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BIG DATA IN
UNDERSTANDING
URBAN
(AND REGIONAL)
DYNAMICS
TUULI TOIVONEN /
DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB
KEYNOTE PRESENTATION AT NOR...
BIG DATA IN
UNDERSTANDING
URBAN
(AND REGIONAL)
DYNAMICS
TUULI TOIVONEN /
DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB
BIG DATA FOR MOBILITY ANALYSIS
BIG DATA FOR MOBILITY ANALYSIS
TOWARDS 24 HOUR SOCIETY
TOWARDS INCREASED MOBILITY
AND MORE MOBILITY OPTIONS
TOWARDS SMARTER/SUSTAINABLE CITIES?
TOWARDS MORE
INVIDUALISTIC SOCIETY
HELSINKI IS…
Photo: Visit Helsinki/Jussi Hellsten
TOWARDS NEW REGIONS?
SOCIETY OF MOBILITIES
The space of flows in the global network society
(Castells, 1996)
“The new mobilities paradigm” in s...
SOURCES OF SPATIAL BIG DATA
ON PEOPLE
COLLECTION
CAMPAIGNS
USER-GENERATED
CONTENT
(AS A SIDE PRODUCT)
USER-GENERATED
CONTE...
BIG DATA AS AN
INFORMATION SOURCE
• The emergence of big novel data sources (Kitchin, 2014)
provide new opportunities – di...
Toivonen, T., Heikinheimo, V., Fink, C., Hausmann, A., Hiippala, T., Järv, O.,
Tenkanen, H., Di Minin, E.
Social media dat...
(Järv et al. 2017)
• ANTENNA LEVEL DATA
• CDR DATA
• EEA DATA
WHERE?
WHAT?
WHY?WHO?
WHEN?
GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS
USER
PROFILES
CONTENTS
Di Minin, Tenkanen & Toivonen (2015)
Frontiers in En...
WHERE? WHEN?
GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS
USER
PROFILES
CONTENTS
DYNAMICS OF
PEOPLE
NATIONAL PARK VISITS VS.
SOCIAL MEDIA USERS
Tenkanen et al. (2017) Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 17615
Levin et al. (2015) Where have all the
people gone? Enhancing global
conservation using night lights and social
media.
Eco...
R: 0.94
FINNISH NATIONAL PARK VISITS VS. SOCIAL
MEDIA USERS
Tenkanen et al. (2017) Scientific reports
Total photo-user-days each week from
2006–2012 in (a) Zuccotti Park, the site of
the occupy protest, (b) Black Rock Desert...
Bergroth 2019, https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/302228
Urban pulse on a 24-hour cycle in Helsinki
Urban pulse in different areas Bergroth 2019
ESTIMATED HOURLY SHARE OF POPULATION WITHIN THE INNER
CITY OF HELSINKI
Bergroth 2019
Bergroth 2019
CUMULATIVE POPULATION REACHING THE CLOSEST
GROCERY STORE BY PUBIC TRANSPORTATION
Digital Geography Lab
Bikesharing in Helsinki
Elias Willberg 2019
Read more: https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/301581
WHERE? WHEN?
GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS
USER
PROFILES
CONTENTS
DYNAMICS OF
PEOPLE
MOBILITY
INTERNATIONAL MOBILITIES to
KRUGER NATIONAL PARK
Toivonen, T., Heikinheimo, V., Fink, C., Hausmann, A., Hiippala, T., Järv...
CROSS BORDER MOBILITIES: TWEET MOBILITIES OF FINNS (YELLOW) AND ESTONIANS (BLUE)
WHO HAVE TWEETED IN BOTH COUNTRIES.
Ongoi...
Digital Geography Lab
CROSS BORDER MOBILITIES: RUSSIAN MOBILITIES TO ESTONIA (GREEN), FINLAND (YELLOW)
AND BETWEEN THE TWO...
EVERYDAY CROSSBORDER
COMMUTING PATTERNS
Homes locations of cross-border commuters of Luxembourg
Twitter data 2013-2018 vs ...
TWITTER
CONNECTIONS
> 750
Sample: Twitter
users who
have posted in
Finland and Estonia
Work by Olle Järv,
Tuomas Väisänen ...
TWITTER
CONNECTIONS
> 150
Sample: Twitter
users who
have posted in
Finland and Estonia
Work by Olle Järv,
Tuomas Väisänen ...
TWITTER
CONNECTIONS
> 50
Sample: Twitter
users who
have posted in
Finland and Estonia
Work by Olle Järv,
Tuomas Väisänen e...
