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Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT)

A detailed presentation about what is MOT. Explaining its principles, sigma and pi bonds, bond order, and molecular stability. A good and knowledgeable presentation to understand these concepts.

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CHEMISTRY PRESENTATION
MOLECULAR
ORBITAL THEORY
INTRODUCTION
 MOT - initially developed by Robert S. Mullikan.
- the bonding between atoms is described.
- provides answers to more complex
questions.
- allows one to predict the distribution of
electrons
 And this in turn can help predict molecular
properties such as shape, magnetism, and Bond
Order.
PRINCIPLES OF MOT
 In molecules, atomic orbitals combine to form
molecular orbitals which surround the
molecule.
Molecular Orbitals
Bonding Antibonding
 Molecular bonds have lower potential energy
than in separate atomic orbitals.
 Thus, electrons prefer to stay in a molecular
bond.
Equal no. of orbitals Order of Energy
Atomic orbitals of
like energies.
Following both
the Pauli exclusion
principle and Hund's
rule
Principles
Antibonding
Molecular
Orbital
Bonding
Molecular
Orbital

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Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT)

  • 2. INTRODUCTION  MOT - initially developed by Robert S. Mullikan. - the bonding between atoms is described. - provides answers to more complex questions. - allows one to predict the distribution of electrons  And this in turn can help predict molecular properties such as shape, magnetism, and Bond Order.
  • 3. PRINCIPLES OF MOT  In molecules, atomic orbitals combine to form molecular orbitals which surround the molecule. Molecular Orbitals Bonding Antibonding
  • 4.  Molecular bonds have lower potential energy than in separate atomic orbitals.  Thus, electrons prefer to stay in a molecular bond.
  • 5. Equal no. of orbitals Order of Energy Atomic orbitals of like energies. Following both the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule Principles
  • 8. SIGMA BONDS (σ)  They are symmetrical about the axis  Antibonding Sigma Orbital (abbreviated σ*) Bonding Sigma Orbital (abbreviated σ)
  • 11. PI BONDS (π)  The pi bonding bonds as a side to side overlap, which then causes there to be no electron density along the axis, but there is density above and belong the axis.
  • 13. DETERMINING BOND ORDER  Bond Order indicates the strength of the bond. The higher the Bond Order, the stronger the bond. Bond Order= 1/2(a-b) where, a = number of e- in bonding Molecular Orbitals b = number of e- in antibondng Molecular Orbitals.
  • 14. STABILITY OF THE MOLECULE  If the Bond Order is Zero, then no bonds are produced and the molecule is not stable (for example He2).  If the Bond Order is 1, then it is a single covalent bond.  The higher the Bond Order, the more stable the molecule is.