Rule level & gate operation

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Rule level & gate operation - K.G.Mistry
Assistant Engineer,
Central Designs Organisation,
Gandhinagar

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Rule level & gate operation

  1. 1. Rule Levels and Gate Operation <ul><ul><li>K.G.Mistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistant Engineer, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Designs Organisation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gandhinagar </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Operation Of Reservoir <ul><li>For operation of Reservoir , some basic terminology used in operation are needed to be know. </li></ul><ul><li>FULL RESERVOIR LEVEL:(FRL) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The highest reservoir level which can be maintained without spillway discharge OR without passing water through under sluices. This level is also called highest controlled water level. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Maximum Water Level. (MWL). <ul><ul><ul><li>The level likely to be attained in a Reservoir at the Dam Face , while negotiating the adopted design flood. The level is also called ‘Highest Flood Level ‘, ‘spillway design flood level’ OR Maximum water surface elevation . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Minimum Draw Down Level(MDDL) <ul><li>It is the lowest level up to which the reservoir may be depleted for meeting various needs. </li></ul><ul><li>In power projects, releases are allowable up to MDDL only instead of dead storage level, so as to maintain the minimum head required for power generation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Depletion Period: </li></ul><ul><li>The period during which available storage in the reservoir is released or depleted for meeting various water demands. OR Creating space for inflow forecast. </li></ul><ul><li>Design Flood/ Reservoir Design Flood: </li></ul><ul><li>The magnitude of flood adopted for design purpose is called design flood. It may be the probable maximum flood(PMF) or a flood corresponding to some desired frequency of occurrence, depending on the type of structure. </li></ul>
  6. 6. STORAGE <ul><li>Live Storage : </li></ul><ul><li>Storage capacity between the lowest outlet level of reservoir or minimum drawdown level (MDDL) to the highest controlled water level or full reservoir level (FRL). This storage is also called ‘Live Capacity ‘ </li></ul><ul><li>Dead Storage: </li></ul><ul><li>• Storage below the lowest outlet level of a reservoir , which is not susceptible to release by usual outlets means. </li></ul>
  7. 7. STORAGE <ul><li>Conservation Storage: </li></ul><ul><li>Water impounded in a reservoir for conservational uses such as irrigation, power generation, industrial use, municipal supply etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Control Storage: </li></ul><ul><li>Storage space provided in the reservoir for storing flood water temporarily. </li></ul>
  8. 8. STORAGE <ul><li>Induced Surcharge Storage: </li></ul><ul><li>The storage between the full reservoir level(FRL) and the maximum water level(MWL) of a reservoir. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry Over Storage: </li></ul><ul><li>Storage left over in a reservoir at the end of the depletion period of a year which is available for use in later years. This storage is called ‘Over Year Storage’. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reservoir Routing <ul><li>Flood routing is a process of determine theoretically the outflow pattern from reservoirs, for any given pattern of inflow, storage and tail water condition. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rule Level
  11. 11. Rule Level <ul><li>A Rule level is a pre-defined level on a specified date to be maintained in the reservoir to fill the reservoir in stages during on-going monsoon season considering conservation and flood control aspects </li></ul>
  12. 12. Purpose of Rule Level <ul><li>The purpose of rule level is to fill the reservoir at pre determined rate and maintain certain storage space to accommodate and regulate high floods </li></ul><ul><li>Max. Benefit of Stored Water </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Use </li></ul><ul><li>Power Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture etc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. CONCEPT OF STORAGE ZONING Crest RL MDDL Surcharge Storage MWL Dead Storage Conservation Storage Flood Control Storage Top of dam Spillway Undersluices Dam River Free board FRL Rule Level
  14. 14. Space between FRL And MWL <ul><li>The space between FRL and MWL is a fictitious space under normal condition and therefore can not be used for storage. </li></ul><ul><li>In technical terms, this space is known as “ Induced Surcharge Storage ” available only when gate operation begins. i.e . this is the additional storage space becomes available against gate opening </li></ul>Crest RL MDDL Surcharge Storage MWL Dead Storage Conservation Storage Flood Control Storage Top of dam Spillway Under sluices Dam River Free board FRL Temporary Storage for Controlling flood by increasing outflow. Rule Level
  15. 15. Rule Curve <ul><li>Rule curve is the target level planned to be achieved in a reservoir, under different conditions of probabilities of inflows and / or demands , during various time period in a year. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Rule Curves A reservoir is operated according to prevailing water level, demands for various purposes, and the elevation of rule levels for different purposes To increase the flexibility of operation, different rule curves may be derived for different purposes depending on their priority.
