Volume 1 Issue 1
Summer 2013
Editorial- What is Geography?
Page 1- Durdle Door and What to do in a flood
Page 2 - Deadly 60’s endangered species
Page 3...
Geography can be defined as ‘the science that studies the lands, the features, the inhabitants,
and the phenomena of the E...
Maryam Khan

Durdle Door is a natural limestone arch on the
Jurassic Coast near Lulworth in Dorset,
The arch has ...
With Harmanleen Singh

Cnemidophorus uniparens (Leaping Lesbian Lizards)
These American desert lizards are able to reprodu...
Dylan Patel

What is a perfect holiday destination? Three words… The Norwegian Fjords. The
beautiful Fjord is captivating ...
A Tale of Two Cities


Kiran Handa’s
photo journal


The Pearl Tower is 468 metres
tall but with only 14 ...
Nudrat Nawar

A few more from Kiran’s photo journal, some
comedy Geography
‘The place of the Gaels’ and a historic and cultural
region, the Highlands are an famous region in Scotland.
This area is ...
Subhajit Bhadra

Brazil- an inspiration for the
future or a backward nation?
Brazil is one of many recognisable and famous...
In recent years, Geography has become a main part of choosing a
TV location for filming and nature shows, such as “Planet ...
Sam Ford


This article contains major spoilers
“The modern zombie is a relentlessly aggressive, reanimated human
Yes, the northern lights, ‘the bright dancing lights of
aurora’, found in the Northern and Southern
Hemisphere (the north ...
The challenge was set, take a photo that perfectly
captured an amazing part of Geography….


Kiran H...
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UCGS Geo enquirer Issue 1 - a Geographical magazine made by Geography pupils
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UCGS Geo enquirer Issue 1 - a Geographical magazine made by Geography pupils


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A magazine full of Geographical articles made by pupils.
Creative commons photos used where possible and photographer's permission asked before use. Contains personal opinions of authors.
Edited by pupils, formatted by teachers. Enjoy!

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UCGS Geo enquirer Issue 1 - a Geographical magazine made by Geography pupils

  1. 1. Volume 1 Issue 1 Summer 2013
  2. 2. Editorial- What is Geography? Page 1- Durdle Door and What to do in a flood Page 2 - Deadly 60’s endangered species Page 3 – Lonely Planet on the Norwegian Fjords Page 4 – Beijing and Shanghai, a photo journal Page 5 – Must see Geography- Niagara Falls and comedy Geography Page 6 – Focus on the UK, The Scottish Highlands Page 7 – Global eye on Brazil and what you can do about climate change Page 8 – Geography in the media and Geography in videogames Page 9 – The Geography of Zombies Page 10 – Must see Geography – The Northern Lights Page 11 – Tornadoes, a comic Page 12 – SGS Geography photo of the year
  3. 3. Geography can be defined as ‘the science that studies the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of the Earth’, which ultimately can be interpreted as the study of everything. Geography simply has no boundaries; it is brilliant in its ability to combine most of the subjects studied at school under one name. For example, when studying rivers, you are not only studying the geography of rivers but also the chemistry, the biology, using English to put facts into words and combining that with economics, psychology and other social sciences to understand the impact that rivers and their landforms have on humans. Geography brings all the elements of our lives together and allows us as students to think in new ways and challenge the ways in which we live. Are our lives sustainable? How are our landscapes formed? Why do some people experience a better quality of life than others? All these are questions we consider though geography. By questioning what we do not know about the world, and also questioning further what we already know, being a geographer means being fantastically inquisitive. What we have to realise is that now, more than ever, geography is extremely important. The world is changing at an incredible rate; the growth of technology and social networking sites is making the world smaller than it has ever been before. Within a second we have the ability to contact somebody on the other side of the world, and in the present day we do this without acknowledging the power that this gives humans to change the way we live entirely. Global warming is increasing at such a speed that the lives and habitats of a magnitude of species is threatened. As geographers, you have the power to work towards resolving global issues - so it’s time to get started. Ayesha Lee & Bethany Payne
