La república de panamá

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  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/Kuna_Woman_sewing.jpg/406px-Kuna_Woman_sewing.jpg
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panama_canal
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panama_canal
  • http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ip-qaYabJjeBWM:http://strangemaps.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/the-kiss-of-the-oceans-panama-canal-foreign-countries-central-america-56994.jpghttp://strangemaps.wordpress.com/2007/10/17/panama-kiss/As early as 1534, king Charles V of Spain suggested a canal in Panama across the Central American isthmus. Even with the primitive state of cartography of the day, it wasn’t hard to see how such a canal would facilitate trade and travel by eliminating the lengthy, dangerous shipping route rounding Cape Horn.One of the last acts of the independent Kingdom of Scotland was the ill-fated Darien Scheme, an attempt at setting up a colony on the isthmus, that would live off the overland trade route between Panama’s Pacific and Atlantic shores. Thousands died and the scheme’s collapse in 1700 is thought to have contributed to the Act of Union (1707), establishing the United Kingdom.The Panama Railway, opened in 1855, was a more successful reprise of the same idea, and eventually led to the creation of the Panama Canal. The initially French scheme, headed by Ferdinand de Lesseps (of later Suez Canal fame) was quite literally plagued by malaria and yellow fever, to such an extent that it was abandoned in 1893, after 13 arduous, lethal years. Some 22.000 workers died.The US undertook a second, more successful attempt at canal-digging from 1904 to 1914, completing the canal two years ahead of schedule and at a greatly smaller cost in human lives (‘only’ 5.600 died). The US retained sovereignty and control of the Panama Canal Zone – incidentally, Guantanamo Bay was ‘leased in perpetuity’ from Cuba to protect the trade routes to and from the Canal. By a 1977 treaty with the US, Panama gained control over the Canal Zone on New Year’s Eve, 1999. Some facts about the Panama Canal:• A ship sailing from New York to San Francisco would have had to travel 22.500 km (14.000 mi) before 1914. The Canal more than halved the journey, to 9.500 km (6.000 mi).• The Canal is 77 km (48 mi) long.• Each year, more than 14.000 ships pass through the Canal, carrying more than 200 million tonnes of cargo.• An average passage through the Canal takes about 9 hours.• Due to the curling of the isthmus, the Canal counterintuitively runs from the northwest (Atlantic) to the southeast (Pacific).• The canal consists of 2 sets of locks, several artifical channels and 17 artifical lakes.• The smallest vessels (up to 50 ft) pay a toll of US$500, while the most expensive toll ever was charged to the container ship MaerskDellys, paying US$249.165. The least expensive toll was paid by Richard Halliburton, who paid 36 cents to swim the Canal in 1928.• A 1934 estimate of the maximum capacity was 80 million tonnes per year, while traffic in 2005 consisted of 279 million tonnes.• Close to 50% of the vessels in the Canal are using its full width (‘Panamax’). By 2011, 37% of the world’s container ships will be too large for the Canal. These ‘post-Panamax’ ships can only be accomodated by major expansion works. An expansion proposal was approved by referendum in Panama at the end of 2006. The project, estimated to cost over US$5 billion, started on Sept. 3, 2007 with an explosion blowing the side off a mountain at Paraíso.
  • http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ip-qaYabJjeBWM:http://strangemaps.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/the-kiss-of-the-oceans-panama-canal-foreign-countries-central-america-56994.jpghttp://strangemaps.wordpress.com/2007/10/17/panama-kiss/As early as 1534, king Charles V of Spain suggested a canal in Panama across the Central American isthmus. Even with the primitive state of cartography of the day, it wasn’t hard to see how such a canal would facilitate trade and travel by eliminating the lengthy, dangerous shipping route rounding Cape Horn.One of the last acts of the independent Kingdom of Scotland was the ill-fated Darien Scheme, an attempt at setting up a colony on the isthmus, that would live off the overland trade route between Panama’s Pacific and Atlantic shores. Thousands died and the scheme’s collapse in 1700 is thought to have contributed to the Act of Union (1707), establishing the United Kingdom.The Panama Railway, opened in 1855, was a more successful reprise of the same idea, and eventually led to the creation of the Panama Canal. The