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Basic Civil and Environmental Engineering, Unit I [Based on First year Engineering SPPU syllabus]


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Useful for First year Engineering Students of Savitribai Phule Pune university, Pune (University of Pune) [Common to all Branches]
This PPT shows the details regarding Introduction to Civil Engineering.
This is first Module from the subject Basic Civil and Environmental Engineering. [101005]
Few more PPTs and Videos are available at my blog

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Basic Civil and Environmental Engineering, Unit I [Based on First year Engineering SPPU syllabus]

  1. 1. SNJB’s Late Sau Kantabai Bhavarlalji Jain College of Engineering,Chandwad(Nashik) Department of Civil Engineering BASIC CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
  2. 2. Civil Engineering is a Professional branch of Engineering which deals with Planning, Designing, Construction and Maintanance of Physical and the Environmental Works like Road, Bridge, Dams, Buildings etc.
  4. 4. Disciplines and Engineer • Surveying Surveyor • Construction Engineering Site Engineer • Project Management Project / Construction Manager • Quantity Surveying Estimator / Estimation Engg / Valuer • Earthquake Engineering Seismic Engineer • Town Planning Town Planner • Geology Geologist • Structural Engineering Structural Engineer
  5. 5. Applications of Civil Engineering Disciplines • Surveying  Preperation of Maps and Plans  Relative Position of Earth Surface  Horizontal Distance bet. Two Points.  Allignment, Gradient and Levels of Road, Railway, Tunnel, Bridge, Electric Tower/ Pole, water supply lines, sewage lines, gas lines.  Contour Maps  Horizontal Distance and Vertical Difference bet. Various points on the ground.  Aerial Photography of Earth’s Surface Remote Sensing (An advanced method of surveying)  Area under Agriculture, Area under Forest.  Investigation of Rocks  Environmental Studies and Monitoring Water Resources.
  6. 6. CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING I. Substructure II. Superstructure  Types of Structures 1. Load Bearing Structures 2. Framed Structures 3. Composite Structures
  7. 7. Modes of Transportation system Roadways Railways Airways Waterways TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
  8. 8. TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING with design, development, Construction and Maintanance of 1. Roadways 2. Railways 3. Airways 4. Docks / Waterways 5. Tunnels 6. Bridges  Easy and quick transportation of Goods and materials.  Faster development of area, Increasing the accessibility of Remote and rural areas.  Vital role in Emergency, War, Natural and Artificial Calamities. e.g. Role of Bridges, Airways in case of Flood [May2002,04,06,07,Dec.09]
  9. 9. Roadways Roads are classified based on its location, area and use (Purpose)  National Highways (NH)  Width 7m-15m  Connects the capital cities of various states.  Makes an important link for Transportation of men & Material  Carries fast and heavy traffic.  State Highways (SH)  Width 7m-10m  Connects national highways and the district places  Medium and fast to traffic.  District Roads (DR)  Roads connecting each district place to taluka place.  Width of road varies from 5m - 8m.  These roads carry moderate traffic  Village Roads (VR)  Connects any village to district road.  These are kuchha road or Earthen road.  Only light traffic is expected.
  10. 10. Layers of Road Pavement 3 Dimensional Section of Road Pavement
  11. 11. Roadways Roads are classified based on Materials..  Earthen Road  Kuchha Road made by earthen material, used in village areas  Water Bound Macadam Road  Bigger sized pieces of stone at bottom course  Sub-grade layer of broken pieces of stone is prepared of size varying from 25 mm – 75mm.  Compacted base for bitumen & concrete road  Bituminous Road  The flexible pavement, smooth wearing course layer at the top & bitumen acts as a binder.  On the prepared WBM surface, layer of chip of stones (16-20mm) with bitumen in the layer(30-40mm THK)  Cement Concrete Road  The rigid pavement, rigid wearing surface layer at the top.  There is no possibility of Corrugations, Difficult to maintain and repair, as rigid pavement.  Life span and durability is more than bituminous road. [May2004]
  12. 12. Railways (Indian Railways) • Cheapest means of mass transportation • Life line of nation and the largest network in Asia. Rail – Continuous girders carrying axial load, provides smooth and uniform surface  Takes lateral stresses and the thermal stresses.  Transfers the load through sleepers and ballast. Ballast [May2005,2007]
  13. 13. Types of Rails (Rail Section) 1. Double Headed Rail (D. H. Rail) 2. Bull Headed Rail (B. H. Rail) 3. Flat footed Rail (F. F. Rail)
  14. 14. Typical Cross Section of a Railway Track Gauge – The clear distance bet. Inner faces of Rails [May2005,2008,2010, Dec.2005] Types of Gauges Narrow Gauge - 0.765 m  Meter Gauge - 1.000 m  Broad Gauge – 1.676 m [May2005,2007]
  15. 15. Zones of Indian Railway CR • Central Railway ER • Eastern Railway WR • Western Railway NER • North Eastern Railway SR • Southern Railway SCR • South Central Railway SER • South Eastern Railways NR • Northern Railways NFR • North East Frontier Zone
  16. 16. Irrigation Engineering [Dec.2006] …deals with development of Water Resources and proper arrangement of Distribution of Water. Applications :- [May2004,2005]  Development of Water resource at right Place  Determining the capacity of Reservoir  Supply of Water at less rainfall and Summer period  Construction and Maintanance of Dams, Canals and Regulatory works  Crop Rotation  Finding the Capacity of Reservoir, Study of Flood Control Devices  Develop new techniques like Drip Irrigation, Sprinkler Irrigation.  Design of Different structures.
  17. 17. PROJECT MANAGEMENT with monitoring the project using Management Principles 3M (Men, Money and Material) • Plan of Project w.r.t. time • Optimium use of Resources, timely procurement of Material, Deploying Labours as and when required. Project Management Tools – to plan activities, timing & sequence  Bar Chart  Critical Path Method (CPM)  Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
