History of Stop Animation Unit 33 Assignment 1 By Tre Wallace.
TechniquesO Persistence of vision is where an image is kept in the eye for a short while, creating an illusion of continuous motion in film and video. Our eye has ability to persist the detail of the object for a time equal to 1/16th seconds after the removal of the object.
TechniquesO Stop animation is a cinematic process/technique that makers still objects look as there moving. This technique is mostly used in Claymation and puppet based animation. The objects are films by braking the figure into increments and taking one frame per increment of the figure moving.
TechniquesO Frame rates is the number of frames or images that are projected or displayed per second. The frame rate says how many frames in a movie are displayed every second a movie is played. The rate of frames is 24, 25 and 30 frames per second. This makes the animation look real as the human eye can only see 10 – 12 frames per second.
PioneersO Joseph Plateau (born in 14th October 1801 and dies in 15th September 1883): the first man to demonstrate the illustration of moving images. This was done by reputedly drawing the same image in with a change of motion on a counter rotating disk. This device is called a phenakistoscope.
PioneersO Charles-Émile Reynaud ( born on 8th December 1844 and died 9th January 1918): the inventor of the praxinoscope. The praxinoscope was an animation device which used a strip of pictures placed around the inner surface of a spinning cylinder.
PioneersO George pal (born on February 1st 1908 and died May 2nd 1980) : a Hungarian born film producer and American animator principally associated with the science fiction genre but also did fantasy films also.
PioneersO William George Horner (born in 1786 and died in 1834): The inventor of the zoetrope. He indented the zoetrope in 1834 under a different name which was daedaleum.
PioneersO The Lumière BrothersO Augeste Marie Lumière (born on 19th October 1862 and died on 10th April 1954) and Louis jean (born on 5th October 1864 and died on 6th June 1948): were the earliest film makers in history, they showed their footage which was the first footage to ever be recorded on March 19th 1895.
PioneersO Thomas Alva Edison (born February 11th 1847 and dies in October 18th 1931): was an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world such as:• Phonograph• The motion picture camera• A long-lasting practical electric light bulb
PioneersO Eadweard Muybridge (born on the 9th April 1830 and died on 8th may 1904): known for his pioneering work on animal loco motion which used multiple cameras to capture motion. He used his zoopraxiscope to pre date the flexible perforated film strip as it was a device for projecting motion pictures.
DevelopersO Willis Harold OBrien also known as “Obie” to his family and close friends (born on March 2nd 1886 and died on November 8th 1962): An Irish American, pioneering, motion picture special effects artist who perfected and specialized in stop-motion animation. He started from his career from being a cartoonist for the San Francisco Daily News.
DevelopersO Raymond Frederick Harryhausen (born on June 29th 1920): An American film producer and special effects creator. He is known for “Dynamation” which is a brand for stop-motion model animation. Also known for developing fantastic stories, creatures and a unique genre of fantasy films.
DevelopersO Jan Švankmajer (born on 4th September 1934): A Czech filmmaker and artist whose work spans several media. He is a self labelled surrealist known for his surreal animations and features. He mad his first film in 1964 and has been spiralling on for over 30 years making some of the most remember able films and unique animations in history.
Contemporary WorkO Timothy Walter Burton also known as “Tim” (born August 25th 1958): An American film director, film producer, writer and artist. He principle creates films that are dark and quirky themed. Tim has directed 14 films as of 2010 and produced 10 as of 2009. He also wrote and illustrated the poetry book The Melancholy Death of Oyster Boy & Other Stories which was published in 1997.
Contemporary WorkO The Brothers Quay:Stephen and Timothy Quay(born on June 17th 1947):American identical twin brothersbetter known as the BrothersQuay or Quay Brothers. Theyare influential stop-motionanimators. The quay brothersdo many experiment animationsthat don’t get shown at all untilmad in to a feature film.
Contemporary WorkO Aardman Animations also known as Aardman Studios, or simply as Aardman: A British animation studio based in Bristol, United Kingdom. The studio is known for films made using stop-motion, clay animation techniques, particularly those featuring Plasticine characters known as Wallace and Gromit. On June 23rd 2000, the animation Chicken Run was released to a great critical and financial success and Aardman successfully entered the computer animation market with Flushed Away in 2006.
