Drip irrigation


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Drip irrigation

  1. 1. Welcome Refresher Course On Micro Irrigation
  2. 2. Purpose of Refresher Course <ul><li>To Develop the awareness of different types of micro irrigation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce the benefits of micro irrigation systems over traditional irrigation methods. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Irrigation? <ul><li>It is application of artificial water to crops rather than rain water to over come it’s daily water requirement to full its growth stages </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>To provide the necessary moisture for the crop development. </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure sufficient supply of water during droughts of short duration and unpredictable climate. </li></ul>Irrigation Objectives <ul><li>To dissolve soil salts. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a way to apply agrochemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>To improve the ambient conditions for the vegetative growth. </li></ul><ul><li>To activate certain chemical agents. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Factors for Selection of Irrigation Method <ul><li>Crop Type </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Topography </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity and Quality of Water </li></ul><ul><li>Climatologic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Availability and reliability of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Available technology </li></ul><ul><li>Economical and social considerations </li></ul>
  7. 7. Surface / flood Irrigation Gravity or Traditional Irrigation Furrow Basin Border
  8. 8. Surface/flood Irrigation <ul><li>The water runs on the soil surface providing necessary moisture to the plants for its development. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a traditional system and is more commonly used in agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>It may use surface water source as river, lakes or bore well  </li></ul>
  9. 9. Surface/flood Irrigation <ul><li>This method requires that the fields are prepared with gentle slopes so that the water runs slowly by gravity and arrives at the lowest part of the farm, where it is collected by open channels for elimination or is recycled for use. </li></ul><ul><li>It is prone to diseases that are developed due to excess of soil moisture. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>The basic components are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water source </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply Lines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control mechanism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dams or dikes of control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Furrows of irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-use of irrigation water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Surface Irrigation
  11. 11. Furrow Irrigation
  12. 12. Furrow Irrigation <ul><li>The furrows are channels with slopes that are formed from the soil.    </li></ul><ul><li>It is designed so that the water runs throughout the desired field.  </li></ul><ul><li>The water under pressure arrives at the highest elevation of the field. It is distributed by channels or tubes, towards the fields where it will enter the furrows to flood the area.  </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Water is provided into closely spaced small ditches/furrows </li></ul><ul><li>The crops or trees are located on the small ridges between the ditches </li></ul><ul><li>From the supply lines, the water enters the furrows by means of floodgates, siphons or by opening a furrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is applied when the channel is opened. One may use flood gates to control the application of water to a particular field. </li></ul>Furrow Irrigation
  14. 14. Getting the Water In (Siphon Irrigation) <ul><li>Siphons are small diameter pipes used to convey water over the channel embankment </li></ul><ul><li>Do not provide water too fast or it may erode the soil! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Getting the Water In <ul><li>Gate to get the water into the area to be irrigated </li></ul><ul><li>Do not provide water too fast or it may erode the soil! </li></ul>
  16. 16. Border Irrigation
  17. 17. Border Irrigation <ul><li>The water is applied to a leveled area surrounded by ridges. </li></ul><ul><li>Each irrigated area is completely at level without slopes in any direction. (But minimum 0.05%slope recommended for adequate drainage) </li></ul><ul><li>It is not necessary that the edges are not rectangular or straight nor that the ridges are permanent.  </li></ul><ul><li>This technique is called “leveled flood or irrigation by strip borders”. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Level Basin Irrigation
