Reported speech Introductory verbs
Reported speech <ul><li>‘ Reported speech’i ehk Kaudset kõnet kasutatakse kellegi poolt öeldu, mõeldu, kirjutatu või küsit...
Reported speech <ul><li>Kaudse kõne sissejuhatamiseks kasutatakse mitmeid ütlemist, arvamist, mõtlemist, küsimist või tõot...
<ul><li>DIRECT SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>(otsene kõne) </li></ul><ul><li>(saatelause) He says, “I`m not a bully.”   </li></...
<ul><li>Otsese kõne muutmisel kaudseks toimuvad </li></ul><ul><li>mõningad muudatused, näiteks  muutuvad </li></ul><ul><li...
VÄITLAUSED  (jaatavad laused)   <ul><li>Kui  saatelause verb  </li></ul><ul><li>on minevikus  (said, asked), </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>kui saatelause verb on minevikus, asendatakse kaudses kõnes mõned “lähedust” väljendavad sõnad “kaugust” väljendav...
<ul><li>me muudame oleviku modaalverbe  </li></ul><ul><li>can  - could </li></ul><ul><li>will  - would </li></ul><ul><li>m...
KÜSILAUSED   <ul><li>*  kaudsetes  üldküsimustes  on  - siduvaks sõnaks  if  või  whether  (kas) </li></ul><ul><li>-      ...
KÄSUD JA PALVED   <ul><li>*  sõltuvalt sellest, mida tahetakse väljendada, kasutatakse verbe  tell, order, ask, invite,   ...
TERVITUSED, ÕNNITLUSED, SOOVID, TÄNU   <ul><li>DIRECT SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>Hello, Tom. </li></ul><ul><li>Hello, Tim. <...
Introductory verbs <ul><li>+to –inf agree claim demand  offer promise refuse threaten </li></ul><ul><li>Example: verb  – o...
Introductory verbs <ul><li>+sb +to –inf advise allow ask, beg command forbid invite order remind </li></ul><ul><li>Example...
Introductory verbs <ul><li>+ -ing form accuse sb of admit (to) apologise for boast about/of complain to sb of deny insist ...
Introductory verbs <ul><li>explain to sb + how Example: direch speech – “That’s how it works!” reported speech – “He expla...
Introductory verbs <ul><li>+that –clause explain inform sb exclaim/remark </li></ul><ul><li>Example: verb  – exclaim/remar...
The verbs marked with asterisk can also be followed  by a that – clause in reported speech. <ul><li>He  claimed that  he h...
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Reported speech and introductory verbs

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Reported speech and introductory verbs

