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Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Testing is Testing;
Agile is Context
Michael Bolton
DevelopSense
http://www.developsense.com
@michaelbolton
michael@developsense.com
James Bach
Satisfice
http://www.satisfice.com
@jamesmarcusbach
james@satisfice.com
(with helpful comments from International Society of Software Testing members: Anne‐Marie Charrett, James Lyndsay, 
Simon Morley, and Ben Kelly;  graphic design help from Mary Alton….and credit to Scott Barber for the title)
Thank You!
• Koray, Besim, Merve, Elçin and the rest of the 
conference organizers
• The translators
(They’re in for a very rough 45 minutes!)
• The audio/video people
(They’re like testers! When they do great 
work, we don’t notice them.)
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 2
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
This is not music!
Music is something that happens.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 4
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
“We’re making a product!”
“We need you to start testing it right now!”
What do you do?
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 5
Testing in two easy steps!
1. Prepare test cases.
2. Execute test cases.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 6
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Maybe it’s more like this…
1. Read the specification.
2. Identify specific items to be checked.
3. Prepare test cases.
4. Execute test cases.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 7
Or maybe it’s more like this…
1. Read the spec.
1.1. Aieee! There is no spec!
1.2 Oh wait, there is a spec!  I’ll just read it.
1.2.1 Aieee! The spec is old and confusing and WRONG!
1.3 Maybe I should ask someone…
1.3.1. Aieee! Nobody seems
to know how this thing is
supposed to work!
1.3.2. Wait… is there something... 
anything I can test?
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Yes! You CAN test…
…the product
…a part of the product
…some document describing the product
…a diagram that models the product
…a product like this product
…stories or ideas about the product
Testing is the process of evaluating a product
by LEARNING about it
through exploration and experimentation.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 9
Two Fundamental Testing Questions
Is there a problem here?
Are we okay with this?
If you don’t answer these questions,
people won’t trust you.
That’s when they start asking silly questions.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 10
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
What do managers and developers
really want from testers?
An answer to this question:
Are there problems 
that threaten
the on‐time successful
completion of the project?
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 11
Rapid Software Testing
Rapid Software Testing is a mind‐set
and a skill‐set of testing
focused on how to do testing
more quickly, 
less expensively, 
and more credibly and accountably.
RST is focused on how people 
learn and self‐organize under pressure.
We can apply it to any context.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 12
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Rapid Software Testing Premise #1
Software is developed for 
people, by people
(and people are to some 
degree unpredictable)
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 13
Rapid Software Testing Premise #2
Projects get developed under 
uncertainty and time pressure
(because every product is new, 
and people want it NOW)
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 14
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Rapid Software Testing Premise #3
People can be careless, 
inexperienced, or incompetent, 
and that’s NORMAL
(because people aren’t perfect, 
and don’t know everything)
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 15
So…
THERE WILL
BE BUGS
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 16
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Rapid Software Testing Premise #4
A test is a performance, 
not an artifact.
Testing is not test cases.
(because people bring tacit 
knowledge, undocumented 
actions, and variation to testing)
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 17
Rapid Software Testing Premise #5
As testers, it’s our job to learn 
about the software, and about 
anything that threatens its 
value to people
(so that our clients can make 
informed decisions about it)
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 18
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Rapid Software Testing Premise #6
We commit to making our 
testing fast, inexpensive,
and trustworthy
(and we must let our clients 
know about anything that 
threatens that)
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 19
Rapid Software Testing Premise #7
We will not mislead our clients, 
our colleagues, or ourselves
(which means goodbye to silly 
metrics like test case counting 
and pass/fail ratios)
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 20
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Rapid Software Testing Premise #8
We testers are responsible for 
the quality of the our work, but 
not for quality of the product.
(a quality product is a goal the 
whole team shares, but testers 
don’t have authority)
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 21
What about…?
Quick Answers!
• Management. We focus on activities, not artifacts.
• Metrics. Never count test cases; maybe count time.
• Automation. We use tools. Tools are important.
• Reporting. Testers must learn to report and explain.
• Documentation. Concise! (Conversation is good.)
• Speech. Precise!
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 22
All of these points are consistent with the Agile 
Manifesto and Agile principles.
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Call this “Checking” not Testing
Observe Evaluate Report
Interact with the product in 
specific, algorithmic ways to
collect specific observations.
Apply algorithmic
decision rules to those 
observations.