TWITTER
CONNECTIONS
> 15
Sample: Twitter
users who
have posted in
Finland and Estonia
Work by Olle Järv,
Tuomas Väisänen e...
SEINÄJOKI TWITTER
MOBILE PHONE
MOBILITIES
WITHIN ONE DAY
Source:
Telia Crowd Insights
Daily trips between municipalities
14.5 - 20.5.2018 & ...
MUNICIPALITIES WITH MOST
CONNECTIONS WITH SEINÄJOKI
Source:
Telia Crowd Insights
Daily trips between municipalities
14.5 -...
FUNCTIONAL REGIONS BASED ON MOBILITY
Ahas, R., Silm, S., Leetmaa, K., Tammaru, T., Saluveer, E., Järv, O., Aasa, A., Tiru,...
WHAT?
WHY?
GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS
USER PROFILES CONTENTS
DYNAMICSOF
PEOPLE
WHO?
PALLAS-YLLÄS NATIONAL PARK
Posts from a Finnish Instagram-user. 107 posts in total.
PALLAS-YLLÄS NATIONAL PARK
Rogers Pass Summit,
Canada
Schladming-Dachstein, Austria Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park,
Finland
Posts from a Finnish I...
Enjoying the #spring
#sun of Lapland.
So though climb that
had to walk. Now back
to skis! #skiing #pallasylläs
Digital Geography Lab
Enjoying the #spring
#sun of Lapland.
So though climb that
had to walk. Now back
to skis! #skiing #p...
Toivonen et al. 2019, in press (Conservation Biology)
GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS
USER PROFILES CONTENTS
DYNAMICSOF
PEOPLE
WHO?
Revealing combinations
(Toivonen et al. 2019)
Languages
Tuomas Väisänen 2018, https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/301822
Hiippala et al. 2018
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, fqy049, https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqy049
WHERE?
WHAT?
WHY?WHO?
WHEN?
GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS
USER
PROFILES
CONTENTS
Di Minin, Tenkanen & Toivonen (2015)
Frontiers in En...
DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVITY LOCATIONS
OUTSIDE TALLINN VISITED DURING ONE YEAR
The symbol size denotes the relative share of l...
WHERE?
WHAT?
WHY?WHO?
WHEN?
GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS
USER
PROFILES
CONTENTS
Di Minin, Tenkanen & Toivonen (2015)
Frontiers in En...
BIG DATA PROVIDES
COMPLETELY NEW VIEWS ON THE
URBAN AND REGIONAL
DYNAMICS
VOLUME VARIETYVELOCITY
WHO HAS THE RIGHT TO
INFORMATION?
WHO HAS THE RIGHT TO
INFORMATION?
ARE WE MOVING BACK FROM
OPEN TO PROPRIETARY?
BIG DATA MAY TURN OUT
TO BE TOO SMALL
VOLUME?
VISUALISING,
ANALYSING,
VERYFYING
VERACITYVOLUME VELOCITY
VISUALISING,
ANALYSING,
VERYFYING
VERACITYVOLUME VELOCITY
MEANINGFUL
QUESTIONS!
DATA ANALYSIS IS CHALLENGING
– COLLABORATION IS VITAL
VARIETY VERACITYVARIABILITY
THERE IS ALWAYS BIAS:
WHO IS REPRESENTED?
VERACITYVERACITY
SPATIAL IS SPECIAL EVEN IN
BIG DATA ANALYTICS
VOLUME VARIETYVELOCITY
POSSIBILITY TO UNDERSTAND
THE DYNAMICS OF URBAN AND
REGIONAL DYNAMICS BETTER
-DAVIDS AND GOLIATHS-
VOLUME VARIETYVELOCITY
19.6.2019
KIITOS!
DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY
LABSupporting sustainable spatial planning
using digital data and novel methods
http://www.helsinki.fi/d...
THANKS TO MANY PEOPLE!
Enrico
Di Minin
Anna
Hausmann
Henrikki
Tenkanen
Olle
Järv
Vuokko
Heikinheimo
Tuomo
Hiippala
Support...
72
READ THIS PAPER IF INTERESTED IN USING or POTENTIAL OF SOCIAL MEDIA:
Chapters 1-2 relate to conservation science, from ...