  4. 4. Maryam Khan Durdle Door is a natural limestone arch on the Jurassic Coast near Lulworth in Dorset, England. The arch has formed on a concordant coastline, where layers of differing rock types are folded into ridges that run parallel to the shoreline. The outer hard rock provided a protective barrier to the erosion of the softer rocks but this was punctured, allowing the sea to erode the softer rocks behind. This created the cove, a circular area of water. Durdle Door is in Lulworth Cove, Dorset which is situated on a concordant coastline. The outer hard rock is Portland limestone. The sea broke through this barrier and eroded the softer rocks behind it. A chalk face at the back of the cove shows the further erosion. This erosion has started to the West, where the sea has broken through the barrier at Stair Hole. There are five different types of rock exposed in the cliffs: Portland stone, Purbeck beds, Wealden beds, Greensand and Chalk limestone. It is 140 million years old. The whole coast, where Durdle Door is, is a popular place for filming as many famous films have been filmed there. Parts of the coast are world famous for fossils and discoveries have been uncovered. Along the coast, there is a fossil forest. It consists of raised, rounded shapes called burrs. These burrs were created by algae that grew around the decaying stumps of trees in a swamp 145 million years ago. Immediate action: Tune into your local radio station on a battery or wind-up radio. Switch off your electricity / gas supplies. Move important items to safety. Make sure you have food in a safe dry place for at least a week. Anisha Tiwari Useful flood protection products Flood boards Airbrick covers Flood weather NO-NO’S Don’t walk through flood water. Don’t go near bridges. Don’t let younger kids go outside. Don’t touch the flood water as it may be contaminated. Sandbags or alternative barriers Toilet bungs (only needed for downstairs toilets)
  5. 5. With Harmanleen Singh Cnemidophorus uniparens (Leaping Lesbian Lizards) These American desert lizards are able to reproduce despite the fact that they’re all female. Interestingly, some of them simulate sexual acts with each other just like male and female lizards, and it’s been discovered that when they do they reproduce more successfully than their abstemious sisters. Angler Fish Anglerfishes are members of the teleost order Lophiiformes. The male angler fish is 1/20th the size of the female angler fish. These deep- sea fish are endangered because many manmade chemicals have seeped through the ground water and flowed from inland rivers into the oceans. The oceans current moves these pollutants to lower depths gradually. They are also threatened by overfishing. Mallorcan Midwife Toad This toad swaps child-bearing and child-rearing duties. The father serves as a surrogate for the tots until they hatch, and even cares for them after. Female hunts and generally stays out. Females will even compete with each other for mating rights, much like males of other animal species. Glass Frog The frog has a translucent body, so some of it’s internal organs as shown in the picture at the right. The frog is endangered because of global warming. As the temperatures have changed, the sky is no longer as cloudy as it once was in the frog's habitat. In addition, there habitats are destroyed due to deforestation. Did you know? If you've been bitten - or suspect that you've been bitten - by a poisonous snake, you will need to obtain medical attention immediately. Attempting to suck the poison out of the wound through your mouth - even if you intend to spit - can cause the poison to spread to the mouth and even into the bloodstream through any cuts in the lips or gums.
