Iirs - Overview of GIS


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Overview of GIS- P.L.N.Raju,Geoinformatics Divison

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Iirs - Overview of GIS

  1. 1. OVERVIEW OFGIS P.L.N. P L N Raju Geoinformatics Division Indian Institute of Remote Sensing Indian S I di Space R Research O h Organisation i ti raju@iirs.gov.in
  2. 2. iirs Further analysis What is the difference with an average December month? Which procedure was used? What can we learn?
  3. 3. General Understanding of GISUnderstanding GIS (1)U d t di Map reading and information – how it is related to GIS? ◦ What you get from the map? ◦ Can we measure and quantify? ◦ Is it possible to find the changes? ◦ How is it related to GIS?
  4. 4. General Understanding of GISUnderstanding GIS (2)U d t diRemote Sensing data and relation to GIS What we get from satellite data? Can we find the changes and how? How time series helps in finding patterns? Can we quantify the information? How RS is related to GIS?
  5. 5. General Understanding of GIS Understanding GIS (3) GPS and it’s relation to GIS Provides positional information Data generated in the form of point / line / area theme can be directly brought into GIS Updating of GIS information will be easy and fast using GPS
  6. 6. General Understanding of GIS Understanding GIS (4) U d t diModels and GIS◦ We ask children to make models about our earth, Why?◦ Global warming and climatic change – how it is done?◦ Models and it’s role in GIS
  7. 7. General Understanding of GISIn SI Summary GIS is i Integrating technology g g gy consisting of: ◦ Remote Sensing g ◦ Cartography and Mapping ◦ GPS ◦ Computers ◦ RDMS ◦ Information Technology ◦ Communication technology ◦ Survey and field data collection
  8. 8. Potential of GISWhat GIS can do?What GIS can Real world problemsdo?d ?Identification Where ?Locate What is there?Optimum pathO ti th What i th b t Wh t is the best route? t ?Patterns What relations exists between?Trend What has changed ?Models What if ?
  9. 9. Concepts of GISTypes of GIS Desktop GIS Professional GIS Enterprise GIS Mobile GIS Internet GIS Embedded GIS 4 D GIS Multimedia GIS
  10. 10. Concepts of GISGIS terminology Geographical Information System Geographical Information Science Geoinformatics Geomatics Spatial information system Geospatial systems Geospat a Geospatial information e g ee g o at o engineering Land information system …….
  11. 11. Concepts of GISWhat i theWh t is th specialty of GIS? i lt fFacilitates faster process of operationsProvides solution for many real worldproblems with options of many scenariosDecision making tool with the support oforganized dataIntegrating technologyDynamic map display and interactivequery
  12. 12. Concepts of GISExplaining Meaning of GIS (1)GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM
  13. 13. Concepts of GISGEOGRAPHYThe science of Earth’s physicalfeatures, resources, climate,f t li tpopulation etc.
  14. 14. Concepts of GIS GEOGRAPHY = Geo + Graphy SNAKES & LADDER 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31What & Where 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Location is important
  15. 15. Concepts of GISINFORMATION
  16. 16. Concepts of GISExplaining Meaning of GIS (1) P P A E L O G D T C AHow we derive information?
  17. 17. Concepts of GISExplaining Meaning of GIS (1) A P P L E D O G C A T
  18. 18. Concepts of GIS Descriptive GraphicalA P P L E D O G C A TExplaining Meaning of GIS (1)
  19. 19. Concepts of GISWATER CYCLE SYSTEM
  20. 20. Concepts of GIS Hardware + Software + Data ware + Human-ware = GIS
  21. 21. Concepts of GIS Defining GIS for capturing, storing,Toolbox based retrieving, analyzing and- set of tools t ft l displaying which are- a system spatially referenced to earth- an information systemDatabase definitions- a database system in which most of the data are spatia s stem hich indexed, and upon which a set of procedures are operated in order to answer queries about spatial entities in the database.OgOrganization b sed de o based definitions o s- a decision support system involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environm
  22. 22. Concepts of GISHow GIS Works? Describing our World We can describe any element of our world in t i two ways: Attribute Information: What is it? Location Information: i f i Where is it? Species: Oak Height: 15m Age: 75 Yrs 51°N, 112°W
  23. 23. Concepts of GISHow it works? A Powerful tool for solving real-world problems A method to visualize, manipulate, analyze, and display spatial data