  19. 19. <ul><li>Flat lands, with a slope of 0.1% or less </li></ul><ul><li>If the slope is more than 1%, terraces can be constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>A plot of land is contained with a level ridge or mound of soil </li></ul><ul><li>A quantity of water is supplied quickly like a small flood and then allowed to soak into the ground </li></ul><ul><li>The entire area is saturated </li></ul><ul><li>May not work well with crops that rest on the soil </li></ul><ul><li>However, the amount of land leveling can be considerable. </li></ul>Level Basin Irrigation
  20. 20. Contour Basin Irrigation <ul><li>Level basins can also be formed along the contour of the land </li></ul><ul><li>Can drown the plants if use too much water for too long </li></ul>
  21. 21. Demerits <ul><li>Surface irrigation may be difficult to use on irregular slopes as considerable land leveling may be required to achieve the required land gradients. </li></ul><ul><li>All soil types, except coarse sand with an infiltration rate of more than 30 mm/hour, can be used for surface irrigation. If the infiltration rate is higher than 30 mm/hour, sprinkler or drip irrigation should be used. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Initial work required to make the land level and build the ridges or furrows </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a lot of water </li></ul><ul><li>May add too much water near the inlet and not enough water at the edges (Un uniform Distribution ) </li></ul><ul><li>Run off </li></ul><ul><li>Seepage loss </li></ul><ul><li>Water loss due to Evaporation & Transpiration </li></ul>Demerits
  23. 23. <ul><li>Loss of fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Water logging/ Submergence </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds generation </li></ul><ul><li>Increase labour cost </li></ul><ul><li>Deep Percolation </li></ul><ul><li>Salt accumulation on the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Poor / Uneven growth of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases and pests attack may faster due to more moisture available in soil </li></ul>Demerits
  24. 24. <ul><li>Water use efficiency is low (40%- 60%) </li></ul><ul><li>Soil erosion may take place </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately yield is low </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( because of uneven germination, improper supply of water and fertilizers) </li></ul></ul>Demerits
  25. 25. Portable Pressurized Irrigation Drip Sprinkler Rain gun Sub-Surface Surface Traveling Sprinkler Center Pivot Permanent Wheel / reel Sprinkler
  26. 26. Sprinkler Irrigation
  27. 27. Sprinkler Irrigation <ul><li>The water is applied on the soil surface and plants in form of a rainfall.  </li></ul><ul><li>The spray pattern is obtained when the water at pressure is expelled through small orifices. </li></ul><ul><li>The operating pressure is developed by an appropriate pumping unit. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Types of Sprinkler Irrigation Systems <ul><ul><li>Portable system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral system on wheel (movable). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traveling sprinkler system with progressive movements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central pivot system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear movement system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid-set system. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Portable Systems
  30. 30. Portable Systems <ul><li>Include lateral pipe with sprinklers installed at regular intervals.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is used until the application has been terminated. </li></ul><ul><li>This system has a low initial cost, but requires high manual labour. It can be used in almost all the crops. However it is difficult to move the lateral pipes, when the crop is mature. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Lateral System on Wheels (Movable)
  32. 32. <ul><li>The lateral pipe is mounted on wheels. </li></ul><ul><li>The height of the wheels is chosen so that the axis exceeds height of the crop for easy movement.  </li></ul><ul><li>A drive unit is commonly a motor driven with gasoline and is located near the center of the lateral pipe. </li></ul>Lateral System on Wheels (Movable)
  33. 33. <ul><li>This system uses a spray (tube) gun of high pressure and high volume. </li></ul><ul><li>The spray gun is mounted on a tow. </li></ul><ul><li>The water is supplied by means of a flexible hose or from an open ditch. </li></ul>Traveling Sprinkler System With Progressive Movements
  34. 34. <ul><li>This system uses a spray (tube) gun of high pressure and high volume. </li></ul><ul><li>The spray gun is mounted on a tow. </li></ul><ul><li>The water is supplied by means of a flexible hose or from an open ditch. </li></ul>Traveling Sprinkler System With Progressive Movements