  6. 6. Dylan Patel What is a perfect holiday destination? Three words… The Norwegian Fjords. The beautiful Fjord is captivating throughout its sixty mile length. With beautiful wildlife and history, the Fjord is the perfect geographical location as there is so much to observe. A Fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. Glacial melting is accompanied by rebound of the Earth’s crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. May is the perfect time to visit Norway, more specifically, Stavanger (which is a city in Norway). With the sun shining, a cloudless sky and happy people, the Fjords took centre stage. The Fjords is also home to a species of goat known as the mountain goats. As well as this, the beautiful houses along the Fjord represent the economical stability which Norway has as every single one of them were taken. The ideal holiday resort. To top things off, a beautiful waterfall rushed down the rocks leaving everyone amazed It is a moment in life which you will never forget because it has been and will be for a very long time, the best trip of your life. Photos taken by Dylan Patel
  7. 7. A Tale of Two Cities Beijing Kiran Handa’s photo journal Shanghai The Pearl Tower is 468 metres tall but with only 14 floors overall. There is also a sightseeing corridor and a revolving restaurant. In Shanghai, the main tourist site is the Bund This buildings’ nickname is “Bottle Opener” as it looks like one. It has 101 floors, height of 492 metres and the lift travels as fast a Usain Bolt sprints (10m/s) taller than the Pearl Tower The view from the sightseeing corridor straight down to the ground It has the world record for the highest observatory ever. The view down to the ground is scary but you can also see the buildings it overshadows The Great Wall of China is another world heritage site and the only man-made landmark that can be seen from space. The wall is about 21,000 km long (21 times the length of British Isles. Building started in the 7th century BC. The main reason why it was built was to protect the Chinese Empire from Mongolian rebellions Tiananmen Square is a large plaza in the Chinese capital city of Beijing; it is the largest openurban square in the world. Its This is a picture/map of the whole of the Forbidden City. It is a rectangle shape measuring 961 m from north to south and 753 m from east to west. Another fact is that it has a total of 9,999 rooms. The Forbidden City also known as the palace museum. It is a massive complex of traditional Chinese buildings which was built in the Ming Dynasty in 1420.It has been the home to many emperors over the last 500 years. The Forbidden City has been a world heritage site for almost 30 years.
  8. 8. Nudrat Nawar A few more from Kiran’s photo journal, some comedy Geography
  9. 9. ‘The place of the Gaels’ and a historic and cultural region, the Highlands are an famous region in Scotland. This area is scarcely populated with many mountain ranges within the Highlands, which contains the tallest mountain in Great Britain, Ben Nevis, which has a height of 1,344 m (4,409 ft). The Highlands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, which runs from Arran to Stone haven. Taksh Tripathi The History The Geography The Highlands are highly composed of ancient rocks from the Cambrian and Precambrian periods which were uplifted during the later Caledonian Orogeny. Smaller formations of Lewisian gneiss (a suite of Precambrian metamorphic rocks) in the northwest are up to 3,000 million years old. Many igneous rocks are bestrewed which are younger than the metamorphic rocks, which have formed commodious mountains such as the Cairngorms and the Cullin of Skye. The Jurassic beds found in isolated locations on Skye and Applecross reflect the complex underlying geology. They are the original source of much North Sea oil. 8000BC: Land recovers from Ice Age and trees, animals and people start to inhabit the area. The North West Highlands Geopark covers around 2,000 sq km and some of the rock is 3 billion years old. AD 1224: Elgin Cathedral was initially established and was once the second largest cathedral in the country! AD 1746: The Jacobites were beaten on the moor by government troops at the Battle of Culloden. This battle lasted about an hour but still resulted in an estimated 1000 deaths! AD 1812: Nelson’s Tower by Forres opened, built as a memorial to Admiral Lord Nelson. AD 1933: The first recorded sighting of the Loch Ness Monster. The Loch Ness Monster has been said by legend to live deep under the waters of Loch Ness, a Loch situated near Inverness. Ben Nevis Ben Nevis is the tallest mountain in Great Britain, standing tall at 1388 meters above sea level. it is located at the western end of the Grampian Mountains in the Lochaber area of the Scottish Highlands, close to the town of Fort William. The mountain attracts significant amount of tourists – around 