initially French scheme, headed by Ferdinand de Lesseps (of later Suez Canal fame) was quite literally plagued by malaria and yellow fever, to such an extent that it was abandoned in 1893, after 13 arduous, lethal years. Some 22.000 workers died.The US undertook a second, more successful attempt at canal-digging from 1904 to 1914, completing the canal two years ahead of schedule and at a greatly smaller cost in human lives (‘only’ 5.600 died). The US retained sovereignty and control of the Panama Canal Zone – incidentally, Guantanamo Bay was ‘leased in perpetuity’ from Cuba to protect the trade routes to and from the Canal. By a 1977 treaty with the US, Panama gained control over the Canal Zone on New Year’s Eve, 1999. Some facts about the Panama Canal:• A ship sailing from New York to San Francisco would have had to travel 22.500 km (14.000 mi) before 1914. The Canal more than halved the journey, to 9.500 km (6.000 mi).• The Canal is 77 km (48 mi) long.• Each year, more than 14.000 ships pass through the Canal, carrying more than 200 million tonnes of cargo.• An average passage through the Canal takes about 9 hours.• Due to the curling of the isthmus, the Canal counterintuitively runs from the northwest (Atlantic) to the southeast (Pacific).• The canal consists of 2 sets of locks, several artifical channels and 17 artifical lakes.• The smallest vessels (up to 50 ft) pay a toll of US$500, while the most expensive toll ever was charged to the container ship MaerskDellys, paying US$249.165. The least expensive toll was paid by Richard Halliburton, who paid 36 cents to swim the Canal in 1928.• A 1934 estimate of the maximum capacity was 80 million tonnes per year, while traffic in 2005 consisted of 279 million tonnes.• Close to 50% of the vessels in the Canal are using its full width (‘Panamax’). By 2011, 37% of the world’s container ships will be too large for the Canal. These ‘post-Panamax’ ships can only be accomodated by major expansion works. An expansion proposal was approved by referendum in Panama at the end of 2006. The project, estimated to cost over US$5 billion, started on Sept. 3, 2007 with an explosion blowing the side off a mountain at Paraíso.
  • http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:9lLCpbztS2_CdM:http://www.hatsandcaps.co.uk/images/articles/panama%20hat%20quality.jpghttp://www.hatsandcaps.co.uk/Panama-Hat-Quality-Apanama_quality/1. A “Panama” hat is a reference to the straw material that a hat is made from. It is neither a style nor a quality, but rather a hat - in any style and of any quality - made from the plant carludovicapalmata, which grows in the coastal lowlands of western South America (not in Panama). Therefore, wide ranges of hat styles in a never-ending range of qualities are rightly sold as “Panama hats”. The rub is that a fair price for a Panama hat can be $5 or $5,000.2. A knowing shopper usually begins by examining the fineness of the weave. These hats are hand woven, primarily in Ecuador, and the straw itself can continually be made thinner, or finer, by dividing the strand of straw in half. Every time the straw width is halved (via fingernail), the amount of work required to weave the hat is multiplied four times. Obviously - on this basis alone - a fair price for this handiwork can be dramatically different from one hat to another.3. No matter the fineness of the straw, the work of the weaver needs examination. Look for tightly woven consistency in the straw – the fewer the gaps, holes, or bumps, the better. Look for evenness in the weave. The rows should be straight and resemble, what you may know from woolen or cotton fabrics, a small herringbone or diamond pattern.4. The color of the hat, per se, does not have a large bearing on the price, however there are some important things to consider. In the North American market, one mostly finds Panama either in natural straw or bleached white. (Colored straws are achievable via dying; these hats do turn up in stores.) Many people like the white hats, but the buyer should know that the bleaching process weakens the hat and it will likely not last a long as the unbleached natural straw. In natural straw hats, the more consistent the color is throughout the hat, the better. But remember that this is a natural material and differences in hue (sometimes slightly more gray or more reddish) are to be expected. Each hat is unique.5. Not all hats advertised as Panama hats are in fact Panama hats. The phrase, “Panama hats”, is not regulated. Materials from all over the world, some of which closely resemble carludovicapalmata, are sold as “Panama hats”. Some of these materials are quite nice and the hats are fairly priced. Others are not. Buyers beware.