  35. 35. Center Pivot System <ul><li>It consists of a lateral pipe with simple sprinkler supported by a series of towers.  </li></ul><ul><li>The towers car is impelled in such way so that the lateral pipe moves around the center about the pivot point.  </li></ul>
  36. 36. Linear Movement System <ul><li>The linear movement system is similar to the central pivot. </li></ul><ul><li>The line of the pipe extends in perpendicular direction to the lateral one. </li></ul><ul><li>The delivery of the water to the lateral is by a flexible hose or from an open ditch.   </li></ul>
  37. 37. Solid-Set Irrigation
  38. 38. Solid-Set System <ul><li>Here, the sufficient lateral pipes are placed in the field and are not moved during the season. </li></ul><ul><li>The system is fixed, with network of HDPE/PVC pipe for the irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Enough lateral lines are used to cover all the area. </li></ul><ul><li>The system reduces to a minimum the need of manual labour during the irrigation season. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Mini Sprinklers
  40. 40. Mini Sprinklers <ul><li>Small sprinklers can be used to apply water to small areas or single plants </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to set up and move </li></ul><ul><li>Can be attached to a main line with </li></ul><ul><li>smaller tubing </li></ul><ul><li>Water needs to be filtered </li></ul>
  41. 41. Sprinkler Irrigation – Advantages <ul><li>Acts like rain </li></ul><ul><li>Works well on sand and loam soils </li></ul><ul><li>Can work well on a wide range of slopes </li></ul><ul><li>Can be automated </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to prevent damage to plants by freezing </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to cool crops </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to apply fertilizer and pesticides </li></ul>
  42. 42. Disadvantages <ul><li>Initial work required to construct systems – can be expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Requires some skill to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Wind can push the spray away from the plants </li></ul><ul><li>Requires water that is under pressure (need a pump) </li></ul><ul><li>If too much water is added, it may not soak in and could cause erosion </li></ul><ul><li>High evaporation – may waste water </li></ul>
  43. 43. Drip Irrigation
  44. 44. History of Drip Irrigation <ul><li>Clay pots buried in to the soil near by Plants root </li></ul><ul><li>Its infiltrates the water near by root zone of plants </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Water is applied to the root zone of the plant directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is applied at frequent intervals (daily) in controlled quantities as per requirements of the plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is applied through a low pressure network including main, submain and lateral lines with emitters/drippers spaced along the lateral lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is essentially passed through a filtration system to prevent suspended impurities, which may block the emitters. </li></ul><ul><li>Water soluble fertilizers and nutrients can also be applied along with micro irrigation through a fertilizer tank and/or ventury. </li></ul>Principles of Micro Irrigation
  46. 46. Factors for Selection of Micro Irrigation Method <ul><li>Crop Type </li></ul><ul><li>Topography </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity and Quality of Water </li></ul><ul><li>Climatologic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Availability and reliability of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Available technology </li></ul><ul><li>Economical and social considerations </li></ul>
  47. 47. Characteristics of Root System <ul><li>Root water absorbing capacity also differs. some root system penetrate deep into the soil, while others form a dense network of branch root that do not penetrate deep but cover a large area of soil at a shallow depth. </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow rooted crops , 60 cm (Cauliflower, cabbage, onion, Potato, Lettuce, Tea) </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately Deep Rooted , 90 cm (Carrots, French Bean Chilli, Muskmelon, Garden Pea) </li></ul><ul><li>Deep rooted, 120 cm (Cotton, Tomato, Watermelon, Maize, Sugar Beet) </li></ul><ul><li>Very Deep Rooted , 180 cm (Lucerne, Citrus, Apple, Grapevine, Coffee, Sugarcane, Safflower). </li></ul>
  48. 48. Different irrigation Systems to Plants On line Drip Irrigation In line Drip Irrigation
  49. 49. <ul><li>Fruit Crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almond, Apple, Arecanut, Ber (Zizyphus), Banana, Cashew, Custard Apple, Cherry, Guava, Grape, Litchi, Lemon, Sweet Lime, Mango, Orange, Papaya etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetable Crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brinjal, Cucumber, Lettuce, Pepper, Potato, Pea, Tomato. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field & Other Crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn, Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Betel vine, Mulberry . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oil Seeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundnut, Sunflower, Jojoba, Castor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forage Crops : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lucerne, Pastures, Turfs, Fodder. </li></ul></ul>Crops Covered under MIS