100,000 ascents a year. The summit is a collapsed dome of an ancient volcano. The first recorded ascent of Ben Nevis was by James Robertson (he was a botanist) in 1771 Ben Nevis forms a massif with its neighbour in the north-west. A massif is a smaller structural unit of the crust smaller than a tectonic plate. Ben Nevis' altitude, maritime location and topography frequently lead to cool and cloudy weather conditions. Research has shown that igneous rocks are found on Ben Nevis, mainly due to the fact that Ben Nevis was actually a Devonian volcano that collapsed, hence why Ben Nevis has a colossal dome. Species of the Highlands The Highlands offers a range of weird yet wonderful creatures. Coasts The Highland coasts offer sightseers the best place in The British Isles to witness whales, dolphins and seals. The bottlenosed dolphins of the Moray Firth are perhaps the most famous cetacean species in the northern waters. Here, the cool rich feeding grounds allow them to grow bigger than bottlenose dolphins anywhere else in the world. The mouth of Cromarty Firth, Chanonry Point, North Kessock (visitor centre) and Fort George are all good watching places and dolphin cruises are also available. Minke and killer whales can also sometimes be seen. Seals are by far the most common out of the these three animals, as the North Highlands’ coast is close to Arctic circle, so seals are present at large. Sperm and Pilot whales can also be seen alongside other dolphins such as the Atlantic white-sided dolphin. Mainland Highlands In the Highlands, there are a range species to be found. The Red Deer and the Roe Deer are common and easy to observe, as are seals basking on rocks. Red Deer are highly celebrated and famous. The Adder is the only poisonous snake found in Scotland but it is not that dangerous to humans as we now have medical cures to their rare bites. Only 10 people have died by an Adder in the last 100 years. They are hard to spot as they tend to camouflage away from humans using their amazing sense of vibration, they can feel vibrations at a considerable distance. Feral goats (or Wild Goats) are frequently found in the Highlands as they are high above ground. They have descendants of domestic animals but are now truly wild, meaning they may attack using their horns. No two goats look the same as they have a tremendous and commodious variety of coat colours and lengths. They live in herds, usually in relatively large numbers.
  10. 10. Subhajit Bhadra Brazil- an inspiration for the future or a backward nation? Brazil is one of many recognisable and famous countries across the globe. We all know Brazil for many reasons: the football, the beautiful beaches, picturesque landmarks, the mind-blowing carnival celebrations and the Samba dance to name just a few. All these things make up its wonderful and popular culture. What we don’t seem to notice is that Brazil’s economy is sharply improving and undergoing continuous growth since 2004. The economy has largely benefited from Brazil’s successful tourist industry, mining, logging, fishing and agriculture. It all seems very good for the South American powerhouse, but then why so recently have there been protests outside Brazil’s largest football stadiums? Brazil is currently hosting the Confederations Cup, a warm up competition before the 2014 FIFA World Cup. In addition to this, in 2016, Brazil will also be hosting the Olympics. The cost for building all the stadiums and sports venues for these events have been massive and that is why there are mass protests. In every major city in Brazil, protesters have been gathering and sending their message across: they are criticising the government of spending too much money on extravagant stadiums and not on things that will benefit the entire population in the long run, such as spending more money on education and building hospitals. Protesters are also angry with corrupt officials and are tired of public services that do not work. In addition to this, there are social and economic differences that separate the population. Specifically in the country’s largest city, Sao Paolo, the sky is covered with helicopters owned by millionaires, while the inner suburbs of the city are overcrowded with ordinary citizens who toil for low-paid jobs. Furthermore, the favelas in Rio have become an increasing problem in Brazil with a growing number of the population in poverty and gang warfare. Nevertheless, the FIFA World Cup and Olympics will continue to showcase Brazil’s brilliant heritage of sport to the world and that it makes up an important part of Brazil’s culture, which has been maintained for decades. This will probably be an inspiration for us in the future: to see how much Brazil has developed, in such a short amount of time. Shruti Patwal & Priya Deuchande Conserve energy• By using public transport or walking/cycling, it can reduce the amount of carbon footprint produced. It can also make you healthier and reduce traffic congestion. • Make sure that you switch off all lights and sockets, when not in use! You can even try to reduce the amount of energy used by letting the sun in! Soak in the Vitamin D! Conserve water We are fortunate that we have a sufficient amount of water but other countries unfortunately do not. They drink contaminated water, so turning off the tap when you do not need it will not only save lives, but also reduce the regular house bill!  