  1. 1. Reported speech Introductory verbs
  2. 2. Reported speech <ul><li>‘ Reported speech’i ehk Kaudset kõnet kasutatakse kellegi poolt öeldu, mõeldu, kirjutatu või küsitu edasiandmiseks, ilma selle isiku sõnu täpselt kordamata. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reported speech <ul><li>Kaudse kõne sissejuhatamiseks kasutatakse mitmeid ütlemist, arvamist, mõtlemist, küsimist või tõotamist väljendavaid verbe. </li></ul><ul><li>Tähtsaimad neist on: say, tell, think, ask, want to know, dream, promise, add. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>DIRECT SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>(otsene kõne) </li></ul><ul><li>(saatelause) He says, “I`m not a bully.” </li></ul><ul><li>Tom says, “The weatehr </li></ul><ul><li>has been awful.” </li></ul><ul><li>REPORTED SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>(kaudne kõne ) </li></ul><ul><li>He says (that) he is not </li></ul><ul><li>a bully. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom says (that) the </li></ul><ul><li>weather has been </li></ul><ul><li>awful. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Otsese kõne muutmisel kaudseks toimuvad </li></ul><ul><li>mõningad muudatused, näiteks muutuvad </li></ul><ul><li>vastavalt lause mõttele asesõnad ja mõnel </li></ul><ul><li>juhul ka verbi pöördevormid. </li></ul><ul><li>NB! Pange tähele, et sageli jäetakse that </li></ul><ul><li>ära, eriti say ja tell järel. </li></ul>
  6. 6. VÄITLAUSED (jaatavad laused) <ul><li>Kui saatelause verb </li></ul><ul><li>on minevikus (said, asked), </li></ul><ul><li>siis toimub kaudkõnes </li></ul><ul><li>kõrvallauses rida muutusi: </li></ul><ul><li>Muudame asesõna(asesõnu) - ( ka siis, Kui </li></ul><ul><li>saatelause on </li></ul><ul><li>olevikus ) </li></ul><ul><li>muudame aega – toimub nn. aegade nihe </li></ul><ul><li>present simple write(s) - past simple wrote </li></ul><ul><li>present continuous am/is/are writing - past continuous was/ were writing </li></ul><ul><li>present perfect have/has written - past perfect had written </li></ul><ul><li>past simple wrote - past perfect had written </li></ul><ul><li>future simple will write - future in the past would write </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>kui saatelause verb on minevikus, asendatakse kaudses kõnes mõned “lähedust” väljendavad sõnad “kaugust” väljendavate sõnadega: </li></ul><ul><li>that – this now – then </li></ul><ul><li>these – those today – that day </li></ul><ul><li>here – there tomorrow -. the next day </li></ul><ul><li>ago - before yesterday - the day before </li></ul><ul><li>last night – the previous night soon - later </li></ul><ul><li>next week/year – the following week/year </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>me muudame oleviku modaalverbe </li></ul><ul><li>can - could </li></ul><ul><li>will - would </li></ul><ul><li>may - might </li></ul><ul><li>shall - should </li></ul><ul><li>must - had to / must </li></ul><ul><li>me ei muuda minevikus olevaid modaalverbe </li></ul><ul><li>ought to / might / could/ would </li></ul>
  9. 9. KÜSILAUSED <ul><li>* kaudsetes üldküsimustes on - siduvaks sõnaks if või whether (kas) </li></ul><ul><li>-         sõnajärjestus on otsene, s.o. alus + öeldis + ... </li></ul><ul><li>-         abiverbid jäävad ära </li></ul><ul><li>-         saatelause say või said asendatakse küsimust väljendava verbiga ask/asked, wonder/wondered, want to know/wanted to know </li></ul><ul><li>Kaudse küsimuse sõnade järjekord on sama, mis jutustaval lausel ehk alus on enne abitegusõna ja tegusõna!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Üks tüüpilisemaid vigu suulise eksami rollimängus. </li></ul><ul><li>  * kaudsetes eriküsimustes on – siduvaks sõnaks küsisõna /what, where, when, who, how, why ...) </li></ul><ul><li>-         sõnajärjestus on otsene s.o. alus + öeldis +..... </li></ul>
  10. 10. KÄSUD JA PALVED <ul><li>* sõltuvalt sellest, mida tahetakse väljendada, kasutatakse verbe tell, order, ask, invite, recommend jne., millele järgneb sihitis (kellele) + to- infinitiiv </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher said, “ Open the door.” </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher told us to open the door. </li></ul><ul><li>* eitava käsu, palve jne. puhul on to-infinitiivi ees not: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>She said, “Don`t be late.” </li></ul><ul><li>She told me not to be late. </li></ul>
  11. 11. TERVITUSED, ÕNNITLUSED, SOOVID, TÄNU <ul><li>DIRECT SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>Hello, Tom. </li></ul><ul><li>Hello, Tim. </li></ul><ul><li>He said, “Congratulations.” </li></ul><ul><li>REPORTED SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>Tom and Tim greeted each other. </li></ul><ul><li>He congratulated me. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Introductory verbs <ul><li>+to –inf agree claim demand offer promise refuse threaten </li></ul><ul><li>Example: verb – offer direct speech – “Would you like me to help you?” reported speech – “He offered to help me.” </li></ul><ul><li>Grammarway p.109 vaata tabelit! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Introductory verbs <ul><li>+sb +to –inf advise allow ask, beg command forbid invite order remind </li></ul><ul><li>Example: verb – forbid direct speech – “You mustn’t stay out late!” reported speech – “He forbade me to stay out late.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Introductory verbs <ul><li>+ -ing form accuse sb of admit (to) apologise for boast about/of complain to sb of deny insist on suggest </li></ul><ul><li>Example: verb – suggest direct speech – “Let’s go out to dinner.” reported speech – “He suggested going out to dinner.” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Introductory verbs <ul><li>explain to sb + how Example: direch speech – “That’s how it works!” reported speech – “He explained to us how it worked.” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Introductory verbs <ul><li>+that –clause explain inform sb exclaim/remark </li></ul><ul><li>Example: verb – exclaim/remark direct speech – “What a glorious day!” reported speech – “He exclaimed/remarked that it was a glorious day.” </li></ul>
  17. 17. The verbs marked with asterisk can also be followed by a that – clause in reported speech. <ul><li>He claimed that he had won a price. </li></ul><ul><li>He promised that he would call. </li></ul><ul><li>He admitted that he was wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>He boasted that he was very rich. </li></ul><ul><li>He denied that he had taked the money. </li></ul><ul><li>He insisted that I (should) work on Saturday. </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested that we (should) take out a loan. </li></ul>

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