Genres and FormsO Tv animation – A rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or models positioned in order to create an illusion of movement. Most TV animations are cartoons. An animated cartoon is a short, hand-drawn (or made with computers to look similar to something hand-drawn) film for the television.O Heres a list of popular TV animation shows:O Family guyO American dadO The SimpsonsO FuturamaO TMNTO Super Mario bro’s etc...O Nicktoons are animated television series produced by and aired on Nickelodeon. Until 1991, the animated series that aired on Nickelodeon were largely imported from foreign countries, and some original animated specials were also featured on the channel up to that point as well. Nicktoons continue to make up a substantial portion of Nickelodeons line-up, with roughly 6–7 hours airing on weekdays and around nine hours on weekends including a five- hour weekend morning block.
Genres and FormsO Channel idents – An identification image of the channels name/ logo being watched. It is the practice of radio, televisions stations and networks identifying them selves. When watching a programme/show on that channel the channel ident will come during commercials to show its going onto a commercial, it also does this when coming back on.O From the 1960’s to the early 90’s most broadcasters used a single ident, sometime with a theme for special events or holidays. Nowadays many networks have central themes or branding elements and most of the time these are used to build the basis for the rest of the appearance on the channel.
Genres and FormsO Advertisement – Animation soon became the proffered way to advertise on television due to its eye catching appeal, relative low cost and its deep talent pool. The list of advertisers that used animation to sell there products continued to expand as more and more companies were using it. The list has shrunken considerably with many advertisers preferring to go the live action route as they are relying more and more on special effects (mostly done through animation) and outrageous humour.O Animated characters have an additional benefit of being make believe, simulating your imagination and creating long lasting impressions. Animated characters are also easy to use to sell products through advertisement as some characters from childhoods favourite cartoons are used which have a very big fan base and will easily bring in customers to the product.O Many cereals have created there own characters such as snap crackle and pop, tony the tiger and the man from the cornflakes adverts. These being around so long has done good as they have there own very big fan base and them still being around brings in more buyers as kids still prefer to watch cartoon animations on adverts. The animations they can do is also better than the stunts real actors/ actresses can do with a lot more humour as they can be squashed, stretched and shrunk.
Genres and FormsO Cinema – Animated Films are films where individual drawings, paintings, or illustrations are photographed frame by frame to make an animation. Each frame differs slightly most of the time from the one preceding it, giving the illusion of movement when frames are projected in rapid succession at 24 frames per second.O The earliest cinema animation was composed of frame- by-frame from hand drawn images drawn with different movements, the illustrators two-dimensional static art came alive and created pure and imaginative cinematic images such as animals, heroes and villains.O The most popular animation film studios is Walt Disney and Pixar (Disney now owns Pixar). Disney began work in 1923 and made there fist film in 1937 and has continued to make feature films since. Disney have now collaborated with other studios expanding there reach and now don’t used the Walt Disney name anymore, they use Pixar.
Genres and FormsO Computer animation - The process used for generating animated images by using computer graphics. The more general term computer generated imagery encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation only refers to moving images.O Computer animation is highly specialized and requires infinitely more levels of intricate planning, application programming, and a very specific set of modelling techniques.O Modern computer animation usually uses 3D computer graphics, although 2D computer graphics are still used for stylistic, low bandwidth, and faster real- time renderings
Genres and FormsO Website - These days, you can find animated figures all across the Internet. There are a number of technologies that web designers use to create animation, including Animated GIFs, Dynamic, HTML, Java Shockwave and Flash.O Animation is just a series of still images shown in sequence, so the most obvious way to add animation to a Web site is to post a series of bitmap images that the users browser displays in sequence. This sort of animation, called GIF animation, or GIF89, was the first Web animation to catch on, and it is still very popular today.
Genres and FormsO Mobile phones – animation is use on mobiles on the opening screen as a welcome to the mobile when you turned on. It will also use an animation when turned off. Animations are also used on the background of your image such as an animations wallpaper, it will come when ever in the home screen. You can down load these animation through websites on your phone.O Also mobiles can make there own animation through the software they have such as taking many images and then putting them into an animation on the software you have for it.
Genres and FormsO Music videos - Theres a wide range of styles of film making techniques, including animation, live action filming, documentaries, and non- narrative approaches such as abstract film.O Some music videos blend different styles, such as animation and live action. Many music videos do not interpret images from the songs lyrics, making it less literal than expected.O The name for an animated music video is known as an anime music video (AMV). An anime music video is a music video consisting of clips from one or more animations set to an audio track.O There are now many bands that consist of anime music videos and are only known as animations, so there bands are shown to only be animation when on live stage or TV.