Value and Outcomes ofScholarly Library Resources            Carol Tenopir        University of Tennessee          ctenopir...
2 Value Studies                                        Scholarly Reading andLib-Value                                     ...
Today:1. Goals of the UK/JISC project2. A bit about methodology3. Key findings                             Center for Info...
U.K. Project Goals…“Articulate more clearly the return oninvestment from academic libraries‟provision of journals [and boo...
Center for Information and Communication Studies
Three Types of Questions:1. Demographic                       Therefore, insights into2. Recollection        both READERS ...
Reading and Scholarship Surveys     (Tenopir & King, 1977-present) Measure purpose, outcome, and value from  scholarly re...
Critical Incident of Last Reading The following questions in this section refer to the SCHOLARLY ARTICLE YOU READ MOST REC...
Critical Incident of Last Reading The following questions in this section refer to the BOOK FROM WHICH YOU READ MOST RECEN...
Critical Incident of Last Reading The following questions in this section refer to the OTHER PUBLICATION YOU READ MOST REC...
There Is No Perfect MeasureDisadvantages:•Response Rate                                Advantages:•Self Reported          ...
1. Scholarly reading isessential to academic work.               Center for Information and Communication Studies
Academics read a lot of material                        # of Readings per Month          Article                          ...
Research & writing is the most likely   principal purpose of reading     74%                       58%                    ...
And academics spend a lot of      time per reading             •49 minutes per article             reading             •1 ...
Time Spent (Exchange Value)               Reading•Article   •49 min/article X 22 read per month X 12 months =      216 hou...
2. The library plays animportant role in academic    work and success.               Center for Information and Communicat...
The library is the source of                                  scholarly articles                       100                ...
Library e-collections are primary          source of article readings                                           Electronic...
The e-collections save the                   readers‟ time                                    Home                        ...
The library book collection        supports younger academics                                                Over 50      ...
Year of publication of library                              90                                              articles      ...
Year of publication of library-      provided articles                > 15 yrs              15 ~ 11 yrs                  1...
Library-provided articles are                considered more important          50          45          40          35    ...
Academics praise the library       for its long-term outcomes                         Electronic access to the            ...
Time Spent (Exchange Value)             Reading Library•Article   •216 hours reading X 67% from library= 144 hours a   yea...
In other words, they spend 23 eight-hour work days reading library materials.               Center for Information and Com...
3. Successful academics read           more.                Center for Information and Communication Studies
Award-Winning Academics Read More            35                                              30            30            2...
Prolific Academics Read More            35                                                     30            30           ...
Library-provided articles support                  prolific academics          80                                         ...
What a „successful‟ academic         looks like:          •Has won an award in the last two years.          •Publishes fou...
Return on investment in a strict sense……is a quantitative measure expressed as a ratio of    the value returned to the ins...
Return on Investment is also…  …values of all types that come to stakeholders and the institution fromthe library’s collec...
Value is demonstrated by time invested in reading, by purpose      of reading, by value to     purpose, by outcomes of    ...
Thank You     For more information:http://libvalue.cci.utk.edu/JISC   Carol Tenopir, ctenopir@utk.edu                     ...
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  • Items that either the library currently achieves or items that could be improved upon.
  • Overall response rate is 16.8%, with 2117 responses.Research & Writing take up the most work time (M=52), followed by teaching (M=23) and administration (M=16).Representatives from every discipline, but sciences is the largest discipline (33.4%)Well represented positions, lecturers, research associates, and professors each make up around 20-23%.A bell-curve of ages. Majority are between 30 and 60 yrs.60% male, 40% female, similar to the UK institution breakdown.19% earned an award in past two years.
  • Articles: 22/month; Book: 7/month; Other: 10/monthAnnual totals:Articles: 264Books: 84Other Publications: 120(Total scholarly reading per year is 468)
  • % of readings for research and writing.
  • “Add that all together and you get a huge investment in time”One definition of value is:(use value) the favorable consequences derived from reading and using the information. Or “purchase or exchange value: what one is willing to pay for information in money and/or time” (Machlup)-What is illustrated in the slideYearly total of 56 eight-hour days or or nearly 3 work-months…Monthly Totals:Article reading (total)=21 hours (14 hours from library resources)Book reading (total)=16 hours (4 hours from library resources)Other reading (total)=9 hours (an hour and a quarter from library resources)
  • <1% responded they read the article “elsewhere”For ALL responses (n=1162): Library was only 1.7%, Office/Lab was 60.2%, Home was 27.9%, and traveling was 10%
  • While library is not the main source of book readings, younger academics are more likely to use it (significant, F=3.471, p=.032).This isn’t surprising since younger academics are on more of a budget, less likely to read for review or given by publisher, and the library often dedicates its resources to students and younger academics.Each age range: Under 30-40%31-40: 29%41-50: 23%51-60: 22%Over 60: 29%
  • Number of article readings obtained from each source (i.e. the number of respondents) by the year of publication.Personal subscriptions: no articles published before 2001. 83% published in 2010-2011.Library subscriptions: 13% (95) before 1996; 45% in first 18 months.Other: 10% (32) before 1996; 47% in first 18 months.75% of articles over 15 years; 75% of articles 11-15 yrs; 71% of articles 6-10 years; 66% of articles 2-5 yrs, 65% of articles less than 2 years are from library.
