• Literature Review
• Analysis and Discussion
Different address terms depends on the social class, age,
A teacher can be called Sir or Mr. Smith by his students
at school. However, he might also be called Dear by his
wife or John by his brother at home.
The King’s Speech movie by Tom Hooper
1. What are the address terms used in The King’s
2. How are the address terms used in The King’s
Address terms: Title, First Name (FN), Last Name
(LN), Nickname, Combination or nothing at all
The choice of name used for addressing others
depends both on the knowledge of exactly who that
other is and the circumstances of the conversation.
(Wardhaugh, 2010: 282)
Process (based on social factors):
* symmetrical: John to Fred
(inequality and unfamiliarity)
* asymmetrical: Mr. Jones to Elizabeth (equality and
Sir or Madam are generalized variants of the Title category
Jack, Buddy or Mate are generic first name (FN)
Title alone: least intimate
Nickname or pet name: greater intimacy
Positive and negative politeness (Holmes, 2001: 268)
Content or document analysis:
film analysis The King’s Speech by Tom
1. Determining the objectives
2. Specifying the unit of analysis
3. Watching the movie
4. Locating the relevant data (taking samples)
5. Analyzing the data
Analysis and Discussion
Formal address terms for the King:
* Your Royal Highness (people to the King)
* his Majesty (King George VI to his father)
* Your Highness (Sir Blandine-Bentham to the
Formal addresses (Title) are used to respect the
e.g. “Thank you so much, Doctor, it’s been most
interesting” (Elizabeth to the 1st doctor)
least intimate: not mentioning the doctor’s first name
* Lionel Logue calls the King with “Mr. Johnson”
* the King calls Lionel with “Doctor” or “Dr. Logue”
Negative politeness is shown to respect the status
Cont.: Surprise ^_^
Lionel calls the King: Bertie to be less formal
Wardhaugh (2010: 288), it shows:
“those at the bottom seek to minimize their difference in
status from those at the top and those at the top seek to
maximize that difference.”
Expression of positive politeness
“Bertie” is used to show equality/familiarity
Doctor to Mr.
Johnson (vice versa)
Bertie to Lionel
Symmetrical: within family (intimate relationship)
e.g. Elizabeth or David and Bertie
“David : Hello, Bertie.
Bertie : Hello, David.
David : Been waiting long?
Bertie : Where’ve you been?
David : Been busy.
Bertie : So was I.
Bertie : Oh for heaven’s sake, David. You know how long he’s been ill.
(when Bertie waits nervously for David)
Bertie : David! Thank God. You look exhausted! How are you bearing up?
David : Bertie. I have to go. The decision’s been made.”
Kinship system: children to Bertie (Papa)
“Bertie : So how was Papa?
Lillibet : Halting at first, but you got much better Papa.
Margaret : You were just splendid, Papa.”
Status differences are highly regarded in The King’s
Title alone and TLN are used when two people have
not known each other well
Name given from a family (such as Bertie) or first
name only creates equality.
Asymmetrical process: the King and his people
Symmetrical process: only happens within a family,
particularly happens between Lionel and Bertie
Fraenkel, J.R and Wallen, N.E.. (2008). How to Resign
and Evaluate Research in Education (7th ed.). Boston:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Holmes, J. (2001). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics
(2nd ed.). Essex: Pearson Education.
Wardhaugh, R. (1992). An Introduction to
Sociolinguistics (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.
___________. (2010). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics
(6th ed.). Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.