  17. 17. Role of Rule Levels <ul><li>The role of rule level is significant in reservoir due to following reasons; </li></ul><ul><li>On specified date, it provides information about flood space available in the reservoir. </li></ul><ul><li>The available flood space helps in flood regulation and moderation during high flood. </li></ul><ul><li>By regulated release, it helps to prevent downstream flooding. It also helps to prevent panic gate operation during high flood. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Min. required flow Natural flow D I S C H A R G E Non-damaging flow Water deficit Flood damage Demand Time Min. flow deficit
  19. 19. Flood Space <ul><li>Except very large reservoirs, flood storage space is not planned. This space is tentatively created by specifying rule levels during monsoon period which is occupied subsequently towards end of monsoon period </li></ul><ul><li>FLOOD SPACE = FRL – RULE LEVEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE: IN CASE WHEN MWL IS DIFFERENT THEN FRL ADDITIONAL FLOOD SPACE IS AVAILABLE WHEN GATES ARE OPERATED. IT IS KNOWN AS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ INDUCED SURCHARGE STORAGE” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Basis For Rule Level. <ul><li>Inflow Data. </li></ul><ul><li>Water Requirements For, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power generation . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past Experiences of observed storm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Down Stream Hazard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe carrying capacity of D/S Channel. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. CONSERVATION OPERATION URC MRC LRC
  22. 22. CONSERVATION OPERATION <ul><li>Operation of a reservoir using Rule Curves: </li></ul><ul><li>At a time step- </li></ul><ul><li>1. If reservoir level exceeds Upper Rule Curve, </li></ul><ul><li>spill water. </li></ul><ul><li>If reservoir level exceeds Middle Rule Curve & Upper </li></ul><ul><li>Rule Curve, give full supply for all demands. </li></ul><ul><li>If reservoir level is less than Middle Rule Curve and </li></ul><ul><li>exceeds Lower Rule Curve, curtail lowest priority </li></ul><ul><li>demands and give full supply for other demands. </li></ul><ul><li>If reservoir level is below Lower Rule Curve, stop </li></ul><ul><li>supply to lowest priority demands, curtail supply </li></ul><ul><li>for 2 nd priority demands and send full supply for </li></ul><ul><li>highest priority demands. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>WS demand highest priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydropower next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation least </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- - - - - --- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Condition 1,Spill Water. </li></ul><ul><li>--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- URC </li></ul><ul><li>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Condition 2,Full Supply to all Demands. </li></ul><ul><li>--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MRC </li></ul><ul><li>- - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - Condition 3,Curtail Irrigation Demands. </li></ul><ul><li>----------------------------------------------------------------------- LMC </li></ul><ul><li>- - - - - - - - - - - -- Condition 4,Curtail Irrigation & Hydro Power. </li></ul>CONSERVATION OPERATION
  24. 24. CONSERVATION OPERATION Operation of a reservoir using Rule Curves: If reservoir level falls below LRC, meet only partial highest priority demands Basic principle – It is always better to meet reduced demands throughout the year than to meet full demands in the beginning with no water at the end.
  25. 25. Two or More Reservoir <ul><li>When Two or More reservoir are to be operated on the Same river basin, gate regulation should be done in such a way that the Maximum water can be stored without Risk to the safety of upstream and downstream of the Dams along with consideration of Floods Moderation to suit D/S safe channel carrying capacity with Minimum Hazard in D/S area. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Initial/First Filling Of Reservoir. <ul><li>Major factors to be considered. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Dam, Concrete, Earth & Rock fill. </li></ul><ul><li>Geology of Dam Foundation, Reservoir, Land slide along Bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflow characteristics controlled OR uncontrolled. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Initial/First Filling Of Reservoir. <ul><li>Hydrology –Flood patterns & Seasonal based flows. </li></ul><ul><li>Flood release & Emergency Evacuation. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Instrumentation, Monitoring, Evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>D/S Safe channel capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul>
  28. 28. How Rule Level Decided In First Filling Of Reservoir. <ul><li>1). The First Stage Up to – MDDL. </li></ul><ul><li>2). The Second Stage From MDDL to Crest of Spillway. (Rate of filling should be controlled.) </li></ul><ul><li>3). The Third Stage -Above the Crest of Spillway Up to FRL .( To be conducted in Stages.) </li></ul>
  29. 29. How Rule Levels are Derived?