  50. 50. <ul><li>Ornamentals </li></ul><ul><li>Rose, Gerbera, Carnation, Gladioli, Poinsettias, Chrysanthemum. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Trees </li></ul><ul><li>Eucalyptus, Casuarinas, Teak, Acacia, Bamboo, Neem, Dalbergia. </li></ul>Crops Covered under MIS
  51. 51. <ul><li>The unevenness of the agricultural land is an important design criteria.  </li></ul><ul><li>The change in an elevation causes a pressure loss or gain.  </li></ul><ul><li>In a leveled or almost leveled land, the lateral lines with drippers must run throughout crop row.  </li></ul>Topography
  52. 52. <ul><li>In slopes, drip lines must follow the contour lines.  </li></ul><ul><li>When the lateral lines in uneven field are designed, it is advisable to consider the advantage of the slope.  </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the energy gain with the decrease in elevation is balanced. </li></ul>Topography
  53. 53. Soil <ul><li>The soil is a store house of plant nutrients, and is the medium through which water and nutrients moves. </li></ul><ul><li>Wetting Pattern of soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When water is applied slowly to the soil at a single point, it is acted by the forces of gravity (downwards) and capillary (radial outwards). </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Sandy Soils </li></ul><ul><li>Sandy soil characterized by large voids, between the soils particles. </li></ul><ul><li>These large voids helps gravitational force to downward moment of water in the soil profile </li></ul><ul><li>The wetting pattern for a sandy soil will deep with little lateral spread, and upward water movement will be minimum. </li></ul>Wetting Pattern of Soil
  55. 55. <ul><li>Clay Soil </li></ul><ul><li>In a heavy clay soil exerts strong capillary forces, but resist downward water movement by gravity </li></ul><ul><li>the wetting pattern in heavy clay soil will tend to be broad and of moderate depth because of the clay high capillary forces and relatively low permeability. </li></ul><ul><li>The wetted zone is wide and shallow </li></ul>Wetting Pattern of Soil
  56. 56. <ul><li>Loam Soil </li></ul><ul><li>It consist of equal proportional of sand, silt and clay </li></ul><ul><li>Its infiltration rate is moderate and horizontal flow is also good </li></ul><ul><li>The wetted zone is moderate and shallow depth </li></ul><ul><li>It is always good for plants </li></ul>Wetting Pattern of Soil
  57. 57. Wetting Pattern of Soil
  58. 58. Climatic Conditions
  59. 59. Plant Water Requirement <ul><li>Types of crop and its age </li></ul><ul><li>Type of soil </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation loss from the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration loss from the leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Canopy area and root zone development </li></ul><ul><li>Plant to plant and row to row spacing </li></ul>Climatic Conditions
  60. 60. Evaporation <ul><li>It is the process by which water changes from liquid state to vapor. </li></ul><ul><li>This will happens from open water source, open well, sump, tank, river surface etc </li></ul>Climatic Conditions
  61. 61. <ul><li>It is the loss of water from plant surfaces (stomata) directly into the atmosphere during the day hours </li></ul>Transpiration Climatic Conditions
  62. 62. Evapotranspiration <ul><li>It is the water loss occurring from the processes of evaporation and transpiration. </li></ul><ul><li>ET also called as consumptive use. it denotes the quantity of water transpired by plants during their growth or retain in the plant tissue plus the moisture evaporated from the surface of the soil and the vegetation. </li></ul>Climatic Conditions
  63. 63. <ul><li>ETP = Pe x Pc x Kc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where, Pe = Pan Evaporation (mm) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pc = Pan Co-efficient, taken as 0.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Kc = Crop Factor </li></ul><ul><li>The value of crop factor depends on foliage characteristics, stage of growth, environment and geography. </li></ul>Evapotranspiration of Crop Climatic Conditions
  64. 64. <ul><li>Total volume of Water required </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>= ETP x Covered by foliage (Canopy factor) x Plant Spacing x Rows spacing (Area of application) x Efficiency of Irrigation system </li></ul></ul></ul>Volume of water requirement Climatic Conditions
