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What Is Cancer?<br />
Cancer is 100+ different diseases<br />	Each type of cancer shares one thing in common: unchecked growth toward limitless ...
Most common cancers: carcinomas<br />cancer of cells that cover body surfaces<br />	Lung<br />Breast (women)<br />Skin<br ...
Leukemias, lymphomas & sarcomas<br />Leukemias:<br />	Bloodstream<br />Lymphomas:<br />	Lymph nodes<br />& immune system<b...
Cancer names relate to location<br />Prefix	Meaning<br />adeno-	gland<br />chondro-	cartilage<br />erythro-	red blood cell...
All cancer starts the same way<br />cells lose their normal ability to die, so they can keep multiplying without any limit...
Normal tissue balances new cell growth and old cell death<br />1. Cells divide<br />3. Apoptosis, or<br />cell suicide<br ...
If apoptosis fails, the balance is disrupted<br />cells divide and grow out of control<br />Fourth orlater mutation<br />T...
Take your skin, for example<br />normal growth control<br />Dead cells shed from outer surface<br />One basal cell migrate...
Skin cancer starts with too many cells<br />Cells in basal layer divide into 2 cells. Both can divide, leading to more div...
 Which become tumors (neoplasms)<br />Gradual increase in the number of dividing cells creates a growing mass of tissue ca...
Which can invade and metastasize<br />how cancer spreads<br />1<br />Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood ves...
Only malignant tumors are cancer<br />Malignant (cancer) cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metast...
Cancer is dangerous when it spreads to other parts of the body and disrupts how they work<br />Brain<br />Melanoma cells t...
Cancer cells are created by mutations in the cells’ genes<br />
Genes are inherited instructions that live in your chromosomes<br />2 chromosomes twist into a double helix, aka DNA molec...
Chromosomes are made of chemical building blocks called “bases”<br />The 4 bases are:<br /><ul><li> adenine [A]
 thymine [T]
 cytosine [C]
 guanine [G]</li></ul>ATCG combine in different orders to create the gene’s message, like letters make words and sentences...
Mutations are like typos in the base sequence<br />A<br />G<br />C<br />T<br />A<br />A<br />C<br />T<br />A<br />C<br />D...
3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer<br />Oncogenes<br />	Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multip...
They disrupt the growth-signaling pathway<br />Inactive intracellular signaling protein<br />Inactive growth factor recept...
3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer<br />Oncogenes<br />	Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multip...
Mutated, lost and inactivated tumor suppressor genes can allow cancer to start<br />Normal cell<br />Normal <br /> genes <...
3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer<br />Oncogenes<br />	Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multip...
Mutated DNA repair genes allow more mutations to accumulate and cancer to start<br />Normal DNA repair<br />T<br />C<br />...
What can cause gene mutations? These things:<br />Some viruses or bacteria<br />Radiation<br />Some chemicals<br />Heredit...
Chemicals in tobacco smoke<br />
UV radiation from the sun & tanning beds<br />High<br />Denver<br />Skin<br />Cancer<br />Incidence<br />Pittsburgh<br />D...
Viruses<br />
Inherited mutations passed down in families<br />Inherited Conditions That Increase Risk for Cancer<br />
Cancer risk increases as you get older<br />more time = more accumulated gene mutations <br />400<br />300<br />200<br />1...
So, how can you prevent cancer?<br />Avoid the things that cause changes in your cells’ genes!<br />Carcinogenic chemicals...
Don’t use tobacco (cigarettes & chew)<br />Lung Cancer Risk Increases with Cigarette Consumption<br />15x<br />10x<br />5x...
Don’t drink a lot of alcohol & smoke<br />Heavy smokers or drinkers have 6 times the risk of esophagus cancer as people wh...