You can even save rainwater by using water filters, drains, gutters and water butts!! What could you do? Plant• Start a fruit and vegetable garden! No food has a lower carbon footprint or cost less than own home grown food. Even a flat window box will be perfect! It will help reduce the carbon footprint and carbon dioxide emissions. • Buy your fruits and vegetables from local organic farms! Organic farms save 30% less energy, due to less food transport and manufacturing! Only natural fertilisers are used and no pesticides and chemicals! This keeps the soil fertile. • Both these ideas increase nitrogen input and carbon dioxide inputs, so two of the harmful greenhouse gases! Also planting your own food means more plant biomass! • Did you know that a average tree will consume about one tonne of carbon dioxide in it's life? Reduce, Reuse, Recycle• By reusing and recycling you can help reduce the extraction and processing of natural materials, like fossil fuels • Additionally, reduce the pressure on landfill areas. Disposing off dangerous wastes responsibly like motor oils, batteries can help protect natural ecosystems. • There are millions of plastic pieces that end up in the sea. These pieces might get stuck on animals, so it might be the cause of their suffering or death. Climate change means less food, more floods, less water, storm surges. There are no advantages. There is no turning back now. It is up to you and what you decide to do.
  11. 11. In recent years, Geography has become a main part of choosing a TV location for filming and nature shows, such as “Planet Earth” by David Attenborough, or “Doctor Who” by Steven Moffat. TV is not the only media that Geography is useful for, when it comes to filming locations, but it is also an important part in film and video game programming. The biggest channel in the UK, the BBC (British Broadcasting Channel), is based in London, and brings income to the economy, and gives jobs to those who are in need. The BBC also make many shows, like “Merlin”, “The Apprentice” and “The Voice”, which are filmed according to certain structures and landscapes, which have certain geographical features. These sectors, including video game development and film, create over 2 million people per year, and it also brings up to £100 billion to the nation economy per annum, too. The Problem with TV? The problem with TV and media is that people are starting to wonder if British TV reflects life in Britain today. Over 10% of the British population live in London, and yet so much TV and Film is created in the London and Berkshire area, (Pinewood Studios). The highest unemployment rates are around the areas where there is no media coverage, and no filming, as media creates many of the jobs in London, such as cleaners for the BBC, writers, etc. British TV also effects how other countries see the UK, and how many tourists visit London, and the surrounding areas each year, as shows, such as Eastenders, show the worst sides of the population and of London. However, TV shows which are very popular in other countries, such as the USA, invite more tourists to come over, as they believe they may be able to see some of the actors in the streets, or be able to see the filming locations that they recognise. (The BBC TV Centre – London) Locations The locations of TV shows are based on writer’s choice, such as Ashley Pharoah, who wrote ‘Life on Mars’ and ‘Bonekickers’, decided to film in Bath, as it was new and fresh. Other shows, such as Game of Thrones, film in areas that suit their set needs and specifications. Geographical landmarks and historical buildings play a massive role in filming locations as they give a ready-designed and unique area to film. By Hannah Lee, 9G In videogames, there are a few striking references to the real world. From the strikingly obvious……. (Tell me that this isn’t based on France. The tower and shape gives it away) to the not-so-simple. (I bet you didn’t think of that!) But still, there are examples everywhere. In Arkham City, everything is set out like part a proper city, as it is set in a part of Gotham City. It might not look like it in the game, but bear in mind that it is only set in PART of Gotham City, namely the “Arkham City” part. But still, if you play any videogame with anything like a city in it, it will ALWAYS follow the Burgess model or anything else of the sort. If it is like a large area of land, like a country, it will be laid out like a true country. If it is a game where you are trying to spread something like a virus across the world, the resistance of the countries is like what it would be IRL. Basically, there are examples in basically every realistic videogame. And if you disagree, you haven’t played any realistic videogames in your life. Richard Lowe 8M