  30. 30. How Rule Levels are Derived? <ul><li>Rule levels are derived on the basis of historical inflow and planned and present demands, using physical data of reservoir i.e. RL-Area-Capacity and evaporation depth details. </li></ul><ul><li>For medium reservoirs, it is derived on monthly basis whereas for large reservoir it can be derived on 10-daily or weekly basis also if sufficient data are available depending upon the needs. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Many techniques are available </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queuing theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Game theory </li></ul></ul>System Engineering Techniques
  32. 32. Optimisation of Rule Levels <ul><li>Many procedures are available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear Programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non linear programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All these software works on principle of maximization of net benefits or minimization of storage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective function adopted is to maximize the Net Benefits </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. How Daily Rule Levels are Derived? <ul><li>Two methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation/ working table analysis </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Quick method <ul><li>Rule levels are derived using 10-daily data for monsoon period only. </li></ul><ul><li>It is assumed that FRL will be reached on October 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse computation is adopted. </li></ul><ul><li>Tentative levels are determined. </li></ul><ul><li>Levels are refined manually. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Working Table Analysis <ul><li>Detailed reservoir simulation using historical inflows on monthly basis to check performance of reservoir. </li></ul><ul><li>Trial rule levels are adopted. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance of reservoir is checked with planned demands and present demands (increased with time). </li></ul><ul><li>Rule levels are optimized to arrive 75% reliability for irrigation and 95% for hydropower. </li></ul><ul><li>For multipurpose reservoirs overall reliability to be achieved 85-90 % depending upon purposes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WS demand highest priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydropower next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation least </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Data required <ul><li>10-daily / monthly inflow data series. </li></ul><ul><li>10-daily / monthly planned demands. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future demands if any . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10-daily / monthly power demand. </li></ul><ul><li>10-daily / monthly Water Supply demand including demands for other uses from the reservoir. </li></ul><ul><li>10-daily / monthly evaporation depth. </li></ul><ul><li>RL-A-Capacity table of the reservoir. </li></ul>
  37. 37. SR NAME CREST F.R.L. Likely Proposed Rule levels for monsoon-2009 as on NO OF R.L.   Reservoir             SCHEME     level as 1-07 1-08 1-09 1-10 16-10     (m) (m) on 31-5-09 (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) 1 2 3 4 11 12 13 14 15 16   RAJKOT IRRIGATION PROJECT CIRCLE , RAJKOT 1 UND-II 12.15 18.25 13.90 17.75 17.75 18.25 18.25 18.25 2 VARTU-II 33.85 39.95 33.12 39.65 39.95 39.95 39.95 39.95 3 FULZAR(K.B) 89.75 95.85 89.75 94.85 94.85 95.35 95.85 95.85 4 DEMI-III 19.50 25.60 -- 23.60 24.30 25.00 25.60 25.60 5 SURVO 93.75 99.85 96.00 99.00 99.50 99.85 99.85 99.85 6 DONDI 100.67 103.70 0.00 102.80 102.80 102.80 102.80 102.80 7 KARNUKI 161.45 164.50 159.00 162.00 162.50 163.00 163.50 163.50 8 BANTWA KHARO 13.20 16.25 13.60 15.25 15.75 16.25 16.25 16.25
  38. 38. SR NAME CREST F.R.L. Likely Proposed Rule levels for monsoon-2009 as on NO. OF R.L.   Reservoir             SCHEME     level as 1-07-09 1-08-09 1-09-09 1-10-09 16-10-09     (m) (m) on 31-5-09 (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) 1 2 3 4 11 12 13 14 15 16   RAJKOT IRRIGATION CIRCLE , RAJKOT 1 MOTISAR 141.00 143.00 139.50 143.00 143.00 143.00 143.00 143.00 2 BHADAR - I 106.09 107.92 103.08 107.30 107.60 107.92 107.92 107.92 3 MOJ 71.02 72.54 64.40 72.54 72.54 72.54 72.54 72.54 4 VENU-II 48.91 55.00 47.40 54.00 54.50 55.00 55.00 55.00 5 BANGAWADI 41.05 42.65 36.32 42.65 42.65 42.65 42.65 42.65 6 NYARI-II 82.40 88.50 85.00 88.50 88.50 88.50 88.50 88.50 7 GHODADHROI 92.20 98.30 Nil 97.70 98.00 98.00 98.30 98.30 8 CHHAPARWADI-II 90.15 98.38 Nil 98.00 98.38 98.38 98.38 98.38 9 KARMAL 162.90 169.00 Nil 168.70 169.00 169.00 169.00 169.00 10 NIMBHANI 131.45 134.50 Nil 134.20 134.50 134.50 134.50 134.50
  39. 39. SR NAME CREST F.R.L. Likely Proposed Rule levels for monsoon-2009 as on NO. OF R.L.   Reservoir             SCHEME     level as 1-07-09 1-08-09 1-09-09 1-10-09 16-10-09     (m) (m) on 31-5-09 (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) 1 2 3 4 11 12 13 14 15 16   BHAVNAGAR IRRIGATION CIRCLE , BHAVNAGAR 1 SHETRUNJI 54.63 55.55 46.67 55.25 55.25 55.55 55.55 55.55 2 HAMIRPARA 81.70 87.80 -- 87.00 87.50 87.50 87.80 87.80 3 LAKHANKA 38.12 44.22 -- 44.22 44.22 44.22 44.22 44.22 4 KHODIYAR 196.58 202.68 193.50 201.00 202.25 202.50 202.68 202.68 5 SUKHBHADAR 103.10 109.20 102.50 107.20 107.70 109.20 109.20 109.20 6 KHAMBHADA 46.69 50.35 48.30 49.00 49.75 50.35 50.35 50.35 7 RANGHOLA 60.98 62.50 -- 62.50 62.50 62.50 62.50 62.50 8 MALAN 102.74 104.25 -- 104.25 104.25 104.25 104.25 104.25 9 MALPARA 72.00 78.10 -- 76.50 77.25 77.80 78.10 78.10