  • Library-provided articles are more likely to be more important to principal purpose (statistically significant, F=4.911, p=.027)The “average” level of importance is: 3.24 for library (between important to very important), 3.00 for persona source and 3.05 for other source (It is 3.07 when personal and other are combined). It is statically significant but I don’t think it will look very interesting on a slide…)Not shown, but library articles also more likely to be cited (statistically significant-p=-.086)Articles from library: 56% cited, 33% maybe cited, (89% already or may be cited) and 11% not cited Articles not from library: 46% cited, 39% may be cited, (85% already or may be) and 16% not cited
  • Earlier we determined the ‘exchange value’ of scholarly reading, and now we will look at the exchange value of library resources…as you can see academics spend 187 hours each year or about 23 8-hour work days on library provided material.
  • 19% received an award (206 of 1071)
  • Academics who publish more material are more likely to use the library to obtain articles (p=-.104); this is not the case, however, for books and other publication readings. No significant difference for those.Award-winning staff do not use the library significantly differently from non-award winners
  • 1700 tue lomond tenopir

    1. 1. Value and Outcomes ofScholarly Library Resources Carol Tenopir University of Tennessee ctenopir@utk.edu UKSG March 2012 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    2. 2. 2 Value Studies Scholarly Reading andLib-Value Value of Library ResourcesAim: Develop models for Aim: examine the value UKassessing value and ROI academics place on havingfor academic libraries. access to scholarly materials. End Result: An international perspective on the role and value libraries and their resources bring to individuals and institutions. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    3. 3. Today:1. Goals of the UK/JISC project2. A bit about methodology3. Key findings Center for Information and Communication Studies
    4. 4. U.K. Project Goals…“Articulate more clearly the return oninvestment from academic libraries‟provision of journals [and books andother scholarly materials] to supportthe core teaching and researchactivities in UK universities...and to assess the „value added‟ thatacademic libraries bring...” Center for Information and Communication Studies
    5. 5. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    6. 6. Three Types of Questions:1. Demographic Therefore, insights into2. Recollection both READERS and READINGS3. Critical Incident Center for Information and Communication Studies
    7. 7. Reading and Scholarship Surveys (Tenopir & King, 1977-present) Measure purpose, outcome, and value from scholarly reading by focusing on critical incident of last reading Include all reading (from library and not) Exchange (time spent) and use value (outcomes) Open ended questions provide another dimension Method can be used for other services Center for Information and Communication Studies
    8. 8. Critical Incident of Last Reading The following questions in this section refer to the SCHOLARLY ARTICLE YOU READ MOST RECENTLY, even if you had read it previously. Note that this last reading may not be typical, but will help us establish the range of patterns in reading. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    9. 9. Critical Incident of Last Reading The following questions in this section refer to the BOOK FROM WHICH YOU READ MOST RECENTLY, even if you had read it previously. Note that this last reading may not be typical, but will help us establish the range of patterns in reading. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    10. 10. Critical Incident of Last Reading The following questions in this section refer to the OTHER PUBLICATION YOU READ MOST RECENTLY, even if you had read it previously. Note that this last reading may not be typical, but will help us establish the range of patterns in reading. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    11. 11. There Is No Perfect MeasureDisadvantages:•Response Rate Advantages:•Self Reported •Outcomes andMeasures Values •Comparisons •A Mix of Data •Personal View Center for Information and Communication Studies
    12. 12. 1. Scholarly reading isessential to academic work. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    13. 13. Academics read a lot of material # of Readings per Month Article 22 Book 7Other Publication 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 n=2117, 6 UK institutions, June 2011 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    14. 14. Research & writing is the most likely principal purpose of reading 74% 58% 45%Article Readings Book Readings Other Publication Readings n=2117, 6 UK universities, June 2011 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    15. 15. And academics spend a lot of time per reading •49 minutes per article reading •1 hour and 46 minutes per book reading •42 minutes per other publication reading n=2117, 6 UK institutions, Ju ne 2011 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    16. 16. Time Spent (Exchange Value) Reading•Article •49 min/article X 22 read per month X 12 months = 216 hours•Book •106 min/book X 7 per month X 12 months= 148 hours•Other Publication •42 min/publication X 10 per month X 12 months= 84 hours Center for Information and Communication Studies
