdf>[Accessed 2 april 2013]Roham Academic computing The Toulmin model. San Diego State University. Available from:<http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~digger/305/toulmin_model.htm>[Accessed 6 april 2013]Skagen, T., Torras, M.C., Kavli, S., Mikki, S., Hafstad, S., and Hunskår. I. (2009). Pedagogical considerations in developing an onlinetutorial in information literacy . Communications in information literacy. 2 (2(2008))(2), p. 84- 98.Søk og Skriv. Available from: <http://www.sokogskriv.no >[Accessed 2 april 2013]Wikipedia Morality[Internet]. Available from: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morality>[Accessed 8 april 2013]