• Philosophers and physicians from the Hellenistic schools of
philosophy and therapy practiced psychology among the
Ancient Greeks and Romans from about the late 4th
century BC to the 4th century AD.
• The Greek physician Hippocrates (460– 377 BC) : viewed
mental illnesses as phenomena that could be studied and
Contribution of the Muslims Scientists
• Muslim and Arab thinkers highlight the influence of
historical civilizations on psychological thinking.
• The evolution of science is not isolated from social
development of the time.
• Historically, prosperity and scientific developments in
philosophy, medicine, and psychology grew
exponentially at the height of Arab-Islamic dominance.
Scientists of the Arab Islamic Renaissance
• Kindi, Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Ishaq (801-861) was the first
philosopher of Arabs and Muslims, who contributed to
the subject of psychology, and studied the cognitive
processes of dreams, grief, and motivations.
• Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Tarakhan (872-866)
discussed the potential of psychology, and studied the
mind, cognitive processes, and addressed the subject of
dreams, and prophecy
• Miskawayh, ibn Ya'qub (942-1030) focused on
moral virtues and their relationship to happiness.
• Ibn Sina, Abu al-Hasan bin Abdullah bin Ali (978-
1036) represents the pinnacle of psychological
• His major contribution stands as the primary
reference in Islamic medicine.
• He proposed the existence of the psyche and the
duality of mind and body
• Al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn
• represented the most successful attempt in the
legacy of Muslim scholars to guide psychological
studies through Islamic guidance and accurately
linked the soul, body, heart, and mind.
• He further introduced a theoretical framework
to explain human motives and emotions, and
discussed the importance of religious sense.
• Abobakr Al-Razi (1149-1210) contributed thoughts on
morality, the existence of the psyche, and the relationship
between the soul and body .
• Hassan Ibn al-Haytham (965-1039) founded the study
of perception that included the psychophysics of vision,
sensory perception, and visual errors, illusions.
• Ibn al Gozi (1186-1257) was interested in studying
intelligence and mental impairments .
• Ibn Al Gahed (at 9th century) introduced animal
psychology through his descriptions of animal life and
linked these to human behavior.
The first formal school of thought in psychology,
aimed at analyzing the basic elements, or
structures, of conscious mental experience
School of psychology that sought to determine
the structure of the mind through controlled
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) is generally thought of as the
father of psychology.
Established the first psychological laboratory at the
University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879, an event
considered to mark the birth of psychology as a formal
Wanted to identify the basic elements that make up
conscious experience (pure sensations such as sweetness,
coldness, or redness) and form perceptions.
They used the process of introspection to look inward at
one’s own consciousness.
Edward Titchner (1867-1927) was Wundt’s student
He took the field to the United States, where he set up a
psychological laboratory at Cornell University.
He gave the name “structuralism” to this school of thought.
Thought that consciousness could be reduced to its basic
elements; just as water (h2o) can be broken down into its
constituent elements---hydrogen (h) and oxygen (o).
• This approach focuses
feelings, and thoughts
by discovering their
Psychoanalysis is closely identified
with Sigmund Freud.
The tasks of psychoanalysis
• “One of the tasks of psychoanalysis... is to lift
the veil of amnesia which hides the earliest
years of childhood and to bring to conscious
memory the manifestations of early infantile
sexual life which are contained in them.”
Structures of the mind
– Id (representing biological urges)
– Ego( representing reality)
– Superego (representing the moral
dictates of society)
– Unconscious conflicts base on the
competing demands of three
structures of the mind , which often
lead to anxiety.
(According to stages of libido(
– Oral Stage
– Anal Stage
– Phallic Stage
– Genital Stage
Techniques of Psychoanalysis
- Free association
- Dream analysis
- Analysis of Transference
Freud’s patients would line on this
couch during psychoanalysis
Eminent of this Approach
• Alfred Adler Carl Jung
• Anna Freud Karen Horney
• Otto Rank Erik Erikson
• Melanie Klein Heinz Kohut
• Erik From Harry Sullivan
* They built upon Freud's fundamental ideas and often formed their own differentiating systems of
• Called the learning perspective (where any
physical action is a behavior).
• Philosophy of psychology based on the
proposition that all things that organisms do—
including acting, thinking and feeling—can and
should be regarded as behaviors.
The Mechanism of Behavior
• Stimuli (S) Responses (R)
• Positive & Negative reinforcement
Theories of Behaviorism
• 1- Classical Learning (Pavlov &Watson)
• 2- Operant Learning ( Skinner &
• 3-Social learning (Bandura theory )
• 4-Insight Learning (Field theory of Kurt
Major Thinkers in Behaviorism
• John B. Watson
• Edward Lee Thorndike
• Clark L. Hull
• B. F. Skinner
• Edward C. Tolman
• Julian B. Rotter
• Albert Bandura
A school of psychology based upon the idea that we
experience things as unified wholes.
This approach to psychology began in Germany and Austria
during the late 19th century in response to the molecular
approach of structuralism.
Instead of breaking down thoughts and behavior to their
smallest elements, the gestalt psychologists believed that you
must look at the whole of experience.
According to the gestalt thinkers, the whole is other than the sum of
The fundamental "formula" of
"There are wholes, the behaviour of which is
not determined by that of their individual
elements, but where the part-processes are
themselves determined by the intrinsic nature
of the whole.
It is the hope of Gestalt theory to determine
the nature of such wholes" (1924). Max
Major Gestalt Psychologists
The approach assumes that every person is unique
and that psychology should focus on the subjective
feelings and thoughts of the person.
This is described as an ideographic approach. The
focus is on each individual, not whole populations.
Self and Self Actualisation
• Self Concept
• Ideal self vs Actual self
• Unconditional positive regard
Self - Actualisation
• Both Rogers and Maslow (the founders of this
approach)believed that every person has an innate
tendency to realise their full potential, or self-
• This may be achieved in different ways by different
• Some may achieve it through religious devotion,
others through cooking, and others through writing
• Maslow said there are 3 main preconditions for a
person to be able to self actualise:
• No restraints imposed by others on what you can
• Little or no distraction from deficiency needs;
• An ability to know yourself very well.
Key characteristics of people who self-
actualise (Maslow 1970)
• Accurate perceptions of the world;
• Acceptance of other people;
• Good sense of humour;
• Detached and needing privacy.