  40. 40. Points To Be Examined Critically. <ul><li>Prevailing overall conditions of the rainfall during monsoon. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage capacity and safety of Dam structure and U/S-D/S structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency of the existing network of flood forecasting system and flood warning arrangement along with communication system and actual experiments of the same in past to produce the downstream hazard potential. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Computational procedure DATA RL-Cap-Area Chart
  42. 42. Computational procedure DATA- DEMANDS Sr Period Demand Evap Depth   From To irri WS m 1   1-Oct 0 0 0 2 21-Sep 30-Sep 112.00 0 0.029 3 11-Sep 30-Sep 255.10 0 0.058 4 1-Sep 30-Sep 372.52 0 0.088 5 21-Aug 30-Sep 541.88 0 0.114 6 11-Aug 30-Sep 698.28 0 0.141 7 1-Aug 30-Sep 844.95 0 0.167 8 21-Jul 30-Sep 887.63 0 0.198 9 11-Jul 30-Sep 919.45 0 0.229 10 1-Jul 30-Sep 968.30 0 0.260
  43. 43. Computational procedure DATA- 10-DAILY INFLOW SERIES
  44. 44. Computational procedure DATA- 10-DAILY INFLOW SERIES ARRANGED IN DESCENDING ORDER
  45. 45. COMPUTATION OF RULE LEVELS FRL = 105.157 m (345 FT) Surplus = (Inflow – Total Demand)
  46. 46. UKAI RES. PROJ.(1973-2006, CARR ( By RWT.exe ) -------------------------------- RESERVOIR WORKING TABLE ------------------------- ****************************** ** ALL FIGURES ARE IN MKS ** PAGE 1 ****************************** F.R.L. .................... 105.150 L.W.L. .................... 82.300 CAPACITY AT F.R.L. ...... 7497.000 CAPACITY AT L.W.L. ...... 882.000 DESIGN CARRYOVER ......... .000 WATER SUPPLY RESERVATION.. .000 IRRIGABLE AREA.............. 10000.00 JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN   IRRI. REQ. 123.3 472.4 372.5 260.3 326.9 349.1 404.6 444.1 413.2 436.7 470.0 314.5 ****** TOTAL REQ. 123.3 472.4 372.5 260.3 326.9 349.1 404.6 444.1 413.2 436.7 470.0 314.5 ****** EVAP. DEP. .101 .101 .152 .203 .152 .127 .127 .127 .203 .229 .254 .203 1.98 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- OPEN. CORS. IN ABSTRACT RES. EVEP TOT. CORS SPI % YEAR MON TOTAL ---------- AREA AL BAL LL TH BAL. RL FLOW IRRI W/S (AV) LOSS ABST RL. DEF ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2001 JUL 882.0 82.3 1153.0 2035.0 123.3 .0 166.0 16.8 140.1 1894.9 89.2 .0 .0 AUG 1894.9 89.2 2386.0 4280.9 472.4 .0 255.9 25.8 498.3 3782.6 95.9 .0 .0 SEP 3782.6 95.9 943.0 4725.6 372.5 .0 334.3 50.8 423.3 4302.3 97.3 .0 .0 OCT 4302.3 97.3 508.0 4810.3 260.3 .0 352.1 71.5 331.7 4478.5 97.8 .0 .0 NOV 4478.5 97.8 333.0 4811.5 326.9 .0 355.8 54.1 381.0 4430.6 97.7 .0 .0 DEC 4430.6 97.7 281.0 4711.6 349.1 .0 351.3 44.6 393.7 4317.9 97.3 .0 .0 JAN 4317.9 97.3 265.0 4582.9 404.6 .0 343.9 43.7 448.3 4134.6 96.8 .0 .0 FEB 4134.6 96.8 191.0 4325.6 444.1 .0 331.6 42.1 486.2 3839.4 96.0 .0 .0 MAR 3839.4 96.0 222.0 4061.4 413.2 .0 315.9 64.1 477.3 3584.1 95.3 .0 .0 APR 3584.1 95.3 224.0 3808.1 436.7 .0 298.3 68.3 505.0 3303.1 94.4 .0 .0 MAY 3303.1 94.4 266.0 3569.1 470.0 .0 281.4 71.5 541.4 3027.7 93.5 .0 .0 JUN 3027.7 93.5 374.0 3401.7 314.5 .0 273.5 55.5 370.1 3031.6 93.5 .0 .0     NO. OF FAIL YEARS = 0 %AGE RELIABILITY =100.0
  47. 47. UKAI RES. PROJ.(1973-2006, CARR -------------------------------- RESERVOIR WORKING TABLE ------------------------- ****************************** ** ALL FIGURES ARE IN MKS ** PAGE 1 ****************************** F.R.L. .................... 105.150 L.W.L. .................... 82.300 CAPACITY AT F.R.L. ...... 7497.000 CAPACITY AT L.W.L. ...... 882.000 DESIGN CARRYOVER ......... 1699.000 WATER SUPPLY RESERVATION.. .000 IRRIGABLE AREA.............. 10000.00 JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN   IRRI. REQ. 123.3 472.4 372.5 260.3 326.9 349.1 404.6 444.1 413.2 436.7 470.0 314.5 ******   TOTAL REQ. 123.3 472.4 372.5 260.3 326.9 349.1 404.6 444.1 413.2 436.7 470.0 314.5 ******   EVAP. DEP. .101 .101 .152 .203 .152 .127 .127 .127 .203 .229 .254 .203 1.98 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- OPEN. CORS. IN ABSTRACT RES. EVEP TOT. CORS SPI % YEAR MON TOTAL---------- AREA AL BAL LL TH BAL. RL FLOW IRRI W/S (AV) LOSS ABST RL. DEF --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2001 JUL 2581.0 92.0 1153.0 3734.0 123.3 .0 275.2 27.8 151.1 3582.9 95.2 .0 .0 AUG 3582.9 95.2 2386.0 5968.9 472.4 .0 357.0 36.1 508.5 5460.4 100.3 .0 .0 SEP 5460.4 100.3 943.0 6403.4 372.5 .0 429.9 65.3 437.9 5965.5 101.5 .0 .0 OCT 5965.5 101.5 508.0 6473.5 260.3 .0 451.3 91.6 351.9 6121.6 101.9 .0 .0 NOV 6121.6 101.9 333.0 6454.6 326.9 .0 454.3 69.1 395.9 6058.7 101.8 .0 .0 DEC 6058.7 101.8 281.0 6339.7 349.1 .0 448.3 56.9 406.0 5933.7 101.5 .0 .0 JAN 5933.7 101.5 265.0 6198.7 404.6 .0 437.8 55.6 460.2 5738.5 101.0 .0 .0 FEB 5738.5 101.0 191.0 5929.5 444.1 .0 421.5 53.5 497.6 5431.9 100.2 .0 .0 MAR 5431.9 100.2 222.0 5653.9 413.2 .0 404.3 82.1 495.3 5158.6 99.6 .0 .0 APR 5158.6 99.6 224.0 5382.6 436.7 .0 387.1 88.6 525.3 4857.3 98.8 .0 .0 MAY 4857.3 98.8 266.0 5123.3 470.0 .0 370.2 94.0 564.0 4559.3 98.0 .0 .0 JUN 4559.3 98.0 374.0 4933.3 314.5 .0 361.4 73.4 387.9 4545.4 98.0 .0 .0 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- NO. OF FAIL YEARS = 0 %AGE RELIABILITY =100.0
