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‫بسم ال الرحمن الرحيم‬

Principles and methods in oral
epidemiology I
PDS 332
Lecture outline
• Introduction
• Measures of disease frequency
• Rates, proportions, odds, risks, ratios and
differences
• Causality
Introduction
•

What is Epidemiology?
Introduction
• What is Descriptive epidemiology?

• Epidemiology studies the relationship
between ? and ?
Introduction
• What do you know about Analytic
epidemiology?
Measures of Disease Frequency
• Prevalence- ?
• Prevalence =

# of cases
Total population

• Prevalence ranges between zero and one
Measures of Disease Frequency
• Incidence- ?
• It is measured by incidence rate (IR)
• IR = new cases / person time
Rates, Proportions, Odds, Risks,
Ratios and Differences
• Rates
• Proportions
• Odds
• Risks
• Ratios
• Differences
Measures of Disease Frequency in
Dental Research
• Name some of these measures?
• What do you know about them?
• How are they used?
Causality
• The concept of cause is an essential part
of epidemiology.
• Causes of disease can be defined as
events characteristics or circumstances
that plays a significant role in the
occurrence of disease.
Causality
• A sufficient cause
• A necessary cause
• A strong cause
C
B

C
B
A

C

B

D
Causality
• In dentistry:
– ???……..
Causality
• What are the Selected criteria for a causal
relationship:
–?
•?
•?
•?
Validity and bias
• Validity is the degree to which we
measure what we intend to measure
• Internal validity:
• External validity:
Sources of Bias
• (any trend in the collection, analysis,
interpretation, publication or review of data
that can lead to conclusions that are
systematically different from the truth)
• Name some of the biases in research

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Oral Epidemiology I