Why We Need to Cite Previous Scholars and Researchers: The 8 Rhetoric Reasons
Why We Need toCite Previous Scholars and Researchers: The 8 Rhetoric Reasons Presentation by: Wycliff Edwin Tusiime Researcher: Vocational Teacher EducationOslo & Akershus University College, Norway March, 2013
Citations are used to recognizeand acknowledge the intellectualproperty rights of authors. Theyare a matter of ethics and adefense against plagiarism(Swales & Freak, 2009).
Citations are used to show respectto previous to previous scholars.They recognize the history of thefield by acknowledging previousachievements(Swales & Freak, 2009).
Citations are reading guides; they pointthe reader to the relevant works(Swales & Freak, 2009).
Citations project what the writer perceives to bethe relevant work; they establish an intellectualnetwork (White, 2001)
Citations are used tocreate a research spacefor the citing author. Bydescribing what has beendone, citations point theway to what has not beendone and so prepare aspace for new research(Swales, 1990)
Citations are used todemonstrate that the authorqualifies as a member of thechosen scholarly community;citations are used todemonstrate familiarity withthe field (Bavelas, 1978)
Citations are toolsof persuasion; weuse them to givestatements greaterauthority(Gilbert, 1977).
Citations operate as a kind of mutual rewardsystem. Rather than pay other authors moneyfor their contributions, writers pay them incitations (Ravetz, 1971)
Discussiona) Which of these 8 Rhetoric reasons presented contribute the least to your understanding of citation use?b) What simple, straight forward answer would you choose from the 8 reasons presented and why?