  48. 48. UKAI RESERVOIR PROJECT 10-daily Rule Levels with capacity of 1992-93 sedimentation survey F.R.L. 105.157 m Sr Period Inflow Demand Evap Total Surplus Res. Res. Rule Level   From To       Depth Losses Demand   Cap R.L.           irri WS m           m 1   01-Oct 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.0000 0.00 0.00 7497.00 105.16 105.00 2 21-Sep 30-Sep 30.10 112.00 0.00 0.029 16.4305 128.43 0.00 7497.00 105.16 105.00 3 11-Sep 30-Sep 154.68 255.10 0.00 0.058 32.8611 287.96 0.00 7497.00 105.16 105.00 4 01-ep 30-Sep 296.79 372.52 0.00 0.088 49.8582 422.38 0.00 7497.00 105.16 105.00 5 21-Aug 30-Sep 1072.80 541.88 0.00 0.114 59.9273 601.81 470.99 7026.01 104.06 104.00 6 11-Aug 30-Sep 2402.32 698.28 0.00 0.141 61.9216 760.20 1642.12 5854.88 101.27 101.00 7 01-ug 30-Sep 2720.95 844.95 0.00 0.167 71.5751 916.53 1804.42 5692.58 100.88 101.00 8 21-Jul 30-Sep 3646.63 887.63 0.00 0.198 74.4870 962.12 2684.51 4812.49 98.67 99.00 9 11-Jul 30-Sep 4231.68 919.45 0.00 0.229 79.2032 998.65 3233.03 4263.97 97.20 97.00 10 01-Jul 30-Sep 4399.68 968.30 0.00 0.260 88.4701 1056.77 3342.91 4154.09 96.90 97.00
  49. 49. UKAI RESERVOIR PROJECT 10-daily Rule Levels (75% dependability with capacity of 2003 sedimentation survey F.R.L. 105.157 m Sr Period   Inflow Demand Evap Evap Total Surplus Cap Res. RL Rule   From To       depth losses demand       level         irri WS m             1   1-Oct 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.0000 0.00 0.00 7414.29 105.16 105.00 2 21-Sep 30-Sep 134.33 112.00 0.00 0.029 17.7535 129.75 4.58 7409.71 105.15 105.00 3 11-Sep 30-Sep 345.12 255.10 0.00 0.058 35.3237 290.42 54.70 7359.59 105.06 105.00 4 1-Sep 30-Sep 735.78 372.52 0.00 0.088 52.1710 424.69 311.09 7103.20 104.62 105.00 5 21-Aug 30-Sep 1622.43 541.88 0.00 0.114 62.5135 604.39 1018.04 6396.25 103.39 103.00 6 11-Aug 30-Sep 3074.63 698.28 0.00 0.141 65.9070 764.19 2310.44 5103.85 100.84 101.00 7 1-Aug 30-Sep 4227.87 844.95 0.00 0.167 67.5210 912.47 3315.40 4098.89 98.53 99.00 8 21-Jul 30-Sep 4859.18 887.63 0.00 0.198 72.9897 960.62 3898.56 3515.73 97.02 97.00 9 11-Jul 30-Sep 5431.59 919.45 0.00 0.229 77.3732 996.82 4434.77 2979.52 95.51 96.00 10 1-Jul 30-Sep 5488.46 968.30 0.00 0.260 87.8869 1056.19 4432.27 2982.02 95.52 96.00
  50. 50. RULE CURVES BASED ON 1992-93 & 2003 RESERVOIR CAPACITY
  51. 51. In following cases concurrence of concerned C. E. is required. <ul><li>- Water is to be stored above the RULE LEVEL. </li></ul><ul><li>- Water is to be released for the purpose </li></ul><ul><li>other than IRRIGATION before RULE LEVEL reached. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Rule Level for Flood Control <ul><li>Needed to provide best possible downstream protection </li></ul><ul><li>To impart sufficient warning time </li></ul><ul><li>To impart sufficient time for safe evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Useful only for large reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>No advantage for small and medium reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Travel time is most governing parameter </li></ul>
  53. 53. Rule Level for Flood Control <ul><li>Check flood space available with rule levels derived above. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( Flood space = FRL –Rule Level) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Route design flood at each rule level and check MWL </li></ul><ul><li>Derive suitable flood control operation policy </li></ul><ul><li>( release policy) & route design flood to check MWL. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Rule Level for Flood Control <ul><li>Route historical / observed floods or design flood with suitable % say 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 or 90 % of Design flood </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare Reservoir Performance Table </li></ul><ul><li>Define up to which flood d/s protection can be given. </li></ul><ul><li>Finalise rule level </li></ul><ul><li>Finalise operation policy. </li></ul>
  55. 55. MWL/OUTFLOW ATTAINED FOR VARIOUS FLOODS ROUTED AT DIFF. ELEVATIONS MULTIPLYING FACTOR RESERVOIR LEVEL IN M 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 122.00 123.06 124.00 124.95 125.83 126.69 127.48 128.29 129.10 4750. 5941. 7238. 8521. 9870. 11170. 12532. 13914. 122.50 123.27 124.14 125.04 125.89 126.73 127.51 128.31 129.11 5006. 6121. 7359. 8608. 9927. 11214. 12565. 13940. 123.00 123.49 124.29 125.14 125.96 126.78 127.54 128.33 129.13 5289. 6320. 7506. 8726. 10004. 11271. 12612. 13975. 123.50 123.73 124.46 125.26 126.06 126.84 127.59 128.37 129.16 5583. 6559. 7682. 8879. 10107. 11351. 12676. 14026. 124.00 124.06 124.70 125.42 126.20 126.93 127.66 128.43 129.21 6016. 6884. 7920. 9087. 10259. 11472. 12773. 14101. 124.50 124.50 124.95 125.60 126.34 127.04 127.75 128.50 129.26 6610. 7229. 8186. 9315. 10436. 11624. 12896. 14199.
  56. 56. MWL/OUTFLOW ATTAINED FOR VARIOUS FLOODS ROUTED AT DIFF. ELEVATIONS MULTIPLYING FACTOR RESERVOIR LEVEL IN M 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 125.00 125.00 125.20 125.81 126.50 127.17 127.86 128.59 129.34 7306. 7593. 8497. 9568. 10648. 11812. 13052. 14325. 125.50 125.50 125.55 126.07 126.69 127.33 128.01 128.71 129.44 8031. 8107. 8890. 9866. 10916. 12055. 13260. 14501. 126.00 126.00 126.00 126.34 126.90 127.50 128.16 128.85 129.56 8784. 8784. 9311. 10203. 11203. 12319. 13495. 14703. 126.50 126.50 126.50 126.64 127.12 127.69 128.33 129.00 129.70 9563. 9563. 9781. 10566. 11521. 12606. 13755. 14936. 127.00 127.00 127.00 127.02 127.40 127.95 128.54 129.19 129.87 10368. 10368. 10396 11033. 11950. 12968. 14080. 15233. 127.41 127.41 127.41 127.41 127.65 128.16 128.74 129.36 130.02 11046. 11046. 11046. 11449. 12315. 13297. 14357. 15483.