Report any failed 
checks 
algorithmically.
means
operating a product 
algorithmically to check 
specific facts about it…
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 23
A check can be performed…
by a human who has 
been told not to think 
(and who is slow and 
variable)
by a machine
that can’t think
(but that is quick and 
precise)
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 24
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Acquiring the competence,
motivation, and credibility for…
Testing is…
creating the conditions necessary for…
…so that you help your clients to make 
informed decisions about risk.
evaluating a product by learning
about it through exploration and experimentation, 
which includes to some degree: questioning, study, modeling,
observation and inference, including…
operating a product 
to check specific 
facts about it…
You said…
“Automate all the testing!” “Automate all of the evaluation 
and learning  
and exploration  
and experimentation  
and modeling  
and studying of the specs 
and observation of the product 
and inference‐drawing 
and questioning  
and risk assessment  
and prioritization  
and coverage analysis  
and pattern recognition 
and decision making  
and design of the test lab  
and preparation of the test lab
…which means
You might have
meant…
“Automate all the checking!”
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
and sensemaking
and test code 
development  
and tool selection  
and recruiting of helpers  
and making test notes
and preparing 
simulations  
and bug advocacy  
and triage  
and relationship 
building  
and product 
configuration  
and application of 
oracles  
and spontaneous playful 
interaction with the 
product 
and discovery of new 
information  
and preparation of  
reports for management  
and recording of 
problems  
and investigation of 
problems and working 
out puzzling situations  
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
and building the test 
team  
and analyzing 
competitors
and resolving conflicting 
information  
and benchmarking 
and oh… bring me a 
coffee.
Rapid Testing Building Blocks
Rapid Software Testing uses a social and systems science approach
informed and inspired by Jerry Weinberg, Herbert Simon, and Harry Collins
• Context. We listen and respond to the world around us.
• Role and Self‐Image. Taking responsibility for your work.
• Mission and Motivation. Knowing what you are here to do.
• Ethics and Integrity. Rejecting waste and deception.
• Diversity. You need variety to cover complex products.
• Relationships. Working with ever‐changing connections.
• Skills. Developing your abilities on the job.
• Heuristics. Fallible ideas and tools that solve problems.
• Exploration. Everything evolves; answers come over time.
• Product Risk. Danger of a bad bug hiding in the product.
• Tests. Not test cases… Actual tests!
• Models. Respecting both tacit and explicit knowledge.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 27
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
When you can internalize and describe 
all this like a professional,
the amateurs don’t hassle you.
Testing Is Telling Stories
A story about the status of the PRODUCT…
…about what it does, how it failed, and how it might fail...
…in ways that matter to your various clients.
A story about HOW YOU TESTED it…
…how you operated and observed it…
…how you recognized problems…
…what you have and have not tested yet…
…what you won’t test at all (unless the client objects)…
A story about how GOOD that testing was…
…the risks and costs of testing or not testing…
…what made testing harder or slower…
…how testable (or not) the product is…
…what you need and what you recommend.
Bugs
Issues
Coverage
Oracles
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 30
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Testing
Scripted
Testing
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 31
Why not say “exploratory testing”?
Why not say “vegetarian cauliflower”?
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 32
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
What a Role Is…
• a commitment to perform some service(s)
• an idea to focus commitments
• a way to help organize effort on a team
• a heuristic for explaining or defining work
• like a hat
What a Role Is NOT…
• a declaration of the only things you are 
allowed to do (not a prison)
• a declaration of the things that you and you 
only are allowed to do (not a fortress)
• permanent and unchanging
• like a tattoo
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
What is the testing role?
• To test is to evaluate a product by learning about 
it through exploration and experimentation.
• When someone is testing, that person has 
adopted (if only for that time) a testing role
• A tester’s role is to
– to develop one’s self as a tester
– connect with the clients of testing
– prepare for testing
– perform testing
– report the results of testing.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 35
Changing Mindsets is HARD
Mt. Mindset
NOTE: We do NOT claim that this work must be done by different people, or 
that the people must have different roles. We DO claim that roles on an agile 
team (collaborating with each other) are a powerful heuristic for solving the 
mindset switching problem.
Developer skill focus
Tester skill focus
Business analyst skill focus
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 36
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Shallow testing is tractable at a close critical distance,
whereas deeper or naturalistic long‐form testing 
tends to require or create more distance from the builder’s mindset.
Critical Distance
“Critical Distance” refers to the difference between one perspective and another. 
Testing benefits from diverse perspectives.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 37
Three Testing Roles
Test Leads/Managers
Cultivate and
support
Supporting Testers
Cultivate and
supervise
Heuristics and Tools
Use
Use
Clients and Context
Respond
to
Respond to
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 38
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Relax… a role is a heuristic, not a prison.
