Emerging contaminants in surface and Drainage Water By Shiv


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Emerging contaminants in surface and Drainage Water By shiv- Department of Bioresource engineering. McGrill university, Canada

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Emerging contaminants in surface and Drainage Water By Shiv

  1. 1. Emerging Contaminants in Surface and Drainage Waters<br />Shiv O. Prasher et al.<br />Department of Bioresource Engineering<br />McGill University, Montreal, Canada<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Emerging Contaminants<br />Environmental Concerns<br />Pharmaceuticals in the Environment<br />Pharmaceuticals in Manure<br />Experimental/Field Work<br />Preliminary Results <br />Further Work<br />
  3. 3. Emerging Contaminants<br />http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es072658j<br />
  4. 4. Environmental Concerns<br />http://www.enviroadvisory.com/2006presentations/ChrisMetcalfe_files/frame.htm<br />
  5. 5. What are pharmaceuticals?<br />Pharmaceuticals are medications - prescription drugs, i.e. hormones, antidepressants and antibiotics; over-the-counter medications, such as pain relievers, cold/flu remedies, antiseptics; and veterinary medicines<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. http://www.enviroadvisory.com/2006presentations/ChrisMetcalfe_files/frame.htm<br />
  8. 8. Pharmaceuticals in Surface Waters<br />50% of streams in the US contain some level of antibiotics<br />Human use of antibiotics is always therapeutic<br />Veterinary use, however, is therapeutic and subtherapeutic (growth promotion and prophylactic) <br />Up to 84% antibiotic use in the US is subtherapeutic - 9 to 11 million kg<br />
  9. 9. Pharmaceuticals in Surface WatersDolliver and Gupta (2008)<br />However, 70 to 90% of the antibiotics fed are excreted in manure<br />Annually, manure is applied to over 9.2 million ha of land in the US<br />Manure may contain antibiotics from trace levels to >200 mg kg-1 or L-1, with typical concentrations in the 1 to 10 mg kg-1 or L-1<br />Most antibiotics used for animals are similar to those given to humans<br />
  10. 10. Manure Production in Canada<br />Manure production in Canada has increased by 16% between 1981 and 2006<br />Over180 million metric tons of manure is produced annually (38% by beef cows, 12% by dairy,12% by calves, 12% by heifers, 10% by steers, 9% by pigs, 3% by poultry, 2% by horses, 2% bulls, <1% by sheep<br />Beef cows generate 37 kg d-1<br />Milk cows produce 62 kg d-1<br />Pigs make between 1 and 4 kg d-1<br />Poultry produce less than 1 kg d-1<br />
  11. 11. 130 times more animal waste is produced <br />in the US than human waste<br />http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/cesspools/cesspools.pdf<br />
  12. 12. Indicator Microbial Populations in Lagoon Water Samples(Bradford et al., 2008)<br />
  13. 13. Antibiotic analyses in Filtered Lagoon Water Samples (Bradford et al., 2008)<br />
  14. 14. Estrogen analyses of whole Lagoon Water Samples(Bradford et al., 2008)<br />
  15. 15. Estimated environmental loading of metals, total antibiotics, total estrogen hormones, and total indicator microbes when lagoon waters are applied to 1 m2 area of agricultural field to meet nitrogen needs of corn during a 90-d summer growing season (assuming ET rate of 10 mm d-1; Bradford et al., 2008) <br />
  16. 16. Human Use/Overuse of Pharmaceuticals<br /> http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/AssessingRisk/PPCP/upload/01_Daughton.pdf<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. http://www.enviroadvisory.com/2006presentations/ChrisMetcalfe_files/frame.htm<br />
  19. 19. Biosolids for Land Application<br />Also known as sewage sludge<br />Produced as part of normal wastewater treatment <br />Biosolids are rich in organic carbon thus have beneficial use<br />Must meet regulations for nutrient, metal and pathogen content before land application<br />