  57. 57. Space between FRL And MWL <ul><li>Use of Induced Surcharge Storage needs cautious approach due to following reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>As per BIS norms, this space can be used for temporary storage during high floods but to be evacuated as early as possible. It can not be used for sustained storage during high floods. </li></ul><ul><li>For large reservoirs, during high flood situation, there is always a possibility of medium size flood to be followed in quick succession or another peak may be in an offing posing serious problems of high releases. </li></ul><ul><li>As we use this space, towards MWL available space becomes minimum and risk of high releases becomes significant which may lead to a man made disaster. </li></ul><ul><li>For high and long earth dams, if they are not tested for storage between FRL and MWL, there may be risk of earth dam breach due to deterioration with time. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Reservoir operation is done through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended rule levels during monsoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gate operation schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gate operation policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flood control operation policy, if any </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guiding (Upper and Lower ) curves </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. GATE OPERATION <ul><li>Spillway discharges at different reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>levels and gate opening. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of change in storage to decide inflow </li></ul><ul><ul><li> based on rise/fall in reservoir level. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. Computer Programming For Gate Operation ( PGCP.EXE ) Data File : PGDAT Line 1 : Name of Scheme Line 2 : Hd CRL FRL Avg Bed RL No.of Gate Wg Hg 0 Line 3 : X-ordinate of Gate Seat Radius of Gate Xt Yt 1 0 Example : PGDAT SURVO WATER RESOURCES PROJECT 20 307 575 327 588 303 17 16 30 20 0 5.712 24 28.661 6.0367 1 0 Output File : File 1 PGCPO File 2 PGOUT Note : Conversion Factor from meter to ft. is only 3.28 Correct. Because 3.28 is used for programming.
  61. 62. SURVO WATER RESOURCES PROJECT ( Partial Gate Opening ) RES. DISC. AT VARIOUS GATE OPENINGS IN M. IN CUMECS ELEV. IN M. .15 .30 .60 .90 1.20 1.50 1.80 2.10 2.40 2.70 3.00 3.30 3.60 3.90 4.20 4.50 4.80 5.10 5.40 5.70 6.00 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 93.75 0 93.80 0 0 94.00 0 0 0 94.20 46 87 0 0 94.40 53 101 0 0 0 94.60 59 114 210 0 0 0 94.80 64 125 235 0 0 0 0 95.00 69 135 258 364 0 0 0 0 95.20 73 145 278 398 0 0 0 0 0 95.40 78 154 297 429 546 0 0 0 0 0 95.60 82 162 316 458 588 0 0 0 0 0 0 95.80 86 170 333 485 626 755 0 0 0 0 0 0 96.00 90 178 349 511 663 803 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 96.20 93 185 365 536 698 849 988 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 96.40 97 192 380 559 730 892 1043 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 96.60 100 199 394 582 762 934 1095 1246 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 96.80 103 206 408 604 793 974 1145 1307 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 97.00 106 212 421 625 822 1011 1193 1365 1527 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 97.20 109 219 434 645 850 1048 1239 1421 1593 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 97.40 112 225 447 665 877 1084 1283 1475 1658 1831 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 97.60 115 230 459 684 903 1118 1326 1527 1719 1903 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 97.80 118 236 471 702 929 1151 1368 1577 1779 1973 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 98.00 121 242 483 721 954 1184 1408 1626 1837 2041 2238 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 98.20 123 247 494 738 979 1215 1447 1673 1893 2106 2313 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 98.40 126 253 505 756 1002 1246 1485 1719 1947 2169 2386 2596 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 98.60 129 258 516 772 1026 1276 1523 1764 2000 2231 2457 2677 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 98.80 131 263 527 789 1048 1305 1559 1808 2052 2290 2525 2755 2979 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99.00 134 268 537 805 1071 1334 1594 1850 2102 2349 2592 2832 3065 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99.20 136 273 547 821 1092 1362 1629 1892 2151 2406 2658 2906 3149 3385 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99.40 139 278 557 836 1114 1390 1663 1933 2199 2461 2721 2978 3230 3476 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99.60 141 283 567 852 1135 1417 1696 1973 2246 2516 2784 3049 3309 3565 3815 0 0 0 0 0 0 99.80 143 287 577 867 1155 1443 1729 2012 2292 2569 2845 3118 3387 3652 3912 0 0 0 0 0 0 99.85 144 289 579 871 1160 1450 1737 2022 2304 2583 2860 3135 3406 3673 3936 4195 0 0 0 0 0 100.00 0 292 586 881 1176 1469 1761 2050 2337 2621 2904 3185 3463 3736 4005 4271 0 0 0 0 0 100.20 0 0 596 896 1195 1495 1792 2088 2381 2673 2963 3252 3537 3819 4098 4373 0 0 0 0 0 100.40 0 0 0 910 1215 1520 1823 2125 2425 2723 3020 3316 3610 3900 4187 4472 4753 0 0 0 0 100.60 0 0 0 0 1234 1545 1854 2162 2468 2772 3076 3380 3681 3979 4275 4569 4859 0 0 0 0 100.80 0 0 0 0 0 1569 1884 2197 2510 2820 3132 3442 3751 4057 4361 4664 4964 5262 0 0 0 101.00 0 0 0 0 0 1593 1913 2233 2551 2868 3186 3504 3820 4133 4446 4757 5066 5374 0 0 0 101.20 0 0 0 0 0 0 1942 2267 2591 2915 3239 3564 3887 4208 4528 4848 5166 5483 5798 0 0 101.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2632 2961 3292 3623 3953 4282 4610 4938 5264 5591 5915 0 0 101.60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3006 3343 3681 4018 4354 4690 5026 5360 5696 6029 6360 0 101.80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3394 3738 4082 4426 4769 5112 5455 5799 6141 6482 0 102.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3795 4146 4496 4846 5197 5548 5900 6252 6602 6951 102.20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4565 4922 5281 5639 6000 6360 6719 7077 102.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4997 5363 5729 6098 6467 6834 7202 102.60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5818 6195 6572 6948 7325 102.80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7060 7445 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Table : 1