  12. 12. Sam Ford Fig.1 This article contains major spoilers “The modern zombie is a relentlessly aggressive, reanimated human corpse driven by a biological infection.” This definition of the modern zombie spans all the way back to the original Night of the Living Dead from 1968, which many believe to be the first zombie film. Parts of the definition can be taken out to suit different zombies such as the zombies in 28 Days Later(see figure 1) are not reanimated human corpses but humans infected by a rage virus were as the zombies in Night of the Living Dead (see figure 2) are not driven by an infection but are reanimated human corpses. Settlement and Population Cities and urban areas have a high population density of zombies due to cities usually being quarantined areas so there are many people there, so when the military can no longer protect the city it becomes over run and results in lots of zombies in one area, an example of this is found in season 1 of the Walking Dead were the streets and roads city of Atlanta have hundreds of zombies wondering around on them. Cities are a place that many survivors go which means zombies have their food all in one place so if a city is not defended well and becomes over run, most of the survivors being either infected of eaten within a week. Which leads to the zombies Fig.2 being unable to find a source of food and all they can do is wonder until they find food, starve to death or rot away, unless they are able to hear sound it which case they will move towards the sound. Were as in rural Fig.3 areas there is a low population density of zombies as there are less people to be infected and outbreaks tend to happen in cities, also zombies who are not attracted by sounds will aimlessly wonder around till they find food therefore it could be a long time for a zombie to wonder into a rural area. Development The Standard of Living of a zombie is very difficult to find as zombies do not use money or have any sort of measurable wealth, however some zombies do have a class such as in the Left 4 Dead series the special infected which each have a special ability that makes them more deadly than normal infected, such as the Tank(see figure 3) which has increased strength and can take lots of damage. Or uncommon infected that are much like the normal infected except they will have an extra ability like riot police that became infected are normal infected but with riot gear attached to them. So in the Left 4 Dead series special infected could be seen as higher class, uncommon infected as middle class and normal infected as lower class, this is due to the fact that a Tank is far deadlier to a survivor than a normal infected also a Tank could very easily defeat a normal infected. The Quality of Life of a zombie is almost impossible to measure as zombies show little to no emotion and Quality of Life is all about how happy you are. MEDC’s (More Economically Developed Countries) and LEDC’s (Less Economically Developed Countries) would suffer differently, MEDC’s would fall harder were as LEDC’s would not fall much as they do not have as much wealth to lose, however LEDC’s usually have a high population thus meaning there are more people to be infected. In the book World War Z after many countries have recovered from the global zombie outbreak Cuba becomes the wealthiest country in the world and the center for global trade. In 28 Weeks Later, the sequel to 28 Days Later most of the zombies have died from starvation and we learn that the infection only happened in Britain, America sends troops over to Britain to help rebuild which is an example of the AID countries would provide during a zombie outbreak. Ethnicity The ethnicity of a zombie population will be effected by the ethnicity of the city or place that the zombies are in. For example in Left 4 Dead 2 the survivors go through New Orleans and most of the zombies are African American as that reflects the ethnicity of the population of New Orleans. Zombie don’t tend to change ethnicity but do however rot away which can change the tone of their skin, also if ethnicity is based on where you are from or where you are born, if you are turned in to a zombie in a different country would your zombie self then adopt that ethnicity. To conclude zombies have a high density population in cities, some zombies are powerful than others so therefore are of a higher class, zombies affect MEDC’s differently to LEDC’s and that the ethnicity of a zombie will reflect the ethnicity of the place that they are in.
