A Ricardo study released in June highlighted the increasing importance of accounting for whole life carbon emissions to compare the GHG of low carbon vehicles. Ricardo found that a typical medium sized family car will create around 24 tonnes of CO2 during its life cycle, while a battery electric vehicle (BEV) will produce around 18 tonnes over its life. For a battery EV, 46% of its total carbon footprint is generated at the factory, before it has travelled a single mile. If the charging source is renewable energy, i.e., “Tailpipe Endgame” rather than 500g/kWH that Ricardo assumed, then the battery EV would have a life cycle C02 footprint only 37% that of a standard gasoline vehicle. The report was prepared by Ricardo for, and in collaboration with, the expert membership of the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership that includes major vehicle manufacturers and oil companies, and it will be a strong baseline along with other analyses for all present and future funded efforts to document the environmental benefits of renewable energy charging of BEVs.