  62. 63. SURVO WATER RESOURCES PROJECT ( Free Discharge ) SPILLWAY RATING TABLE FOR 16 NO.OF RADIAL GATES OF SIZE 30. X 20. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   RES. DISCHARGE IN CUMECS ELEV. IN m. .00 .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 .80 .85 .90 .95 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 93.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 12 19 25 94.00 32 38 50 62 74 87 99 111 126 142 159 175 191 207 225 245 265 284 304 323 95.00 344 367 389 412 434 457 481 506 532 557 582 608 634 662 690 718 746 774 803 833 96.00 864 895 925 956 987 1020 1053 1086 1119 1152 1185 1221 1256 1291 1327 1362 1398 1436 1474 1511 97.00 1549 1587 1625 1665 1705 1745 1785 1826 1866 1908 1950 1992 2034 2076 2118 2162 2207 2251 2295 2340 98.00 2384 2430 2476 2522 2568 2614 2660 2708 2756 2804 2852 2900 2949 2998 3048 3098 3149 3199 3249 3300 99.00 3353 3405 3458 3510 3562 3615 3669 3723 3777 3831 3886 3940 3996 4052 4108 4164 4220 4277 4334 4391 100.00 4449 4506 4563 4620 4680 4739 4798 4857 4916 4975 5036 5097 5158 5219 5280 5341 5404 5467 5530 5593 101.00 5655 5718 5782 5845 5909 5973 6037 6100 6165 6231 6296 6361 6427 6492 6559 6626 6693 6760 6827 6894 102.00 6962 7031 7100 7169 7237 7306 7375 7445 7515 7585 7655 7725 7795 7867 7938 8010 8081 8153 8224 8297 103.00 8369 8442 8514 8586 8659 8733 8807 8881 8955 9029 9103 9177 9252 9327 9402 9476 9551 9627 9703 9780 104.00 9856 9932 10008 10085 10163 10241 10318 10396 10474 10552 10631 10710 10789 10869 10948 11027 11108 11188 11269 11349 105.00 11430 11511 11593 11675 11757 11839 11921 12003 12086 12170 12253 12336 12419 12503 12586 12669 12753 12836 12919 13003 106.00 13086 13169 13253 13336 13419 13503 13586 13669 13752 13836 13919 14002 14086 14169 14252 14336 14419 14502 14586 14669 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table : 1(a)
  63. 64. Plate - 1 Note : 1.Spillway is equipped with 7 No.of Vertical Lift Gate of Size 9.14 m X 3.05 m.( 30’ X 10’ ) 2. All Gates are assumed to be opened uniformly. 3. Gate opening Represents vertical distance of lower edge of gate above gate seat in cms. 4. As the FRL & MWL of Kaniyad W.R.Project are same ( 02.25m.) Free & Partial discharge curves up to RL 102.25m.have been drawn. 5. Partial Curve indicates discharge through all Gates. 6. Transition Zone in corporate here is subject to modification on model Run.
  64. 65. (A)Operation guidelines for reservoir condition below FRL When flood starts impounding reservoir, the following guide lines may be observed. 1) Note the rule level fixed for the current period. 2) Note the PWL and its corresponding discharging capacity at current elevation from free discharge curve in Plate-1. 3) If the PWL is below rule level , fill the reservoir up to scheduled rule level. Example: Current rule level = 46.00m Current reservoir level = 43.00m Operation: Fill the reservoir up to RL 46.00m
  65. 66. 4) Thereafter, release outflow corresponding to inflow rate by gate operation either partially or under free discharge from the graph as shown in Plate-1 or Table no.1 Example: Radial gates 22 No. Size 14.93m x 10.67m FRL = 53.10m Current rule level = 46.00m Current reservoir level = 46.0m Q free at RL 46.00m = 3965 m 3 /s Operation: Generally there will be two cases (a) Inflow rate is less than free discharging capacity. ( Q = 2790 m 3 /s ) (b) Inflow rate is more than free discharging capacity.( Q = 6000 m 3 /s ) So for each case, it would be necessary to maintain current rule level by controlling the discharge in the following way. a)Example: For inflow rate = 2790 m 3 /s (Less than free discharging capacity 3965 m 3 /s), reduce outflow equal to inflow by opening all gates partially with gate opening =180cm b) Example: For inflow rate = 6000 m 3 /s (more than free discharging capacity 3965 m3/s), allow free discharge of 6000 m 3 /s by opening all gates above water profile( above RL 46.00m). So that the level will build up resulting in to increased free outflow.
  66. 67. 5) Repeat this procedure for making outflow equal to inflow approximately until reservoir elevation stops raising and information is received from u/s wireless system that the recession of flood has been started. 6) Operate gates at 1 hr. to 2 hr. intervals , following Plate-1 and decrease outflow gradually when the flood starts receding and rate of rise in water level decreased or fall in water level has been observed. During the process of fall in water level of reservoir, take care that the water level does not fall below scheduled rule level, by suitable gate operation , keeping the outflow restricted within maximum safe carrying capacity of river channel d/s of dam. 7) Close all the gates gradually when water level in the reservoir is again back to the scheduled rule curve level. 8) Know Inflow from forecast station in u/s of dam or u/s projects. 9) To know inflow from rise/fall of water level in reservoir when there is no existence of forecast station in u/s of dam for information of inflow rate incoming when inflow rate can be decided earlier observed rate of rise or fall in the reservoir water levels by using Plate-2
  67. 68. How Plate-2 can be used is shown in the below illustrated example .
  68. 69. Example : Survo.dat SURVO WATER RESOURCES PROJECT 16 93.75 99.85 93.75 94.0 94.5 95.0 95.5 96.0 96.5 97.0 97.5 98.0 98.5 99.0 99.5 100.0 100.5 101.0 0.87 1.01 1.48 1.95 2.56 3.16 4.11 5.05 6.20 7.35 8.93 10.50 12.50 14.61 17.18 19.75 For Rate of Change of Storage per Hour in Equivalent Discharge Computer Programme : RMK.EXE Line 1 : Name of Scheme Line 2 : No.of RL-Cap Ordinates CRL FRL Line 3 : RL Ordinates. Line 4 : Capacity Ordinates.