  65. 65. <ul><li>Efficient use of the water </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the direct losses by evaporation. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not cause movement of drops of water by the effect of air. </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces consumption of water by the grass and weeds. </li></ul><ul><li>Water Saving up to 30 – 70% </li></ul>Advantages of Micro Irrigation
  66. 66. <ul><li>Efficient use of the water </li></ul><ul><li>It eliminates superficial drainage. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows to irrigate all the field until the edges. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows the irrigation to an exact depth . </li></ul><ul><li>It allows to irrigate greater land area with a specific amount of water. </li></ul>Advantages of Micro Irrigation
  67. 67. <ul><li>Reaction of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>It increases the crop yield per unit of applied water. </li></ul><ul><li>It improves the crop quality. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows a uniform yield. </li></ul>Advantages of Micro Irrigation
  68. 68. <ul><li>Environment of the root </li></ul><ul><li>It improves ventilation (aeration). </li></ul><ul><li>It increases quantity of available nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a constant condition of water retention at low tension. </li></ul><ul><li>Salt accumulation beyond the root zoon of crop </li></ul>Advantages of Micro Irrigation
  69. 69. <ul><li>Control insects and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>It increases efficiency of the sprayings of insecticides and pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces development of insects and diseases . </li></ul>Advantages of Micro Irrigation
  70. 70. <ul><li>Agronomic practices and effects </li></ul><ul><li>The activities of the irrigation does not interfere with the activation of the crop, the plant protection and the harvesting. </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces intercultural operations, since there is less growth of weeds, and soil compaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Control of erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Application of water soluble fertilizer (Saving of fertilizers up to 30 - 40%) </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the work efficiency in fruit orchards, because the space between the rows is maintained dry </li></ul>Advantages of Micro Irrigation
  71. 71. <ul><li>Economic benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Labor cost is lower compared with other permanent irrigation method. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of operation and maintenance is low </li></ul><ul><li>It can be use efficiently on uneven terrains </li></ul><ul><li>Water application efficiency is high (up to 90 -95 %).  </li></ul>Advantages of Micro Irrigation
  72. 72. Extracted from H. P. Singh, J. C. Samuel and A. Kumar, INDIAN HORTICULTURE April - June 2000 TRI-Traditional Irrigation. MIS- Micro Irrigation. Drip Irrigation Systems - Benefits
  73. 73. Components of Micro Irrigation
  74. 74. <ul><li>Water source. </li></ul><ul><li>Pumping Unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration system </li></ul><ul><li>Fertigation system </li></ul><ul><li>Water carrier System </li></ul><ul><li>The water distribution system </li></ul><ul><li>The drippers or emitters. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessories for a drip irrigation system are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gate or ball valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non Return Valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flushing valve </li></ul></ul>Components of Micro Irrigation
  75. 75. <ul><li>The water source can be well water, open channel, rivers, lakes and treated water. </li></ul><ul><li>The underground well water is generally of good quality.   </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all water sources contain bacteria and elements that nourish it. </li></ul><ul><li>If water of poor quality is used, physical and chemical or biological agents can obstruct the emitters and drip laterals. </li></ul><ul><li>The clean water is essential for the drip irrigation, good filtration system is needed to remove it </li></ul>Water Source
  76. 76. <ul><li>It is necessary to acquire effective, reliable and low cost pump and a power unit. </li></ul><ul><li>While selecting a pump, one should know total pressure in the system, operating pressure, total volume of water for irrigation and horsepower rating. </li></ul>Pumping Machinery
  77. 77. Filtration Equipment <ul><li>Used where sand percentage is high in the water </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used on bore well </li></ul>Hydrocyclone Filter Flow Range: 27 m 3 /hr to 120 m 3 /hr Inlet/Outlet Connection : 2” to 6”
  78. 78. Media Filters Filtration Equipment <ul><li>It is act as primary filtration </li></ul><ul><li>It is installed at open water source like pond, river, lake </li></ul><ul><li>It removes organic & inorganic contamination of water with help of sand as a media </li></ul>Flow Range: 25m 3 /hr, to 50 m 3 /hr Inlet/Outlet Connection : 2” to 3” Jain Clean Master™ - S