  • http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:9lLCpbztS2_CdM:http://www.hatsandcaps.co.uk/images/articles/panama%20hat%20quality.jpghttp://www.hatsandcaps.co.uk/Panama-Hat-Quality-Apanama_quality/1. A “Panama” hat is a reference to the straw material that a hat is made from. It is neither a style nor a quality, but rather a hat - in any style and of any quality - made from the plant carludovicapalmata, which grows in the coastal lowlands of western South America (not in Panama). Therefore, wide ranges of hat styles in a never-ending range of qualities are rightly sold as “Panama hats”. The rub is that a fair price for a Panama hat can be $5 or $5,000.2. A knowing shopper usually begins by examining the fineness of the weave. These hats are hand woven, primarily in Ecuador, and the straw itself can continually be made thinner, or finer, by dividing the strand of straw in half. Every time the straw width is halved (via fingernail), the amount of work required to weave the hat is multiplied four times. Obviously - on this basis alone - a fair price for this handiwork can be dramatically different from one hat to another.3. No matter the fineness of the straw, the work of the weaver needs examination. Look for tightly woven consistency in the straw – the fewer the gaps, holes, or bumps, the better. Look for evenness in the weave. The rows should be straight and resemble, what you may know from woolen or cotton fabrics, a small herringbone or diamond pattern.4. The color of the hat, per se, does not have a large bearing on the price, however there are some important things to consider. In the North American market, one mostly finds Panama either in natural straw or bleached white. (Colored straws are achievable via dying; these hats do turn up in stores.) Many people like the white hats, but the buyer should know that the bleaching process weakens the hat and it will likely not last a long as the unbleached natural straw. In natural straw hats, the more consistent the color is throughout the hat, the better. But remember that this is a natural material and differences in hue (sometimes slightly more gray or more reddish) are to be expected. Each hat is unique.5. Not all hats advertised as Panama hats are in fact Panama hats. The phrase, “Panama hats”, is not regulated. Materials from all over the world, some of which closely resemble carludovicapalmata, are sold as “Panama hats”. Some of these materials are quite nice and the hats are fairly priced. Others are not. Buyers beware.
  • http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:UO1Gln5wW08yRM:http://panamacascoviejo.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/copia-de-brooke-alfaro-003.jpg“September 5, 2008Panama Art: Casco Antiguo residents in Brook Alfaro´s artFiled under: Art, Casco Viejo community, Casco Viejo tourism, Know Panama, Urban Art, tourism — panamacascoviejo @ 6:16 pm Tags: Casco Antiguo, Casco Viejo, Painting, Panama, Panamanian Artists, TravelPanama, Casco Viejo – Casco Antiguo, San FelipeBrook Alfaro painting of Woman From ChorrilloThe first time I met Brook Alfaro was at least ten years ago. He was recently moving into his apartment in Casco Viejo, and he was one of the first founders of FundacionCalicanto, which at the time was fighting to include Casco Antiguo into UNESCO´s World Heritage Sites. It was probably also the first time I walked into a true artist´s studio. His apartment was very beautiful, but I didn´t really notice (until after, of course). What got me was his painting room, with the canvases on work. Color everywhere, as I have never seen before that time. I have always had this fascination with work “on the works” … what was it before it got completed. And on both ends ” on the works” and “finished”, Brook´s paintings make an impact.He´s themes where always very human, mostly inspired in the people of San Felipe, Santa Ana and Chorrillo. At some point, he decided to explore other media and went radically different: he went to digital and video. A part of me was dissapointed since I´m such a fan of his paintings, but another part of me said: “well, about time a good professional guy raised the bar in art video in Panama”. And he did, also exposing the raw parts of our society.As a person, Brook can be overlooked, with his big eyes and curly white hair, you know he is in art but you are not quite sure in which one. His temperament is so mellow and relaxed that the last thing you can imagine is that he is the author of such hurricanes of painted (or filmed) emotions.Yesterday, with great pleasure, I see him again in the cover of La Prensa´s “K” magazine. He is back into painting. Although he moved out of San Felipe (but still kept his apartment!), he never left it. His inspiration is still in the same spot, as it has proven to be so rich. This time, he is exploring portraits. He has come back with his classic combination of humor and intensity. Or just humor or just intensity. He might play either one or at the same time!Welcome back Brook, we missed you. And thanks for the good work!”
  • http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:UO1Gln5wW08yRM:http://panamacascoviejo.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/copia-de-brooke-alfaro-003.jpg“September 5, 2008Panama Art: Casco Antiguo residents in Brook Alfaro´s artFiled under: Art, Casco Viejo community, Casco Viejo tourism, Know Panama, Urban Art, tourism — panamacascoviejo @ 6:16 pm Tags: Casco Antiguo, Casco Viejo, Painting, Panama, Panamanian Artists, TravelPanama, Casco Viejo – Casco Antiguo, San FelipeBrook Alfaro painting of Woman From ChorrilloThe first time I met Brook Alfaro was at least ten years ago. He was recently moving into his apartment in Casco Viejo, and he was one of the first founders of FundacionCalicanto, which at the time was fighting to include Casco Antiguo into UNESCO´s World Heritage Sites. It was probably also the first time I walked into a true artist´s studio. His apartment was very beautiful, but I didn´t really notice (until after, of course). What got me was his painting room, with the canvases on work. Color everywhere, as I have never seen before that time. I have always had this fascination with work “on the works” … what was it before it got completed. And on both ends ” on the works” and “finished”, Brook´s paintings make an impact.He´s themes where always very human, mostly inspired in the people of San Felipe, Santa Ana and Chorrillo. At some point, he decided to explore other media and went radically different: he went to digital and video. A part of me was dissapointed since I´m such a fan of his paintings, but another part of me said: “well, about time a good professional guy raised the bar in art video in Panama”. And he did, also exposing the raw parts of our society.As a person, Brook can be overlooked, with his big eyes and curly white hair, you know he is in art but you are not quite sure in which one. His temperament is so mellow and relaxed that the last thing you can imagine is that he is the author of such hurricanes of painted (or filmed) emotions.Yesterday, with great pleasure, I see him again in the cover of La Prensa´s “K” magazine. He is back into painting. Although he moved out of San Felipe (but still kept his apartment!), he never left it. His inspiration is still in the same spot, as it has proven to be so rich. This time, he is exploring portraits. He has come back with his classic combination of humor and intensity. Or just humor or just intensity. He might play either one or at the same time!Welcome back Brook, we missed you. And thanks for the good work!”
