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UKSG 2018 Plenary - Just how open are we? - Schimmer

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Just how open are we?
Ralf Schimmer
Max Planck Digital Library

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UKSG 2018 Plenary - Just how open are we? - Schimmer

  1. 1. Just how open are we? The gap between claim and reality and how it can be closed UKSG Conference 2018 Glasgow, 9 April 2018 Dr Ralf Schimmer Deputy General Manager & Head of Information, Max Planck Digital Library
  2. 2. 1 Setting the stage The transition to OA access is a timely topic of enormous strategic and operational relevance Much progress has already been accomplished ─ through policy decisions such as in the UK ─ through offsetting or otherwise transformative agreements @oa2020ini Contributing to the UKSG Plenary Session: Pushing boundaries and razing walls: news from the front in the open access transition But our efforts are still not enough and need to be intensified
  3. 3. 1. Indicators of the state of openness 2
  4. 4. @oa2020ini 3 Top 20 journals worldwide: 8 gold OA Number of papers published in 2016 Analysis based on Web of Science Of the top 20 journals based on the number of articles published world- wide, 8 are gold OA journals. OA highly relevant everywhere (OA as of 2017) OA journal
  5. 5. @oa2020ini 4 Top 20 journals for Max Planck Society: 7 gold OA Number of papers published in 2016 Analysis based on Web of Science Of the top 20 journals based on the number of articles published for the Max Planck Society, 7 are gold OA journals. OA also highly relevant at institutional level OA journal
  6. 6. @oa2020ini 5 Top 20 publishers worldwide: Total article and OA Gold output in 2016 Number of papers published in 2016 Analysis based on Web of Science Rank Publisher Number of articles 2016 Share of publisher 2016 Cumulative share 2016 Year 2016 OA Gold Share OA Gold 2016 1 Elsevier 391480 17% 17% 13407 3,42% 2 Springer 185696 8% 25% 11971 6,45% 3 Wiley 142928 6% 31% 5271 3,69% 4 Taylor&Francis 83087 4% 34% 1235 1,49% 5 ACS 41929 2% 36% 102 0,24% 6 RSC 41796 2% 38% 843 2,02% 7 IEEE 38164 2% 39% 1059 2,77% 8 NPG 36615 2% 41% 25577 69,85% 9 OUP 34278 1% 42% 2914 8,50% 10 LWW 26909 1% 43% 0 0,00% 11 PLOS 25248 1% 45% 25248 100,00% 12 BMC 25098 1% 46% 24944 99,39% 13 Sage 24423 1% 47% 252 1,03% 14 AIP 20920 1% 48% 1504 7,19% 15 IOP 20834 1% 48% 1139 5,47% 16 APS 18086 1% 49% 419 2,32% 17 MDPI 15683 1% 50% 15683 100,00% 18 CUP 14467 1% 50% 157 1,09% 19 Hindawi 12350 1% 51% 11158 90,35% 20 Frontiers 11115 0% 51% 11115 100,00% Other 1141171 49% 100% 137710 Total 2352277 291708 OA dominated publisher OA publishers among the largest in the world. Non-OA publishers with growing OA shares.
  7. 7. @oa2020ini 6 UK Study 2017: Monitoring the Transition to OA @oa2020ini
  8. 8. @oa2020ini 7 Measuring the availability of open access – example 1 @oa2020ini
  9. 9. @oa2020ini 8 Measuring the availability of open access – example 2
  10. 10. 9 How can we draw a conclusion? “Open Access is the default in the system.” “I can find open information whenever I need it.” “Open Access is coming by itself.” “I thought we already had Open Access.” @oa2020ini Some frequently articulated impressions and opinions: Fear of an APC system Hope in a scholarly controlled publishing system
  11. 11. 2. Just how open are we really? 10
  12. 12. @oa2020ini 11 @oa2020ini A whirlwind of change and innovation in the information industry
  13. 13. @oa2020ini 12 @oa2020ini But inertia in the eye of the storm
  14. 14. @oa2020ini 13 @oa2020ini And what do the find in the eye of the storm? A stagnant paywall system!
  15. 15. @oa2020ini t Biomed Central PLOS SCOAP3 PubMed Central OA mandates University Presses/OJS Community journal initiatives (e.g. LINGOA) Cooperative models arXiv After 15 years of OA movement, the paywall system remains largely unaffected 14 $10bn global revenue Repositories
  16. 16. @oa2020ini t Biomed Central PLOS SCOAP3 PubMed Central OA mandates Repositories University Presses/OJS Community journal initiatives (e.g. LINGOA) Cooperative models arXiv After 15 years of OA movement, the paywall system remains largely unaffected 15 $10bn global revenue
  17. 17. @oa2020ini t After 15 years of OA movement, the paywall system remains largely unaffected 16 5% of revenue $10bn global revenue
  18. 18. @oa2020ini The paywall – a massive obstacle to progress 17 After more than a decade of global effort, paywall access and the subscription system are as prosperous as ever; only 15% of content is immediately OA (not counting hybrid). t $10bn global revenue 5% of revenue
  19. 19. @oa2020ini 18 The paywall system: The antithesis to a world of openness Paywall regime  excessive costs and enormous price increases  restrictive copyright  budgets monopolized by big deals with pricing still based on print legacy  utterly outdated system, prohibiting digital research  roadblock to innovation and new development  breeding piracy Open Access  sustainable economic models, transparency and competition  free usage rights  money free to float where needed, costs based on service levels  open system, responding to the need of the 21st century  fundamental principle to enable the richness of Open Science  enabling true social networks The paywall is the primary roadblock to openness, innovation and sustainability.
