Impact and responses phytoplankton on cc lastver

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Marine Climate Change: Impact and Response Phytoplankton

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Impact and responses phytoplankton on cc lastver

  1. 1. * MARINE CLIMATE CHANGE :’ IMPACT AND RESPONSES OF PLANKTON ‘ UMI ZAKIYAH Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science - UB
  2. 2. *WHAT ARE PLANKTON/ PHYTOPLANKTON? *WHERE ARE THEIR HABITAT? *WHAT ARE THEIR ROLE IN MARINE ENVIRONMENT? *WHY THEY ARE IMPORTANT? *WHAT HAPPEN TO THEM? WHAT IS EXPECTED? *
  3. 3. *The word plankton is from the Greek word for "wandering" They are unicelluler and some multicelluler organism (0.2 um - >20 m) that drift or wander on the surface of the oceans at the mercy of the currents. They are generally unable to move against currents (MARE: Marine Activities, Resources & Education - NASA). *
  4. 4. *Plankton community are primarily divided into broad functional (or trophic level) groups: 1. Phytoplankton 2. Zooplankton 3. Bacterioplankton OR 1. Producer 2. Consumer and 3. Recycler groups
  5. 5. Phytoplankton (from Greek phyton, or plant), autotrophic, prokaryotic or eukaryotic algae that live near the water surface where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis. Among the more important groups are the diatoms, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and coccolithophores.
  6. 6. * The 7 algae divisions are: 1. Chlorophyta (Green algae) 2. Charophyta (Stoneworts or brittleworts) 3. Euglenophyta (Euglenoids) 4. Chrysophyta (Golden-brown algae,Diatoms) 5. Phaeophycophyta (Brown algae, kelp) 6. Rhodophyta (Red algae) 7. Pyrrhophyta (Dinoflagellates)
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  14. 14. MARINE ENVIRONMENT *
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  17. 17. * An estimated 90% of all photosynthesis and production of usable oxygen takes place in the oceans (MARE, 1995). Marine phytoplankton are the first link in the large marine food chain. Larger animals like fish and the blue whale then consume the zooplankton, which feeds on the phytoplankton. The food material from living and dying plankton may sink to the bottom and become food for organisms living on the bottom. * About 90% of the world’s fisheries occur in rich coastal areas because of the high densities of plankton that grow in areas with many nutrients in the water. The high protein content of plankton is causing them to be considered as a potential food source for people. There is also discussions about using phytoplankton in space missions. The personnel would give the plankton carbon dioxide and it would in turn give oxygen and a food source to the people ("Plankton", 497). *
  18. 18. *Increase in average temperatures *Extreme weather vents *Shift in climate patterns *
  19. 19. * The increase in water temperatures significantly affect the limits of phytoplankton growth rates: populations near the equator have the potential to grow much faster than strains found in cooler waters, near the poles, given sufficient nutrients. *
  20. 20. *The oceans vary much less than the land does, both seasonally and daily *Increased temperature decreases viscosity, but increase metabolism rate *Organisms grow faster, die younger as temperature increases *In general, warm water species are smaller and have more extensions
  21. 21. * They analysed phytoplankton data collected over 76 years by previous studies (published between 1935 and 2011), and also used future temperature predictions generated by climate scientists. 194 strains of phytoplankton belonging to over 130 species from the major groups were analysed *
  22. 22. * The results suggest that by the end of the 21st century, warmer oceans will lead to a greater diversity of plankton populations nearer the poles, but fewer varieties in warmer, tropical waters at the equator. * Even though marine organisms can disperse over long distances carried by ocean currents, each plankton strain grows best at an optimum temperature and adapts to its local environment. *
  23. 23. * Tropical strains appear to be most vulnerable to rising temperatures. * a third of current strains in the tropics would become extinct by 2100 if mean temperatures increase by just 2°C. However, high genetic diversity within species may prevent the loss of entire species. * Rising temperatures will thus affect phytoplankton in different ways, depending on their location.
  24. 24. * United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change. World-wide electronic publication, http://www.unfccc.int; accessed on 02 November 2006. [Web] * Beardall, J; & Raven, J.A. 2004. The potential effects of global climate change on microalgal photosynthesis, growth and ecology. Phycologia. 43 (1) 26-40. *

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