  • The French were a big help in building the Panama Canal. There is a cemetery, too, where the French that died in building the canal are buried.French Plaza (Plaza de Francia) in Casco Viejo. In the image, a monument erected in the Plaza de Francia in honor of the workers and French engineers that participated in the construction of the Panama Canal.
  • The French were a big help in building the Panama Canal. There is a cemetery, too, where the French that died in building the canal are buried.French Plaza (Plaza de Francia) in Casco Viejo. In the image, a monument erected in the Plaza de Francia in honor of the workers and French engineers that participated in the construction of the Panama Canal.
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/M._Balboa.JPG/220px-M._Balboa.JPGhttp://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monumento_a_Vasco_N%C3%BA%C3%B1ez_de_BalboaFue inaugurada por el presidente Belisario Porras, conmovido por el espíritu de líder y la heroicidad de Vasco Núñez de Balboa, se vio motivado a inaugurar este monumento en 1924, que fue esculpido y construido por Mariano Benlliure y Miguel Blay, y donado posteriormente, por el Rey Alfonso XIII de España. Esta iniciativa fue apoyada por 15 países latinoamericanos. Este acontecimiento contó con la presencia de seis mil personas, incluyendo el presidente Porras, delegaciones diplomáticas y distinguidas personalidades del mundo político, social y económico nacional e internacional de la época.
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/M._Balboa.JPG/220px-M._Balboa.JPGhttp://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monumento_a_Vasco_N%C3%BA%C3%B1ez_de_BalboaFue inaugurada por el presidente Belisario Porras, conmovido por el espíritu de líder y la heroicidad de Vasco Núñez de Balboa, se vio motivado a inaugurar este monumento en 1924, que fue esculpido y construido por Mariano Benlliure y Miguel Blay, y donado posteriormente, por el Rey Alfonso XIII de España. Esta iniciativa fue apoyada por 15 países latinoamericanos. Este acontecimiento contó con la presencia de seis mil personas, incluyendo el presidente Porras, delegaciones diplomáticas y distinguidas personalidades del mundo político, social y económico nacional e internacional de la época.
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ab/Flag_of_Panama.svg/450px-Flag_of_Panama.svg.png
  • La república de panamá

    1. 1. La República de Panamá <br />Diane Brooks<br />FL490<br />
    2. 2. Explain how the canal works according to the information here.<br />
    3. 3. Explíquemecomofunciona el canal desde la informaciónaquí.<br />
    4. 4. What, in your opinion, does the “kiss” mean between the Americas?<br />
    5. 5. ¿Qué, en tuopinión, quieredecireste “besito” entre lasaméricas?<br />
    6. 6. What does this photo have to do with hats? Explain your answer.<br />
    7. 7. ¿Quétienequehacerestefoto con los sombreros? Expíquemelasurespuesta.<br />
    8. 8. This is called “Painting of Woman From Chorrillo.” Tell me what you think of Brook Alfaro and his art.<br />
    9. 9. Este es arte de el Señor Brook Alfaro y se llama “painting of Woman From Chorrillo.” Dígamequepiensas de estepintor y su arte. <br />
    10. 10. This monument is in Panama city. It celebrates the French. Why would there be a statue for French people in Panama?<br />
    11. 11. Este monumntoestá en la Ciudad de Panamá. Es paracelebrar a los franceses. ¿Porqué hay un monumentopara los franceses en Panamá?<br />
    12. 12. Thismonument, dedicatedto Señor de Balboa, is in Panama. Whatdoesit “mean” forSpain?<br />
    13. 13. Monumento a Vasco Núñez de Balboa en la Ciudad de Panamá: ¿Qué significa esta estatua para los españoles?<br />
    14. 14. "Pro Mundi Beneficio"  <br />"For the Benefit of the World"<br />

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