  20. 20. @oa2020ini Key characteristics of the paywall system 19 Publication continuum Pre-publishing Publishing Post-publishing closed system hindering use, reuse and interoperability Submission layer & Publication support services $10bn cash flow 19
  21. 21. @oa2020ini 20 Relieving symptoms, but not curing the cause Real innovation will come when energies can be focused on forward-looking solutions in an open environment. Only two examples of many innovative and creative solutions: • Smart and innovative work-arounds to the current access and copyright limitations • There is a myriad of clever solutions popping up out there • They all ease the symptoms and make our life better; but they cannot provide a cure for the disease • Moreover, they expend enormous effort and grow in complexity, patching a broken system
  22. 22. @oa2020ini 21 The evil twins: SciHub and RA21  Expression of end-user frustration  Essentially tied to the paywall system  Symptomatic of a dysfunctional and decaying system  A mirror of negative elements; not the carrier of a positive open access vision  Another example of working around the real solution  Resource Access 21 was already defined in the Declarations of Budapest (2002) and Berlin (2003): it is designated Open Access  OA is the only legitimate resource access in the 21st century and the best possible single sign-on system SciHub and RA21 seem to be diametrically opposed, but they are twins and together the epitome of what is wrong with the current system.
  23. 23. @oa2020ini Key characteristics of an open system 22 Submission layer & Publication support services Publication continuum Pre-publishing Publishing Post-publishing Open system, allowing maximum (re-)use and interoperability
  24. 24. @oa2020ini The opportunities of an open system 23 Emerging service arena: new market entries; introducing new systems & services Growing competition: publishers to provide core services based on a transparent cost structure Exponential growth: Thriving of social academic networks and collaborations; TDM promise finally fulfilled In order to drive innovation and exploit the technological opportunities, the principle of openness has to be adopted as the default in the scholarly communication system. For that, the paywall must come down! Submission layer & Publication support services Publication continuum Pre-publishing Publishing Post-publishing Open system, allowing maximum (re-)use and interoperability
  25. 25. @oa2020ini 24 The consequential shift yet to happen Paywall regime Open Access The money flow has to be re-organized, the journals have to be flipped to a truly open model. $10bn cash flow
  26. 26. 3. OA2020 as the way forward 25
  27. 27. @oa2020ini OA2020 Enabling institutions to take action in the transition https://oa2020.org
  28. 28. @oa2020ini OA2020 A global alliance to meet publishers at eye level 27 Sign the OA2020 Expression of Interest  Transform a majority of today’s scholarly journals from subscription to OA publishing in accordance with community-specific publication preferences.  Pursue this transformation process by converting resources currently spent on journal subscriptions into funds to support sustainable OA business models. currently 107 institutional signatories
  29. 29. @oa2020ini Shifting from read access to publication focus One-dimensional focus on subscriptions (read access) not good enough anymore. Publishing and reading are two sides of the same medal. They are interrelated and need to be combined in our service level agreements with the publishers—for instance, through offsetting or publish & read models. 28
  30. 30. $ € $10bn cash flow 29 The OA transformation and its mission read access transition bridge open access Where we come from Where we want to go Hybrid models, e.g. publish & read, offsetting, pay as you publish subscriptions big deals uncontrolled hybrid cash flow Shifting cash flow more immediate OA; paving the way to new business models (APC and non-APC) corridor of transformative agreements @oa2020ini
  31. 31. 30 The transformation corridor must be widened! More institutions and countries have to get involved! read access transition bridge open access Hybrid models, e.g. publish & read, offsetting, pay as you publish NO SE AT MPDL UK NL DEAL corridor of transformative agreements Where we come from Where we want to go Transformative agreements are complex, complicated and not without risk. We must avoid that those who move forward with pilots get caught in the act. Hence it is essential that others will follow. Don´t watch and act as bystanders. Get involved! @oa2020ini
  32. 32. @oa2020ini Economic leverage and concerted action m a n d a t e f o r o u r m o n e y We don’t need further mandates for researchers w e n e e d a 31 We have the leverage to bring down the $5,000 per article we are putting on the table in the subscription system. By virtue of our own spending decisions we can drive Open Access into the system.
  33. 33. @oa2020ini 32 Thank you! Dr Ralf Schimmer Max Planck Digital Library schimmer@mpdl.mpg.de https://oa2020.org @oa2020ini

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