Protect yourself from excessive sunlight …<br />…and never, ever use tanning beds<br />
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What is Cancer Presentation

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What is cancer presentation by the University of Colorado Cancer Center. Information from the National Cancer Institute.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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What is Cancer Presentation

  1. 1. What Is Cancer?<br />
  2. 2. Cancer is 100+ different diseases<br /> Each type of cancer shares one thing in common: unchecked growth toward limitless expansion<br />
  3. 3. Most common cancers: carcinomas<br />cancer of cells that cover body surfaces<br /> Lung<br />Breast (women)<br />Skin<br /> Colon<br />Bladder<br /> Prostate (men)<br />
  4. 4. Leukemias, lymphomas & sarcomas<br />Leukemias:<br /> Bloodstream<br />Lymphomas:<br /> Lymph nodes<br />& immune system<br />tissues<br />Some common sarcomas:<br /> Fat<br /> Bone<br /> Muscle<br />
  5. 5. Cancer names relate to location<br />Prefix Meaning<br />adeno- gland<br />chondro- cartilage<br />erythro- red blood cell<br />hemangio- blood vessels<br />hepato- liver<br />lipo- fat<br />lympho- lymphocyte<br />melano- pigment cell<br />myelo- bone marrow<br />myo- muscle<br />osteo- bone<br />
  6. 6. All cancer starts the same way<br />cells lose their normal ability to die, so they can keep multiplying without any limit<br />
  7. 7. Normal tissue balances new cell growth and old cell death<br />1. Cells divide<br />3. Apoptosis, or<br />cell suicide<br />2. Cell is damaged<br />& can’t be repaired<br />
  8. 8. If apoptosis fails, the balance is disrupted<br />cells divide and grow out of control<br />Fourth orlater mutation<br />Third mutation<br />Second mutation<br />First mutation<br />Uncontrolled growth<br />
  9. 9. Take your skin, for example<br />normal growth control<br />Dead cells shed from outer surface<br />One basal cell migrates to the epidermis and loses its ability to divide<br />Epidermis<br />Cells in basal layer divide into 2 cells. One stays and keeps dividing. <br />Dermis<br />
  10. 10. Skin cancer starts with too many cells<br />Cells in basal layer divide into 2 cells. Both can divide, leading to more dividing cells.<br />Underlying tissue<br />
  11. 11. Which become tumors (neoplasms)<br />Gradual increase in the number of dividing cells creates a growing mass of tissue called a tumor or neoplasm.<br />Normal organization of tissue becomes disrupted over time.<br />Underlying tissue<br />
  12. 12. Which can invade and metastasize<br />how cancer spreads<br />1<br />Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels<br />2<br />Cancer cells are transported by the circulatory system to distant sites<br />3<br />Cancer cells reinvade and grow at new location<br />
  13. 13. Only malignant tumors are cancer<br />Malignant (cancer) cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites<br />Benign (not cancer) tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis<br />Time<br />
  14. 14. Cancer is dangerous when it spreads to other parts of the body and disrupts how they work<br />Brain<br />Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream<br />Liver<br />Melanoma(initial tumor)<br />
  15. 15. Cancer cells are created by mutations in the cells’ genes<br />
  16. 16. Genes are inherited instructions that live in your chromosomes<br />2 chromosomes twist into a double helix, aka DNA molecule<br />DNA molecule<br />
  17. 17. Chromosomes are made of chemical building blocks called “bases”<br />The 4 bases are:<br /><ul><li> adenine [A]
  18. 18. thymine [T]
  19. 19. cytosine [C]
  20. 20. guanine [G]</li></ul>ATCG combine in different orders to create the gene’s message, like letters make words and sentences.<br />Chemical<br />bases<br />A<br />T<br />C<br />G<br />
  21. 21. Mutations are like typos in the base sequence<br />A<br />G<br />C<br />T<br />A<br />A<br />C<br />T<br />A<br />C<br />DNA<br />Normal gene<br />A<br />G<br />C<br />G<br />A<br />A<br />C<br />T<br />A<br />C<br />Single base change<br />A<br />G<br />G<br />C<br />G<br />C<br />T<br />A<br />A<br />C<br />A<br />C<br />T<br />Additions<br />C<br />T<br />A<br />G<br />A<br />A<br />C<br />T<br />A<br />C<br />Deletions<br />
  22. 22. 3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer<br />Oncogenes<br /> Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multiply faster and faster.<br />Tumor suppressor genes<br />Act like brakes on cell growth, unless they are mutated.<br /> DNA repair genes<br /> Fix broken genes, unless they are mutated.<br />