NoRSA 2019 Keynote: Tuuli Toivonen - Big Data for Analysing Urban and Regional Dynamics
NoRSA 2019 Keynote: Tuuli Toivonen - Big Data for Analysing Urban and Regional Dynamics
NoRSA 2019 Keynote: Tuuli Toivonen - Big Data for Analysing Urban and Regional Dynamics
NoRSA 2019 Keynote: Tuuli Toivonen - Big Data for Analysing Urban and Regional Dynamics
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NoRSA 2019 Keynote: Tuuli Toivonen - Big Data for Analysing Urban and Regional Dynamics

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Keynote presentation at NoRSA 2019 Conference Seinäjoki, Finland, 19th June 2019, Https://Events.Uta.Fi/Norsa2019/


Big data in understanding urban (and regional) dynamics.

To learn more about our work, visit:
https://www.helsinki.fi/en/researchgroups/digital-geography-lab or follow us on Twitter: @digigeolab @TuuliToivonen

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NoRSA 2019 Keynote: Tuuli Toivonen - Big Data for Analysing Urban and Regional Dynamics

  1. 1. BIG DATA IN UNDERSTANDING URBAN (AND REGIONAL) DYNAMICS TUULI TOIVONEN / DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB KEYNOTE PRESENTATION AT NORSA 2019 CONFERENCE SEINÄJOKI, 19TH JUNE 2019, HTTPS://EVENTS.UTA.FI/NORSA2019/
  2. 2. BIG DATA IN UNDERSTANDING URBAN (AND REGIONAL) DYNAMICS TUULI TOIVONEN / DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LAB
  3. 3. BIG DATA FOR MOBILITY ANALYSIS
  4. 4. BIG DATA FOR MOBILITY ANALYSIS
  5. 5. TOWARDS 24 HOUR SOCIETY
  6. 6. TOWARDS INCREASED MOBILITY AND MORE MOBILITY OPTIONS
  7. 7. TOWARDS SMARTER/SUSTAINABLE CITIES?
  8. 8. TOWARDS MORE INVIDUALISTIC SOCIETY
  9. 9. HELSINKI IS… Photo: Visit Helsinki/Jussi Hellsten TOWARDS NEW REGIONS?
  10. 10. SOCIETY OF MOBILITIES The space of flows in the global network society (Castells, 1996) “The new mobilities paradigm” in social sciences (Urry 2000; Sheller & Urry 2007) Interdependent & constant mobilities of everything: people, objects, images, information, wastes… Mobility, a prerequisite for social interaction, the creation of social status & socio-spatial inequalities (Kaufmann et al., 2004) Mobilities as a new form of capital (Kaufmann et al., 2004; Urry, 2007)
  11. 11. SOURCES OF SPATIAL BIG DATA ON PEOPLE COLLECTION CAMPAIGNS USER-GENERATED CONTENT (AS A SIDE PRODUCT) USER-GENERATED CONTENT (ACTIVE) • Remote sensing, laser scanning • Surveillance cameras (CCTV; ANPR) • Visitor counters • Registrations (border control) • Use of smart phone • Loyalty cards • Internet use (WLAN, clicks) • Use of mobile Apps • Social Media • Sports Applications
  12. 12. BIG DATA AS AN INFORMATION SOURCE • The emergence of big novel data sources (Kitchin, 2014) provide new opportunities – digital footprints – to understanding the realities of our environment and societies!
  13. 13. Toivonen, T., Heikinheimo, V., Fink, C., Hausmann, A., Hiippala, T., Järv, O., Tenkanen, H., Di Minin, E. Social media data for conservation science: a methodological overview. Biological Conservation (2019).