  69. 70. Survo.out ( RMK.EXE ) Table no.3 SURVO WATER RESOURCES PROJECT Table Showing Rate of Change of Storage per Hour in Equivalent Discharge Reservoir   EQ. DISCHARGE ( Cumec ) AT VARIOUS RISE/FALL( m / hr)     Level                     m 0.30 0.60 0.90 1.20 1.50 1.80 2.10 2.40 2.70 3.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 93.75 49.31 111.81 174.31 236.81 309.03 383.06 456.39 544.31 646.81 748.61 94.50 78.33 155.28 229.45 303.06 376.39 478.89 581.11 682.78 796.11 915.28 95.00 90.00 179.72 268.89 366.94 469.44 571.11 678.61 797.78 916.94 1036.11 95.50 100.83 207.50 325.83 443.61 561.11 680.28 799.44 918.61 1061.67 1216.67 96.00 129.17 258.33 387.50 520.55 655.56 790.56 932.22 1087.22 1241.67 1395.83 96.50 157.50 311.11 456.95 603.33 750.00 920.84 1091.39 1261.39 1444.72 1634.72 97.00 174.17 348.61 523.61 703.05 884.72 1066.39 1256.11 1461.95 1673.89 1888.89 97.50 191.67 389.44 599.45 809.44 1019.45 1236.11 1456.11 1682.78 1927.22 2180.56 98.00 227.50 454.72 681.39 920.28 1165.28 1420.28 1678.33 1942.50 2207.22 2472.22 98.50 262.50 525.00 787.50 1056.11 1327.78 1620.28 1913.06 2206.39 2480.28 2744.45 99.00 297.50 598.33 905.84 1215.00 1525.00 1835.00 2139.17 2431.67 2724.72 3018.06 99.50 342.50 685.83 1030.84 1376.39 1722.22 2032.23 2342.22 2652.23 2950.55 3243.06 99.85 370.84 753.19 1128.06 1473.05 1818.47 2164.31 2480.28 2790.28 3100.28 3401.53
  70. 72. USE OF PLATE ; 2 ( Table Showing Rate of Change of Storage per Hour in Equivalent Discharge) CASE-I a)Observations:---- Reservoir level at 10:00hr 46.00m Reservoir level at 10:30hr 46.15m So, rise in water level = (46.15 – 46.00)/ 0.50 hr = 0.30m / hr (30cm/hr.) Outflow released between 10:00 to 10:30hr –Nil Earlier observed rate of rise in the reservoir 2)Actions:- i) Read change in storage. Flow rate from Plate-2 or Table no.3 corresponding to current elevation of 46.00m and rise/fall rate of 0.30m/hr @ 10:00hr is 240 m3/s. ii) Now inflow rate on average can be found out by using the following storage equation I – O = ∆ S ∆ S +ve for Rise Where, I = Average Inflow rate I = ∆ S + O --ve for Fall O= Average Outflow rate = 240 + Nil = 240 m 3 /s Therefore, average Inflow rate during 10:00hr to 10:30 hr =240 m 3 /s. Therefore from Plate-1 or Table no.2 release 240m 3 /s with 15cm by partial opening of all gates if conservation of storage is not required.
  71. 73. CASE-II Observations: Reservoir level @ 12:00hr 47.00m Reservoir level @ 12:30hr 47.60m Therefore, rate of rise is (47.60 – 47.00) / 0.5hr = 1.20m/hr (120cm/hr.) Outflow released between 12:00 to 12:30 hr =500 m 3 /s From Plate-2 or Table no.3, flow rate corresponding to RL 47.00m and rise/fall rate of 1.20m/hr is read as 1150 m 3 /s. So, by equation I = ∆S + O (Where O is the average outflow rate) = 1150+500 = 1650m 3 /s Therefore average inflow rate between 12:00 to 12:30 hr = 1650m 3 /s 8.1.0 Release outflow as shown in Plate-1 corresponding to inflow rate worked out. To release Q = 1650m 3/ s , open all gates, if conservation of storage is not required. 8.2.0 When water level starts to decrease after peak inflow, then flood is on recession and therefore decrease outflow gradual say at an interval of 1hr to 2hr and allow water level to decrease up to rule level prescribed, but not below the Rule curve level. 8.3.0 Close all the gates where inflow rate under observation become equal to base flow rate and ensure that no successive flood is incoming in to reservoir.
  72. 74. <ul><li>B) Operation Schedule for reservoir for water level condition </li></ul><ul><li>At / Above FRL =53.10 m </li></ul><ul><li>Open all the gates partially as shown in Plate-1 by gradual increments making outflow equal to inflow approximately for floods not exceeding safe channel capacity d/s. For flood higher than safe channel capacity, allow outflow nearly equal to inflow for levels higher than FRL. </li></ul><ul><li>Partial gate operation will cease and free discharge will be allowed by lifting gates fully for all inflows larger than discharging capacity at FRL or design flood. Under such circumstances, spillway would act as un gated under free discharging condition. MWL would be observed carefully and water level would be allowed to fall up to FRL again on recession of flood. </li></ul><ul><li>See the reservoir level do not fall below the FRL / Rule curve level at the end of flood event. </li></ul><ul><li>Information and outflow to be released needs to be quickly and widely broadcasted on Radio, Television, other media as a safety measures in the interest of the people located in the d/s areas of the dam. </li></ul><ul><li>Note:- (1) As far as possible, all gates must be operated uniformly and simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) As trunion level is 46.63 m and Maximum T.W.L. is 48.70m, Model study of gates is required (i)for gate operation (ii) for any adverse effect on operation (iii) for downstream submergence (iv) to evaluate discharging capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Operating guideline is subject to modification on Model run. </li></ul>
  73. 75. THANKS

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