  79. 79. <ul><li>It is act as secondary filtration, removes small particle that can not removes with media filter or hydro cyclone filter </li></ul><ul><li>Available in Screen type and Disc type </li></ul>Filtration Equipment Flow Range: 27 m 3 /hr to120 m 3 /hr Inlet/Outlet Connection : 2” to 6” Super Clean™ - ‘Y’ Type Flow Range: 15 m 3 /hr Inlet/Outlet Connection : 2” J- Super Clean Disc Filter - ‘ L’Type
  80. 80. Fertilizer Equipment FERTILIZER TANK Capacity :60lt., 90 lt., 120 lt & 160 lt. VENTURY INJECTOR Size : ¾ “
  81. 81. Water Carrier System <ul><li>Main Line </li></ul><ul><li>Sub Main Line </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Line </li></ul><ul><li>Control Valves </li></ul><ul><li>Flush Valves </li></ul>
  82. 82. PVC Pipes & HDPE Pipes for Mainline and Sub-main
  83. 83. Control & Flush Valves SUBMAIN FLUSH VALVE Sizes: 40/50mm & 50/63 mm BALL VALVE Sizes: 20 mm to 90 mm GATE VALVE Sizes: 1½ inch and 2 inch BSP/NPT For controlling sections, sub-mains For cleaning mains and sub-mains THROTTALE VALVE Sizes: ½ inch to 4 inch
  84. 84. Water Distribution System
  85. 85. <ul><li>The water emission devices (drippers or emitters) are unique in the drip irrigation system.  </li></ul><ul><li>The drippers supply water through small orifices in small amounts near the plant </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure loss through the emitters must be sufficiently greater than the pressure difference due to land topography and friction losses in the system.  </li></ul><ul><li>The orifice must be large enough to avoid serious obstructions.  </li></ul>Drippers or Emitters
  86. 86. <ul><li>There are two categories of drippers for installation in the field: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-line emitters. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-line emitters. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The in-line emitters are used in row crops such as vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>The on-line drippers are suitable to orchard crops such as Mango etc. </li></ul>Drippers or Emitters
  87. 87. <ul><li>Micro tubes or spaghetti connected on the lateral line are used for fruit orchards, ornamentals and flower pots in the nursery (green house). </li></ul>Drippers or Emitters
  88. 88. <ul><li>The drippers may clogged with physical impurities like soil particles, algae or Chemical impurities like mineral and salts. (Due to poor water quality or poor maintenance of farmers) </li></ul><ul><li>The rodents or insects can damage some components of the drip irrigation system. (Different Repellent are available) </li></ul><ul><li>The initial investment is higher as compared to other irrigation methods. (Pressurized Irrigation and use plasticuture) </li></ul>Limitations of Micro Irrigation
  89. 89. Comparison of Irrigation Methods High Moderate Minimum Minimum 17. Control of diseases and pests High Moderate Minimum Minimum 16. Use of filters High Moderate Minimum Minimum 15. Quality of water High High Low Low 14. Energy requirements High High Low Low 13. Automation of the system Minimum Low High High 12. Leveling of the land is required Moderate Moderate High High 11. Labor cost High Moderate Minimum Minimum 10. Application of fertilizers and pesticides through the irrigation water Low High High High 9. Interference of other tasks by the irrigation method High Little Little Minimum 8.  Soil aeration High Medium Medium Little 7.  Uniformity in the crop yield High Medium Minimum Minimum 6. Crop yield per unit of applied water High Medium Minimum Minimum 5.  Control of irrigation depth Minimum Medium High High 4.  Surface drainage Minimum High High High 3.  Water consumption by weeds Minimum High Medium High 2.  Wetting of the foliage Minimum Medium High High 1.  Evaporation loss Drip Sprinkler Furrow Flood TOPIC
  90. 90. Different irrigation Systems to Plants Drip Irrigation Surface Irrigation Horticultural Plants
  91. 91. <ul><li>Vegetable Crops. </li></ul>Different irrigation Systems to Crops Drip Irrigation Surface Irrigation
  92. 92. 10 0 14 7 Flood Irrigation Drip Irrigation Days after Irrigation Comparison of irrigation methods
  93. 93. Flood Irrigation
  94. 94. Sprinkler Irrigation
  95. 95. On line- Drip Irrigation
  96. 96. In-line Drip Irrigation
  97. 97. Estimate of Drip Irrigation System for Seasonal Crops <ul><li>Total Cost of Drip Irrigation Per Hact. At 1.52 m to 1.70m lateral spacing = Rs. 1 to 1.2 lack. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidy Amount : 50 % of total cost in General case and 75 % for Tribal Community. </li></ul><ul><li>Loan : 45 % of the total cost from at bank at Nominal Interest Rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 5 % of the total cost has to submit by farmer </li></ul>
  98. 98. <ul><li>THANK YOU! </li></ul><ul><li>ANY QUESTIONS?? </li></ul>