  14. 14. (Järv et al. 2017) • ANTENNA LEVEL DATA • CDR DATA • EEA DATA
  15. 15. WHERE? WHAT? WHY?WHO? WHEN? GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS USER PROFILES CONTENTS Di Minin, Tenkanen & Toivonen (2015) Frontiers in Environmental Science DYNAMICS OF PEOPLE
  16. 16. WHERE? WHEN? GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS USER PROFILES CONTENTS DYNAMICS OF PEOPLE
  17. 17. NATIONAL PARK VISITS VS. SOCIAL MEDIA USERS Tenkanen et al. (2017) Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 17615
  18. 18. Levin et al. (2015) Where have all the people gone? Enhancing global conservation using night lights and social media. Ecological Applications Volume 25, Issue 8, pages 2153-2167, 1 DEC 2015 DOI: 10.1890/15-0113.1 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1890/15- 0113.1/full#i1051-0761-25-8-2153-f04
  19. 19. R: 0.94 FINNISH NATIONAL PARK VISITS VS. SOCIAL MEDIA USERS Tenkanen et al. (2017) Scientific reports
  20. 20. Total photo-user-days each week from 2006–2012 in (a) Zuccotti Park, the site of the occupy protest, (b) Black Rock Desert, the site of the Burning Man festival, and (c) southern Vermont, an area popular for viewing autumn foliage. Grey shading indicates time periods from the start of the protest until people were barred from the park (a), three weeks spanning the annual week-long festival (b), or the month of October each year (c). Wood et al. (2013) http://www.nature.com/articles/srep02976
  21. 21. Bergroth 2019, https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/302228 Urban pulse on a 24-hour cycle in Helsinki
  22. 22. Urban pulse in different areas Bergroth 2019
  23. 23. ESTIMATED HOURLY SHARE OF POPULATION WITHIN THE INNER CITY OF HELSINKI Bergroth 2019
  24. 24. Bergroth 2019 CUMULATIVE POPULATION REACHING THE CLOSEST GROCERY STORE BY PUBIC TRANSPORTATION
  25. 25. Digital Geography Lab Bikesharing in Helsinki Elias Willberg 2019 Read more: https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/301581
  26. 26. WHERE? WHEN? GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS USER PROFILES CONTENTS DYNAMICS OF PEOPLE MOBILITY
  27. 27. INTERNATIONAL MOBILITIES to KRUGER NATIONAL PARK Toivonen, T., Heikinheimo, V., Fink, C., Hausmann, A., Hiippala, T., Järv, O., Tenkanen, H., Di Minin, E. Social media data for conservation science: a methodological overview. Biological Conservation (2019). READ THIS PAPER IF INTERESTED IN USING SOCIAL MEDIA: Chapters 1-2 relate to conservation science, from Chapter 3 onwards general data description and methods useful for any spatial analytics.
  28. 28. CROSS BORDER MOBILITIES: TWEET MOBILITIES OF FINNS (YELLOW) AND ESTONIANS (BLUE) WHO HAVE TWEETED IN BOTH COUNTRIES. Ongoing work by Olle Järv, Tuomas Väisänen et al. Read more via https://bit.ly/31KELHo !
  29. 29. Digital Geography Lab CROSS BORDER MOBILITIES: RUSSIAN MOBILITIES TO ESTONIA (GREEN), FINLAND (YELLOW) AND BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES (PINK). Ongoing work by Olle Järv, Tuomas Väisänen et al. Read more via https://bit.ly/31KELHo !
  30. 30. EVERYDAY CROSSBORDER COMMUTING PATTERNS Homes locations of cross-border commuters of Luxembourg Twitter data 2013-2018 vs Register data 2010 Authors: O. Järv, S. Massinen. DGL 2019 Cross-border mobility Based on Twitter data Ongoing work by Olle Järv, Samuli Massinen, et al. Read more via https://bit.ly/31KELHo !
  31. 31. TWITTER CONNECTIONS > 750 Sample: Twitter users who have posted in Finland and Estonia Work by Olle Järv, Tuomas Väisänen et al.
  32. 32. TWITTER CONNECTIONS > 150 Sample: Twitter users who have posted in Finland and Estonia Work by Olle Järv, Tuomas Väisänen et al.
  33. 33. TWITTER CONNECTIONS > 50 Sample: Twitter users who have posted in Finland and Estonia Work by Olle Järv, Tuomas Väisänen et al.
  34. 34. TWITTER CONNECTIONS > 15 Sample: Twitter users who have posted in Finland and Estonia Work by Olle Järv, Tuomas Väisänen et al.
  35. 35. SEINÄJOKI TWITTER
  36. 36. MOBILE PHONE MOBILITIES WITHIN ONE DAY Source: Telia Crowd Insights Daily trips between municipalities 14.5 - 20.5.2018 & 2.7 – 8.7.2018
  37. 37. MUNICIPALITIES WITH MOST CONNECTIONS WITH SEINÄJOKI Source: Telia Crowd Insights Daily trips between municipalities 14.5 - 20.5.2018 & 2.7 – 8.7.2018
  38. 38. FUNCTIONAL REGIONS BASED ON MOBILITY Ahas, R., Silm, S., Leetmaa, K., Tammaru, T., Saluveer, E., Järv, O., Aasa, A., Tiru, M. (2010). The Regional Commuting Study. Estonian Ministry of the Interior.
  39. 39. WHAT? WHY? GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS USER PROFILES CONTENTS DYNAMICSOF PEOPLE WHO?