  13. 13. Yes, the northern lights, ‘the bright dancing lights of aurora’, found in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere (the north and south of the earth). But what are they? Why do we see these lights in the sky? How is it created? Is it even normal? Well, the northern lights are actually collisions between electrically charged particles from the sun that enter the earth’s atmosphere. These lights can only be visualised above the magnetic poles of both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. ‘Nature’s Fireworks’, can appear in many different colours such as shades of red, yellow, green, blue and violet – pale green and pink being the most common. The amazing display also comes in different forms; from patches or scattered clouds of light, to streamers, arcs, rippling curtains or shooting rays that light up the night sky with an eerie glow. The northern lights are created by clashes between gaseous particles in the earth’s atmosphere and charged particles released from the sun’s atmosphere. This has been suspected since about 1850, but it was only discovered in 1950 that, as the temperature above the Sun’s atmosphere is millions of degrees Celsius, collisions between gas molecules are frequent and explosive and that free protons and electrons are thrown from the Sun’s atmosphere by the rotation of the star. These particles are blown towards the Earth by the solar wind (the continuous flow of charged particles, mainly protons and electrons, discharged from the sun, flowing at speeds as high as 900km/s). The particles are mainly deflected by the earth’s magnetic field, however, it is weaker at the north and south poles so some electrons and protons are allowed to enter and collide with the gas particles. These reactions emit light that we perceive as the dancing lights of the north and south. The lights of the Aurora generally extend from 80 kilometres (50 miles) to as high as 640 kilometres (400 miles) above the earth’s surface. The different variations of colours are due to the type of gas particles that are reacting with each other. The most common particles which compound with the microscopic particles are oxygen molecules, creating a ‘pale yellowish-green’ colour. Nitrogen produces a blue or purplish-red aurora and all-red lights are rarely produced by high altitude oxygen molecules at around 200 miles above the surface of the earth, although, red auroras can be created at lower altitudes if the sun is “stormy”. This can be located around 60 miles above the Earth’s surface. The Northern Lights can be seen in the Northern or Southern Hemisphere. Scientists have learned that in most instances, the lights in the north and south are mirror-like and appear as similar shapes and colours. The best places to view the northern lights (in North America) are the North West parts of Canada mainly Yukon, Nunavut and Alaska. Aurora displays can also be seen over the southern tip of Greenland and Iceland, the northern coast of Norway and over the coastal waters north of Siberia. The reason why Southern auroras are not spoken about as much is because they are concentrated in a ring around Antarctica and the Southern Indian Ocean. People would not really go here as it is hard to get to and would cost a lot. Also, more remote areas or places with minimum light pollution would be a more beautiful sight that it already is. Researchers have discovered that the aurora displays occur as a cyclic pattern, every 11 years, fortunately for us the next cycle is in 2013. A clear, winter night is usually the best time to go as there are long periods of darkness, local midnight is the best time of day as it is darkest. As you probably know, the people who lived a long time ago didn’t think of science, so there are a lot of myths and legends about the northern lights. The Romans created the name of ‘aurora borealis’ for the lights in the Northern Hemisphere, which means ‘dawn of the north’ and ‘aurora Australis’, for the lights in the Southern Hemisphere, which means ‘dawn of the south’. In Roman myths Aurora was the Goddess of the dawn. Different cultural groups have different yet similar legends about these astonishing displays. In medieval times, the occurrences of these lights were seen as signals of the start of war or famine. The Maori of New Zealand along with the northern people of Europe shared the belief that the lights were the reflections of torches or campfires. The Menominee Indians of Wisconsin believed the lights were the indications of locations of manabai’wok (giants) who were the spirits of great hunters and fishermen. The Inuit of Alaska believed that the lights were the spirits of the animals which they hunted. Other aboriginal people believed that the lights were the spirits of their own people. So from this, we have established that the northern lights are auroras of light which are created by gaseous particles reacting with the protons and electrons emitted from the sun, due to the reactions taking place on its surface. This is because of its rotating motion. And yes, it is normal! Preminie Ellengho
  14. 14. The challenge was set, take a photo that perfectly captured an amazing part of Geography…. 2nd 3rd Megan Edwards Kiran Handa Govind Sihota 1st
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