Major psycho theories

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Major psycho theories

  1. 1. Major Psychological Theories Prepared by Dr.Maan A.Bari Qasem Saleh,PhD Associate Prof. Course : Behavioral Sciences Depart. Of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine – University of Dammam 2012-2013
  2. 2. Outlines • Brief History • Structuralism • Psychoanalysis • Behaviorism • Gestaltism • Humanism -
  3. 3. Brief History Greek civilization • Philosophers and physicians from the Hellenistic schools of philosophy and therapy practiced psychology among the Ancient Greeks and Romans from about the late 4th century BC to the 4th century AD. • The Greek physician Hippocrates (460– 377 BC) : viewed mental illnesses as phenomena that could be studied and treated empirically.
  4. 4. Contribution of the Muslims Scientists • Muslim and Arab thinkers highlight the influence of historical civilizations on psychological thinking. • The evolution of science is not isolated from social development of the time. • Historically, prosperity and scientific developments in philosophy, medicine, and psychology grew exponentially at the height of Arab-Islamic dominance.
  5. 5. Scientists of the Arab Islamic Renaissance • Kindi, Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Ishaq (801-861) was the first philosopher of Arabs and Muslims, who contributed to the subject of psychology, and studied the cognitive processes of dreams, grief, and motivations. • Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Tarakhan (872-866) discussed the potential of psychology, and studied the mind, cognitive processes, and addressed the subject of dreams, and prophecy
  6. 6. • Miskawayh, ibn Ya'qub (942-1030) focused on moral virtues and their relationship to happiness. • Ibn Sina, Abu al-Hasan bin Abdullah bin Ali (978- 1036) represents the pinnacle of psychological studies. • His major contribution stands as the primary reference in Islamic medicine. • He proposed the existence of the psyche and the duality of mind and body
  7. 7. • Al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad (1058-1111) • represented the most successful attempt in the legacy of Muslim scholars to guide psychological studies through Islamic guidance and accurately linked the soul, body, heart, and mind. • He further introduced a theoretical framework to explain human motives and emotions, and discussed the importance of religious sense.
  8. 8. • Abobakr Al-Razi (1149-1210) contributed thoughts on morality, the existence of the psyche, and the relationship between the soul and body . • Hassan Ibn al-Haytham (965-1039) founded the study of perception that included the psychophysics of vision, sensory perception, and visual errors, illusions. • Ibn al Gozi (1186-1257) was interested in studying intelligence and mental impairments . • Ibn Al Gahed (at 9th century) introduced animal psychology through his descriptions of animal life and linked these to human behavior.
  9. 9. Modern Psychology 19-20 Century
  10. 10. The first formal school of thought in psychology, aimed at analyzing the basic elements, or structures, of conscious mental experience School of psychology that sought to determine the structure of the mind through controlled introspection.
  11. 11. Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) is generally thought of as the father of psychology. Established the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879, an event considered to mark the birth of psychology as a formal discipline. Wanted to identify the basic elements that make up conscious experience (pure sensations such as sweetness, coldness, or redness) and form perceptions. They used the process of introspection to look inward at one’s own consciousness.
  12. 12. Edward Titchner Edward Titchner (1867-1927) was Wundt’s student He took the field to the United States, where he set up a psychological laboratory at Cornell University. He gave the name “structuralism” to this school of thought. Thought that consciousness could be reduced to its basic elements; just as water (h2o) can be broken down into its constituent elements---hydrogen (h) and oxygen (o).
  13. 13. II-Psychoanalysis • This approach focuses on changing problematic behaviors, feelings, and thoughts by discovering their unconscious meanings and motivations. 1856-1939 Psychoanalysis is closely identified with Sigmund Freud.
  14. 14. The tasks of psychoanalysis • “One of the tasks of psychoanalysis... is to lift the veil of amnesia which hides the earliest years of childhood and to bring to conscious memory the manifestations of early infantile sexual life which are contained in them.” Sigmund Freud
  15. 15. Structures of the mind – Id (representing biological urges) – Ego( representing reality) – Superego (representing the moral dictates of society) – Unconscious conflicts base on the competing demands of three structures of the mind , which often lead to anxiety.
  16. 16. Psychosexual Development (According to stages of libido( – Oral Stage – Anal Stage – Phallic Stage – Genital Stage
  17. 17. Freudian Defense Mechanism • Repression • Reaction formation • Projection • Sublimation • Rationalization • Conversion
  18. 18. Techniques of Psychoanalysis • Interpretation - Free association - Dream analysis - Analysis of Transference Freud’s patients would line on this couch during psychoanalysis
  19. 19. Eminent of this Approach Sigmund Freud • Alfred Adler Carl Jung • Anna Freud Karen Horney • Otto Rank Erik Erikson • Melanie Klein Heinz Kohut • Erik From Harry Sullivan * They built upon Freud's fundamental ideas and often formed their own differentiating systems of psychotherapy.
  20. 20. III- Behaviorism Behaviorism • Called the learning perspective (where any physical action is a behavior). • Philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things that organisms do— including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors.
  21. 21. The Mechanism of Behavior (Conditioning( • Stimuli (S) Responses (R) • Positive & Negative reinforcement • Punishment
  22. 22. Theories of Behaviorism • 1- Classical Learning (Pavlov &Watson) • 2- Operant Learning ( Skinner & Thorndike) • 3-Social learning (Bandura theory ) • 4-Insight Learning (Field theory of Kurt Lewin )
  23. 23. Major Thinkers in Behaviorism Ivan Pavlov • John B. Watson • Edward Lee Thorndike • Clark L. Hull • B. F. Skinner • Edward C. Tolman • Julian B. Rotter • Albert Bandura
  24. 24. 1V-Gestaltism A school of psychology based upon the idea that we experience things as unified wholes. This approach to psychology began in Germany and Austria during the late 19th century in response to the molecular approach of structuralism. Instead of breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest elements, the gestalt psychologists believed that you must look at the whole of experience. According to the gestalt thinkers, the whole is other than the sum of its parts.
  25. 25. The fundamental "formula" of Gestalt theory "There are wholes, the behaviour of which is not determined by that of their individual elements, but where the part-processes are themselves determined by the intrinsic nature of the whole. It is the hope of Gestalt theory to determine the nature of such wholes" (1924). Max Wertheimer
  26. 26. Major Gestalt Psychologists Max Wertheimer Kurt Koffka Wolfgang Kohler Kurt Lewin
  27. 27. V-Humanistic Approach The approach assumes that every person is unique and that psychology should focus on the subjective feelings and thoughts of the person. This is described as an ideographic approach. The focus is on each individual, not whole populations.
  28. 28. Self and Self Actualisation • Self • Self Concept • Ideal self vs Actual self • Unconditional positive regard
  29. 29. Self - Actualisation • Both Rogers and Maslow (the founders of this approach)believed that every person has an innate tendency to realise their full potential, or self- actualise. • This may be achieved in different ways by different people. • Some may achieve it through religious devotion, others through cooking, and others through writing
  30. 30. • Maslow said there are 3 main preconditions for a person to be able to self actualise: • No restraints imposed by others on what you can do; • Little or no distraction from deficiency needs; • An ability to know yourself very well.
  31. 31. Key characteristics of people who self- actualise (Maslow 1970) • Accurate perceptions of the world; • Acceptance of other people; • Creative; • Good sense of humour; • Detached and needing privacy.
  32. 32. •Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  33. 33. Major Thinkers in Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers Rollo May Erich Fromm
  34. 34. Assignment Strengths and weakness of the following theories: Structuralism Psychoanalysis Behaviorism Gestaltism Humanism
  35. 35. Thank You

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