  23. 23. They disrupt the growth-signaling pathway<br />Inactive intracellular signaling protein<br />Inactive growth factor receptor<br />Signaling protein from active oncogene<br />Activated gene regulatory protein<br />Transcription<br />Cell proliferation driven by internal oncogene signaling<br />
  24. 24. 3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer<br />Oncogenes<br /> Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multiply faster and faster.<br /> Tumor suppressor genes<br />Act like brakes on cell growth, unless they are mutated.<br />DNA repair genes<br /> Fix broken genes, unless they are mutated.<br />
  25. 25. Mutated, lost and inactivated tumor suppressor genes can allow cancer to start<br />Normal cell<br />Normal <br /> genes <br /> prevent <br /> cancer<br />Remove or inactivate tumor suppressor genes<br />Cancer cell<br />Damage to <br /> both genes <br /> leads to <br /> cancer<br />Mutated/inactivated <br />tumor suppressor genes<br />
  26. 26. 3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer<br />Oncogenes<br /> Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multiply faster and faster.<br /> Tumor suppressor genes<br />Act like brakes on cell growth, unless they are mutated.<br /> DNA repair genes<br /> Fix broken genes, unless they are mutated.<br />
  27. 27. Mutated DNA repair genes allow more mutations to accumulate and cancer to start<br />Normal DNA repair<br />T<br />C<br />A<br />G<br />C<br />Base pair mismatch<br />No cancer<br />T<br />C<br />A<br />T<br />C<br />A<br />G<br />T<br />C<br />G<br />T<br />C<br />A<br />T<br />C<br />T<br />C<br />A<br />T<br />C<br />A<br />G<br />T<br />C<br />G<br />Cancer<br />A<br />G<br />T<br />G<br />A<br />G<br />T<br />A<br />G<br />No DNA repair<br />
  28. 28. What can cause gene mutations? These things:<br />Some viruses or bacteria<br />Radiation<br />Some chemicals<br />Heredity<br />Diet<br />Hormones<br />
  29. 29. Chemicals in tobacco smoke<br />
  30. 30. UV radiation from the sun & tanning beds<br />High<br />Denver<br />Skin<br />Cancer<br />Incidence<br />Pittsburgh<br />Detroit<br />Low<br />Most<br />Least<br />Annual Sunshine<br />(UV radiation)<br />
  31. 31. Viruses<br />
  32. 32. Inherited mutations passed down in families<br />Inherited Conditions That Increase Risk for Cancer<br />
  33. 33. Cancer risk increases as you get older<br />more time = more accumulated gene mutations <br />400<br />300<br />200<br />100<br />Colon<br />Breast<br />Number of Cancer Cases<br />(per 100,000 people)<br />A 75-year-old is <br />100x more likely<br />to get cancer than <br />a 25-year-old<br />0 20406080<br />Age of Person (in years)<br />
  34. 34. So, how can you prevent cancer?<br />Avoid the things that cause changes in your cells’ genes!<br />Carcinogenic chemicals<br />Carcinogenic radiation<br />Cancer viruses or bacteria<br />
  35. 35. Don’t use tobacco (cigarettes & chew)<br />Lung Cancer Risk Increases with Cigarette Consumption<br />15x<br />10x<br />5x<br />Lung Cancer Risk<br />0 15 30<br />Non-smoker<br />Cigarettes Smoked per Day<br />
  36. 36. Don’t drink a lot of alcohol & smoke<br />Heavy smokers or drinkers have 6 times the risk of esophagus cancer as people who don’t smoke or drink.<br />People who smoke AND drink have 40 times the risk as people who don’t smoke or drink.<br />40x<br />30x<br />20x<br />10x<br />Risk Increase<br />Alcoholic Drinks Consumed per Day<br />AND<br />Packs of Cigarettes Consumed per Day<br />
  37. 37. Protect yourself from excessive sunlight …<br />…and never, ever use tanning beds<br />
  38. 38. Limit the amount of meat & fat you eat<br />Studies show eating a lot of it increases risk of certain cancers<br />Correlation Between Meat Consumption and Colon Cancer Rates in Different Countries<br />40<br />30<br />Number of Cases (per 100,000 people)<br />20<br />10<br />0<br />300<br />200<br />100<br />80<br />Grams (per person per day)<br />
  39. 39. Eat lots of fruits & veggies<br />Studies show it lowers your cancer risk<br />
  40. 40. We need your help to fight cancer!<br />
  41. 41. Through new discoveries and treatments you make<br />… as a cancer researcher<br />
  42. 42. When you help cure people and pets of cancer<br />… as a cancer doctor or nurse<br />

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