Learning theories 2

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Behavioral Dentistry
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Learning theories 2

  1. 1. Learning Theories and their Clinical Applications-2 Prepared by: Dr.Maan A.Bari Qasem Saleh Associate Prof. Depart. Of Psychiatry Course of Behavioral Sciences Faculty of Medicine University of Dammam 2012-2013
  2. 2. Basic Principles • Definition of Learning • Basic factors in learning • Positive & Negative Reinforcement • Punishment • Generalization • Discrimination • Learned Helplessness (LH)
  3. 3. Definition of Learning • Learning is defined as relative permanent change in behavior as a result of experience , practice, or both . • Conditioning is the process of forming association .
  4. 4. Basic factors in learning • Arousal No learning can take place during sleep. • Motivation Allows behavior to be elicited. • Reinforcement A reward which increases probability of a response in a particular situation. • Association Implies a connection in time and place between two events . Stimuli (S) Responses (R)
  5. 5. Primary & Secondary Reinforcement • Primary Reinforcement food , drink , sex (satisfies an instinctual desire) • Secondary Reinforcement have acquired value and are not necessary for survival . such as Grades , Money , Positions
  6. 6. Positive Reinforcement occur when a reward or pleasant stimulus is administered after some behavior has been performed . • For example , if a child cleans his room and his parents reward him with extra spending money , his behavior has been positively reinforced .
  7. 7. Negative Reinforcement • Refers to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus after a certain behavior has been performed . • In this case , the avoidance or the termination of the unpleasantness is the reward or reinforcer . • In other words Negative reinforcers are anything a subject will work to avoid or terminate.
  8. 8. • A child's parents may forbid him to leave the house until he cleans his room . • If he cleans his room and is allowed out , his behavior has been negatively reinforced ; the unpleasant stimulus –-confinement to the house-- has been removed . • This reinforcement increases the likelihood that the child will continue to clean his room regularly.
  9. 9. Nagging behavior . • Nagging behavior are examples of negative reinforcement because we often will do something( anything) to stop the nagging . • For instance , a parent who buys a child a candy bar to stop a child's nagging in the grocery store is responding to negative reinforcement .
  10. 10. Effectiveness of reinforcement • A reinforcers becomes less effective in promoting future behavior , the longer the delay between a behavior and its reinforcement . • The declining effectiveness of reinforcement with increasing delay is called the gradient of reinforcement .
  11. 11. Punishment • Punishment is a technique used to decrease the likelihood of particular response . • Sending a man to jail for robbing a bank is an example of punishment . • Punishment then , is not effective in the long run as means of control . • Its use is made even more question-able by the harmful side effects which accompany it.
  12. 12. What is generalization ? • After an organism has learned a specific response to a stimulus it will make this same response to stimuli which are similar to the original stimulus .
  13. 13. • The behavior we have learned in response to honking cars is a common example two car horns do not make the same sound, but people learn to respond similarly to all car horns . • In these cases, people respond to a general class and not to a particular
  14. 14. What is discrimination? • Discrimination is the inverse of stimulus generalization . • In discrimination , the organism learns to respond differently to similar stimuli .
  15. 15. • As in stimulus generalization , example of discrimination are common in every day life . • Traffic lights are one good example . • People learn to respond differently to Red , Green , and Yellow light ; they learn to discriminate .
  16. 16. Habituation • Habituation is one of the simplest forms of learning and consists of NOT making a response to repetitively presented stimulus
  17. 17. Examples • People who live near the railroad not responding to the sounds of passing trains. • Buying a new wall clock and habituating to the noise it makes.
  18. 18. Noteworthy • Stimuli which lead to habituation are typically low in intensity and repetitive. • Habituation can occur to stimuli without those characteristics as well (the mentioned examples in previous slide).
  19. 19. Spontaneous Recovery • The appearance of conditioned response, after either operant or pavlovian conditioning, after it has been experimentally extinguished
  20. 20. Experimental Example • Let's say I condition (teach/train) a rat to press a lever whenever I ring a bell. • Then I teach the rat to press the lever when I flash a light and not when I ring the bell. • Once I've accomplished this, we can say that the first conditioned response (pressing the lever when I ring the bell) has been extinguished. • But then one day, the rat starts to press the lever when I ring the bell and not when I flash the light. • In this situation, there was spontaneous recovery of the response that was previously extinguished
  21. 21. Clinical Applications: Example-1 • When some one trying to quit drinking alcohol. • When they return to the same situations where they used to drink, they must battle spontaneous recovery. • That is why programs like Alcoholics Anonymous try to prevent their members from returning to their old haunts.
  22. 22. Clinical Applications Example-2 • A recently divorced couple visit each other. • They may, through spontaneous recovery, engage in an old conditioned response (e.g., lovemaking- or remarriage in Muslim society), much to the chagrin of their new partners.
  23. 23. Learned Helplessness (LH) • Lack of motivation and failure to act after exposure to unpleasant events or stimuli over which the individual has no control. (e.g., noise, crowding.) • Individuals learn that they cannot control their environment, and this may lead them to fail to make use of any control options that are available . (APA Dictionary of Psychology-2007)
  24. 24. Experimental Example • Animals exposed to inescapable electric shocks may later fail to learn to escape these shock in situation when escape is possible. (Overmier & Seligman, 1967)
  25. 25. Clinical Applications Examples of Learned Helplessness The applied of LH to several areas of human behavior, including: (1) Depression (Seligman, 1975-1976); - Those who have experienced depression in the past are more likely to accept depression in their future and therefore less likely to attempt change. (2) Elderly adults and old-age homes (Langer & Rodin, 1976); (social isolation & dependency)
  26. 26. Clinical Applications Examples of Learned Helplessness (3) Domestic violence and abusive relationships(Walkar2000)  Those who have been unable to escape violent situations in their homes are much more likely to refuse help and accept future violence as inescapable.  Tension reduction theory:1.tension building,2.the acute battering incident 3. loving-contrition  This is true even when presented with real options to avoid future violence.
  27. 27. Clinical Applications Examples of Learned Helplessness (4) Drug abuse and addiction: • Quit smoking -If a person witnesses others try and fail in their attempts to quit, they are less likely to try themselves. • The more you have witnessed failure either in yourself or others, the less likely you are to attempt change, even if the situation changes dramatically.
  28. 28. Reference 201 1
  29. 29. Thank You for Listening

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