  18. 18. Structural Engineering with Planning, designing of structural members of building like beams, columns, slabs, footings etc. Methods of Structural Design  Working Stress method  Ultimate load theory  Limit State Method. Applications  Design of Structural elements.  Failure Analysis  Rehabilitation of old or defective structures  Consultancy Proof
  19. 19. Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering .. deals with the study of soil, its behaviour when external load is applied on it and its application. To study the load carrying capacity of soil. 1. Trial Pits 2.Plate Load Test on Ground. Applications  Designing the earthen dam and embankment  Capability of sub-grade, Thickness of pavement of Road.  Characteristics of Soil like Permeability, Compaction and Consolidation  Analysis of soil behind the retaining wall.  Designing different types of foundation for the structure
  20. 20. Foundation Engineering- with design, construction ,maintanance of footing, foundation and other structural member which acts as foundation • Foundation-is part of structure which is in direct contact with and transmits loads to ground. • Services of Foundation  Carries loads and transfer it to ground safely  Minimizes differential settlement of structure, within permissible limits  Prevents lateral escape of the supporting material  Increase stability ,Prevent from sliding and overturning
  21. 21. Environmental Engineering- with water supply ,disposal of waste water from domestic and industrial use • 1}Water Supply-  Water from sources is treated in W.T.P. and made potable then supplied by network of pipes to people  Water supply and its treatment comes under Environmental engineering • 2}Sanitary Engineering-  Treatment of Domestic and industrial waste water  waste cause various diseases hence made harmless. • 3} Environmental pollution –  Air pollution, sound pollution ,thermal pollution and water pollution  Effect of pollution has been observed on human beings ,plants ,animals and even on buildings  Hence preventive and corrective measures are essential to control pollution
  22. 22. Quantity Surveying Process of calculating quantities and costs of the various items required in connection with the work for its satisfactory completion. Valuation An art of assessing the present fair value of a property. Applications • To arrange the finance for proposed work • To know the probable cost before the execution. • For valuation of existing property. • To know the cost of various item, well in advance to be constructed.  Cost = Original cost of Manufacturing / Construction  Value = Present Market Value  Price = Amount of money paid after purchase.
  23. 23. Valuation • Necessity  Buying and selling the property  Taxation, Insurance  Purchase for investment, loan security (Mortgage)  Compulsory acquisition  Rent fixation • Types of Value  Scrap Value = Value of dismantled material of property at the utility end @10% of const. cost  Salvage Value = Value of without dismantled material of property at the utility end  Market Value = The open market amt. of property at anytime  Book Value = The value mentioned in an account book at the time of purchase = original cost - Depreciation
  24. 24. Town Planning “The planning and control on the construction growth and development of town & other area” While town planning, conservation and utilization of natural resource, reduces the illegal construction. Town Planning is an integral aspect of Infrastructure development. Important Aspects  It works under Development Control Rules (DC Rules)  It includes development plans, Identification of natural hazards and mitigation plans  Promoting development of town ship and SEZ (Special Economic Zone)
  25. 25. Earthquake Engineering with study of zones of seismic intensity upon different areas so that preventive care can be taken against Earthquake. Earthquake shakes and moves the ground horizontally and vertically in any direction. Shifting the building foundation accordingly Seismic forces exerts dynamic loading on building. Where the earthquake have occurred once, can experience the same again in future. The horizontal motions are much greater than the vertical wave motions.
  26. 26. Earthquake Protection  Study and effective use of Earthquake Zonal Map  Use of raft foundation to withstand load evenly over a large area  Adopting a square or compact rectangular plan  All corners of building should be tied together  Parapets, Cornices, Cantilevers and projections should be < 750 mm  Parts of the building should be rigidly connected.
  27. 27. Infrastructure Development with provision of good facility, services and installations needed for Infrastructure Development of community or society, for the rapid growth of area. • Aspects Provision of…  Road or Transportation facilities for accessibility  Well Planned water distribution system, Drainage system  Electricity, communication lines i.e., Telephone, Internet.  Proper Landscaping, Open Space for Garden and playground Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation [MIDC] provides Infrastructure Facility. e.g., IT Park near Pune, NIGADI Pradhikaran Pune, New Vashi area Mumbai etc.
  28. 28. General Role of Civil Engineer Any Civil Engineer has to perform following work..  Study and Preperation of Layout  Presentation and Approval of Plan  Finding the foundation details and foundation Plan  Preperation of Structural Design  Estimation of total Project Cost  Testing, Planning, Supervision and Execution on actual Construction Site  Operation and Maintanance in big Projects  Acting as a Arbitrator in case of any disputes
  29. 29. Interdisciplinary Approach in Engineering  Interdisciplinary = Pertaining to multiple field of study  Every engineering work is interdisciplinary, Civil engineer plays an Important role in Interdisciplinary Projects. e.g., Power Generation, Telecommunication, Expressway Construction, Mass Rapid Transit system. Consider, Expressway Construction  Civil Engineer – Surveying, alignment fixing, Design of C/S, Geotechnical Investigation, Testing, Estimation, Actual Construction  Mechanical Engineer - Construction Equipment Maintanance  Electrical Engineer – Exhaust System in Tunnel, Street Lighting, Tunnel Lighting or any Electrical Work.  Telecommunication Engineer – Designing layout of Underground Internet cable, Telephone Lines,