    17. 17. 2. The library plays animportant role in academic work and success. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    18. 18. The library is the source of scholarly articles 100 90 80 % library-provided 70 67 60 50 40 30 27 20 15 10 0 Article Reading Book Reading Other Publicationn=2117, 6 UK Readinguniversities, June 2011 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    19. 19. Library e-collections are primary source of article readings Electronic 94% Print 6%n=775, 6 UKuniversities, June2011 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    20. 20. The e-collections save the readers‟ time Home 26% Travelling 10% Library 2% Office, Labn=764, 6 UKuniversities, June 2011 62% Center for Information and Communication Studies
    21. 21. The library book collection supports younger academics Over 50 24 % library-provided 31 ~ 50 26 Under 30 40n=2117, 6 UKuniversities, June2011 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    22. 22. Year of publication of library 90 articles 80 70Percent of Article Readings 60 Personal Subscription 50 Library Subscription 40 30 Other 20 10 0 n=1131 6 UK Before 1996 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2009 2010-2011 universities, June 2011 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    23. 23. Year of publication of library- provided articles > 15 yrs 15 ~ 11 yrs 13% 7% < 2 yrs 45% 10 ~ 6 yrs 14% 5 ~ 2 yrs n=1131 6 UK 21% universities, June 2011 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    24. 24. Library-provided articles are considered more important 50 45 40 35 32 33 Library- 31 30 27 28 ProvidedPercent 25 22 20 Other Source 15 14 11 10 5 2 0 0 Absolutely Very Important Somewhat Not At All Essential Important Important Important n=2117, 6 UK universities, June 2011 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    25. 25. Academics praise the library for its long-term outcomes Electronic access to the university library system from off- site is crucial for swift access toThe journal articles to support my teachingcollection at and research activities.my institutionis excellentandscholarshipis all thericher for the Library resources havecontribution been essential to myfor easy work for the past 20access to years.journals andprintpublications. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    26. 26. Time Spent (Exchange Value) Reading Library•Article •216 hours reading X 67% from library= 144 hours a year per academic staff member from the library•Book •148 hours reading X 27% from library= 40 hours a year per academic staff member•Other Publication •84 hours reading X 15% from library= 13 hours a year per academic staff member Center for Information and Communication Studies
    27. 27. In other words, they spend 23 eight-hour work days reading library materials. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    28. 28. 3. Successful academics read more. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    29. 29. Award-Winning Academics Read More 35 30 30 25 23 Article ReadingsPer Month 20 14 Book Readings 15 9 9 Other Publication 10 7 Readings 5 0 n=2117, 6 UK universities, June Did not receive an award Received an award 2011 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    30. 30. Prolific Academics Read More 35 30 30 25 23 20 Article Readings 20Per Month Book Readings 15 12 10 8 9 10 Other Publication 6 7 Readings 5 0 n=2117, 6 UK 0~2 3 ~ 10 11+ universities, June 2011 # of publications in last 2 yrs. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    31. 31. Library-provided articles support prolific academics 80 72 71 70 62 60 50 Library ProvidedPercent 40 34 Personal Source 30 25 22 Other 20 10 4 4 6 0 0~2 3 ~ 10 11+ n=900, 6 UK # of publications in last 2 yrs. universities, June 2011 Center for Information and Communication Studies
    32. 32. What a „successful‟ academic looks like: •Has won an award in the last two years. •Publishes four or more items per year. •Reads more of every type of material. •Spends more time per book and other publication readings. •Uses the library for articles •More often buys books and obtains other publications from the Internet. •Occasionally participates and creates social media content. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    33. 33. Return on investment in a strict sense……is a quantitative measure expressed as a ratio of the value returned to the institution for each monetary unit invested in the library. For every $/€/£ spent on the library, the university received ‘X’ $/€/£ in return. Demonstrate that library collections contribute to income-generating activities Center for Information and Communication Studies
    34. 34. Return on Investment is also… …values of all types that come to stakeholders and the institution fromthe library’s collections, services, and contribution to its communities. Center for Information and Communication Studies
    35. 35. Value is demonstrated by time invested in reading, by purpose of reading, by value to purpose, by outcomes of reading, and by how libraryservices contribute to the income and mission of the institution Center for Information and Communication Studies
    36. 36. Thank You For more information:http://libvalue.cci.utk.edu/JISC Carol Tenopir, ctenopir@utk.edu Center for Information and Communication Studies

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