  40. 40. PALLAS-YLLÄS NATIONAL PARK
  41. 41. Posts from a Finnish Instagram-user. 107 posts in total. PALLAS-YLLÄS NATIONAL PARK
  42. 42. Rogers Pass Summit, Canada Schladming-Dachstein, Austria Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park, Finland Posts from a Finnish Instagram-user. 107 posts in total. PALLAS-YLLÄS NATIONAL PARK
  43. 43. Enjoying the #spring #sun of Lapland. So though climb that had to walk. Now back to skis! #skiing #pallasylläs
  44. 44. Digital Geography Lab Enjoying the #spring #sun of Lapland. So though climb that had to walk. Now back to skis! #skiing #pallasylläs Enjoying the #spring #sun of Lapland. So though climb that had to walk. Now back to skis! #skiing #pallasylläs A tree with snow Two people skiing Snow on the ground
  45. 45. Toivonen et al. 2019, in press (Conservation Biology)
  46. 46. GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS USER PROFILES CONTENTS DYNAMICSOF PEOPLE WHO?
  47. 47. Revealing combinations (Toivonen et al. 2019)
  48. 48. Languages Tuomas Väisänen 2018, https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/301822
  49. 49. Hiippala et al. 2018 Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, fqy049, https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqy049
  50. 50. WHERE? WHAT? WHY?WHO? WHEN? GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS USER PROFILES CONTENTS Di Minin, Tenkanen & Toivonen (2015) Frontiers in Environmental Science DYNAMICS OF PEOPLE
  51. 51. DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVITY LOCATIONS OUTSIDE TALLINN VISITED DURING ONE YEAR The symbol size denotes the relative share of locations, and colour represents the share of Russian-speaking visitors.
  52. 52. WHERE? WHAT? WHY?WHO? WHEN? GEOTAGS TIMESTAMPS USER PROFILES CONTENTS Di Minin, Tenkanen & Toivonen (2015) Frontiers in Environmental Science DYNAMICS OF PEOPLE
  53. 53. BIG DATA PROVIDES COMPLETELY NEW VIEWS ON THE URBAN AND REGIONAL DYNAMICS VOLUME VARIETYVELOCITY
  54. 54. WHO HAS THE RIGHT TO INFORMATION?
  55. 55. WHO HAS THE RIGHT TO INFORMATION? ARE WE MOVING BACK FROM OPEN TO PROPRIETARY?
  56. 56. BIG DATA MAY TURN OUT TO BE TOO SMALL VOLUME?
  57. 57. VISUALISING, ANALYSING, VERYFYING VERACITYVOLUME VELOCITY
  58. 58. VISUALISING, ANALYSING, VERYFYING VERACITYVOLUME VELOCITY MEANINGFUL QUESTIONS!
  59. 59. DATA ANALYSIS IS CHALLENGING – COLLABORATION IS VITAL VARIETY VERACITYVARIABILITY
  60. 60. THERE IS ALWAYS BIAS: WHO IS REPRESENTED? VERACITYVERACITY
  61. 61. SPATIAL IS SPECIAL EVEN IN BIG DATA ANALYTICS VOLUME VARIETYVELOCITY
  62. 62. POSSIBILITY TO UNDERSTAND THE DYNAMICS OF URBAN AND REGIONAL DYNAMICS BETTER -DAVIDS AND GOLIATHS- VOLUME VARIETYVELOCITY
  63. 63. 19.6.2019 KIITOS!
  64. 64. DIGITAL GEOGRAPHY LABSupporting sustainable spatial planning using digital data and novel methods http://www.helsinki.fi/digital-geography @DigiGeoLab @TuuliToivonen
  65. 65. THANKS TO MANY PEOPLE! Enrico Di Minin Anna Hausmann Henrikki Tenkanen Olle Järv Vuokko Heikinheimo Tuomo Hiippala Supporting sustainable spatial planning using digital data and novel methods http://www.helsinki.fi/digital-geography Christoph Fink Tuomas Väisänen Samuli Massinen Elias Willberg Claudia Bergroth
  66. 66. 72 READ THIS PAPER IF INTERESTED IN USING or POTENTIAL OF SOCIAL MEDIA: Chapters 1-2 relate to conservation science, from Chapter 3 onwards general data description and methods useful for any spatial analytics.

Keynote presentation at NoRSA 2019 Conference Seinäjoki, Finland, 19th June 2019, Https://Events.Uta.Fi/Norsa2019/ Big data in understanding urban (and regional) dynamics. To learn more about our work, visit: https://www.helsinki.fi/en/researchgroups/digital-geography-lab or follow us on Twitter: @digigeolab @TuuliToivonen

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