  20. 20. Biosolids for Land ApplicationKinney et al. (2006)<br />Average wastewater treatment plant generates 240 kg dry weight of solids per million liters of wastewater treated<br />In 2006, 8x106 dry tons of biosolids were produced in the US<br />50% of the biosolids are land applied in the US <br />Remaining 50% are incinerated or disposed of in landfills<br />
  21. 21. http://www.enviroadvisory.com/2006presentations/ChrisMetcalfe_files/frame.htm<br />
  22. 22. Ecological Impact of PPCPsPseudo-Persistent Chemicals<br />Most drugs tend to have shorter half-lives than conventional contaminants<br />However, although in small quantities, drugs are introduced continuously to the environment <br />This may make the exposure of drugs to aquatic ecosystems similar to that from conventional contaminants <br />Pseudo-persistent chemicals – half-lives are exceeded by their continuous introduction rates through WWTP effluents<br />
  23. 23. Ecological Impact of PPCPs<br />Reproductive hormones found in 21% of 139 streams across US in a national reconnaissance survey (Ying et al., 2002) – affect endocrine and reproductive systems<br />Among the hormones found, 17β-estradioland testosterone are, respectively, principal regulators of the development, maintenance, and function of female and male vertebrate reproductive organs<br />Estradiol concentrations as low as 0.001 µg L-1 can feminize wild male fish<br />Methyltestosterone concentration of 0.027 µg L-1masculinized fish populations in vitro<br />
  24. 24. Effects of Pharmaceuticals on Fish Health<br />Fathead minnows, grown from egg to adulthood in the presence of as little as three parts-per-trillion (3 ng L-1) of synthetic estrogen (used in birth control pills), got completely feminized <br />A human female, using the birth control pill, will excrete this amount in her urine in one day<br />This amount of synthetic estrogen is like one birth control pill in 10,000 L of water<br />
  25. 25. Drugs in Drinking Water<br />DrugUseMax. Conc.Country<br /> (ng L-1)<br />Carbamazepine Anti-epileptic 24 Canada<br /> 258 USA<br />Gemfibrozil Lipid regulator 70 Canada<br />Diazepam Psychiatric 10 UK<br />Ibuprofen Analgesic and 3 Germany<br /> anti-pyretic<br />
  26. 26. Impacts on Humans<br />http://www.enviroadvisory.com/2006presentations/ChrisMetcalfe_files/frame.htm<br />
  27. 27. Impacts on Humans<br />Chronic exposure to mixture of drugs at low concentrations<br />"What is the long-term effect of drinking, day after day, a dilute cocktail of pesticides, antibiotics, pain killers, tranquilizers and chemotherapy agents?“<br />http://www.sdearthtimes.com/et1098/et1098s5.html<br />
  28. 28. E. Coli Resistance in Surface WatersData from J. Cicmanic, US EPA<br />http://www.enviroadvisory.com/2006presentations/ChrisMetcalfe_files/frame.htm<br />
  29. 29. Lysimeter Site<br />
  30. 30. Concentration of Poultry Pharmaceuticals in Drainage Waters<br />
  31. 31. Oxytetracycline concentration at the surface<br />
  32. 32. Oxytetracycline concentration in Drainage Waters<br />
  33. 33. Metribuzin concentration at the Soil Surface<br />
  34. 34. MORE TO COME<br />HYDRUS Modeling<br />Constructed wetlands<br />Vegetated filter strips<br />Water table management<br />Composting<br />Aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions<br />More...<br />
  35. 35. Peeking at the Future<br /> http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/AssessingRisk/PPCP/upload/01_Daughton.pdf<br />
  36. 36. Control of PPCP Pollution<br />Pharmaceuticals are essential for humans, agriculture, and aquaculture<br />Pollution can be minimized by<br />Proper disposal programs for human drugs<br />Effective sewage treatment programs<br />Efficient manure management strategies<br />Proper application of manure and biosolids<br />
  37. 37. “Although it is unlikely that a serious problem exists now, it would be prudent to apply the precautionary principle and try to reduce the levels of these compounds in drinking water before any harm is proved.”<br />Jones et al. (2005)<br />
  38. 38. THANK YOU<br />