  24. 24. Concepts of GISRASTER - VECTOR Data Models
  25. 25. iirs Spatial data and geoinformation There is a degree of error in Lineage – describes the all data data. history of a data set, source set In the context of a GIS we of observation or materials. distinguish between: Temporal accuracy, Errors in source data o s sou ce examples changes in p g Processing errors landownership, deforestation In addition the International Completeness, for spatial Cartographic Association features and attributes identified: Logical consistency, Lineage (history) combination of completeness Temporal accuracy and topological consistency Completeness C l t Logical consistency
  26. 26. iirs Spatial data and geoinformation In a GIS a wider view of Most GIS analysis will quality is important introduce errors. because: Errors are introduced when data is put into the GIS Unlike a conventional map, which is a single end hi h i i gl d product, a GIS contains data from various sources Unlike topographic or p g p cadastral databases, natural resource databases contain “uncertain” data.
  28. 28. GIS Application potential Potential of GISWhere it i used?Wh i is d? Natural resource management Infrastructure development Utility services Business applications Investigation services e-governance
  29. 29. Potential of GISIce in Red - is it possible?Any manipulation is possible, in GIS possible
  30. 30. GIS infrastructure Potential of GISGIS De el ments in India Developments National level • GIS Entrepreneurs organisations • ESRI India ltd ◦ DOS/ISRO • Leica India ◦ NRDMS/DST Geosystems ltd. ◦ NIC • ERDAS India ltd. ◦ p TCPO/Urban Depts • RMSI State level • TCS departments • Reliance Infocom ◦ S&T Depts.. / SRSCs • Satyam Navigation ◦ Rural Departments • CSDMS/MapIndia ◦ NGOs • Bentley India • Kampsax India ltd.
  31. 31. H/W and S/WGeoinformatics facility at what facility,cost?Computer – PC / Workstation/ Server etcSoftware’s – Proprietary / Open source / Free S/W FScanner or DigitizerPlotter / PrinterTrained professionsCost – Minimum of 3 Lakh rupees Upto 1 crore and above for full fledged GIS
  32. 32. H/W and S/W GIS SOFTWARES1. ARCGIS2. Leica Geosystems Proprietary S/W s P i3. ERMAPPER Open source S/W Free Software’s4. GEOMEDIA5. GRASS (Open source) Costs C t Free to6. IGiS (ISRO) ( ) 10/20 lakh7. Free softwares (ILWIS/GRASS/QGIS/TNTMIPS/GRASS/A RCVIEW3.0/ MAPSERVER
  33. 33. GIS PotentialGIS MARKET IN INDIA Rs. 1780 crores ( INR 17.8 BILLION) ) 85% of industry revenue by 20 companies, 15% by 100 companies GIS – 1250, Photogrammetry – 350, DIP – 180 Major companies: Infotech Geospatial (542 cr.), RMSI (69 cr.), W ) Wapmerr I di (10 ) Pi l G India (10cr.), Pixel Group (10 Cr.). C ) Boon for India with huge human resources Huge outside job work Scope for Entrepreneur, creative and innovative GIS services
  34. 34. HistoryFather of GISF h f
  35. 35. History 1989 TIGER, NCGIA & MGE S/W 1987 IJGIS, SPANS S/W & IDRISI S/W 1986 MAPINFO S/W & First PGIS book 1985 GRASS GIS s/w 1981 ESRI launched ARC/INFO 1971-80 1979 ODYSSEY GIS, the first modern vector GIS GIS 1978 ERDAS was founded, 1978 1977 The USGS developed DLG spatial data format 1976 Minnesota Land Management Information System i d f i 1972 IBMs GFIS (Geographic Information Systems) 1960-701969 ESRI, Intergraph and Laserscan, first commercial setups1967 US Bureau of Census DIME data format &ECU in London1966 SYMAP (Synagraphic Mapping System)1964 Harvard Lab for CGSA by Howard Fisher1963 CGIS (Roger Tomlinson) - analyze Canadas national land inventory, a beginning
  36. 36. History Beyond 2000 Internet GIS Mobile GIS Location based services Open access to satellite images (ex. Google Earth) AAA1991-001991 00 Multi- Media GIS Expanding GIS potential PC GIS Maguire, Goodchild, & Rhinds, the th GIS Bi B k published Big Book bli h d
  37. 37. TechnologicalTechn l ical trends Data -M l Multi-spectral – H l Hyper spectral l - Low – High spatial resolution - Mono – stereo imaging g g Hardware - Workstation based - PC – Mobile level Software - Desktop – WebGIS – Mobile GIS Internet - Low Bandwidth – Broadband based - Web services (Google Earth/World Wind etc.)
  38. 38. Changing Emphases:From Data to Analysis Spatial Analysis S ti l A l i Spatial 5% Analysis 10-15% Attribute Tagging Attribute Tagging 75% Data Conversion Data Conversion: Present Future
  39. 39. TheTh application of GIS i li i d only b the li i f is limited l by h imagination of those who use it ~ Jack Dangermond