• If I am a developer, can I do testing? Of course! 
• As a developer, you already do testing. And you will have to 
sharpen your skills and cope with certain handicaps and biases if 
you want to do great testing.
• If I am a tester, can I make quality better? Sure! 
• And if you do that, you will have adopted, at least temporarily, 
some kind of developer role. It’s hard to wear two hats at once.
• If I am a goalie, can I score goals, too? No rule against it! 
• But if you come forward, your team’s goal is open.  And the 
person covering it can’t use his hands.
• If I am a janitor, can I offer suggestions to the CEO? Hey, why not? 
• But her role is not necessarily to listen, or to comply.
• If I am not the driver of a car, can I grab the steering wheel?
• Go ahead… but only if the driver is incapacitated.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 39
Should testers ONLY look for bugs?
Of course not.
But finding problems that threaten 
the value of the product 
is an important task 
in creating a valuable product.
Testing focuses on that task.
See “On a Role” http://www.developsense.com/blog/2015/06/on‐a‐role/
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 40
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
How do we do development?
• Discover something worth building
• Build some of it
• Build it virtuously
• Study what we’ve built
• …and iterate!
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 41
The Universal Development Cycle
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 42
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Traditional Development Cycle
Almost
all of it.
After the first long 
loop, a very few 
short, panicky 
ones.
Make development 
ponderous—slow and 
expensive.
Aiieee!
Look at all the
bugs!
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 43
Core Agile Heuristics
“Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer
through early and continuous delivery
of valuable software.”
“Welcome changing requirements, even late in
development. Agile processes harness change 
for the customer's competitive advantage.”
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 44
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
What does it mean
to do “Agile Development”?
• Deliver often
• Collaborate across roles
• Develop craftsmanship
• Don’t be too formal
• Be prepared to try things, to fail, and learn
• Build and use tools
• Seek a sustainable pace
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 45
Agile Development Cycle
Almost
NONE of it.
Lots of short loops so 
we don’t get ahead 
of ourselves.
Recognize that 
we’ll make SOME 
mistakes.
Discover 
problems and 
fix them right 
away. 
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 46
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Testing Is Woven into Development
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 47
Developing the Design
• Exploring definitions of done
• Engaging with diverse users
• Specifying product with rich examples
• Reviewing reports from the field
• Exploring design trade‐offs
• Refining user stories
The whole team is 
involved here.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 48
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Building Cleanly and Simply
• Automating low‐level checks
• Establishing shared coding style
• Reviewing each other's code
• Building the product frequently
• Re‐factoring for maintainability
• Investigating and fixing bugs as we go
Mostly developer 
work… but testers can 
assist.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 49
Fostering Testability
• Preparing test environments and tools
• Making the product easy to test
• Identifying and exploring product risk
• Minimizing trouble when changing the product
• Removing obstacles and distractions to testing
• Testing in parallel with coding
Strong developer‐tester 
collaboration.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 50
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Experimenting Imaginatively and Suspiciously
• Assessing for done—or not done yet.
• Modelling in diverse ways
• Developing rich test data
• Testing and checking against risks
• Investigating mysteries
• Telling compelling bug stories
Work that (probably) 
requires some 
dedicated testers.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 51
RST’s Agile Quadrants in Detail
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 52
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Technical Suggestions
• Resist test cases and scripts; focus on test 
activities and the testing story.
• Let risk guide your testing
• Test in short, uninterrupted sessions; review 
and discuss them; seek and provide feedback.
• Avoid premature, excessive formalization.
• Keep documentation concise.
• Use recording tools like an airplane “black box”.
• Emphasize exploratory scenario testing.
• ASK FOR TESTABILITY!
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 53
Tools?
• DON’T use them to “do” the testing.  Tools 
don’t do testing; YOU do.
• DON’T become fixated on tools.
• DO prefer lightweight tools, in general.
• DO use them to support testing.
– setup and configuration management
– data generation
– probing the product
– visualization
– logging and recording
– automated checking (most efficiently at the unit 
and integration levels; not so much at the GUI)
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 54
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Social Suggestions
• Practice explaining testing.
• Declare your role and commitments.
• Don’t accept responsibility for the quality of the 
product.
• Embed yourself (or your testers) with the 
development team.
• Ask for testability.
• Watch where time and effort are going.
• Note the advantages of developer testing.
• Resist bureaucracy.
• Be a service to the project, not an obstacle.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 55
Testing as an Assembly Line?
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Development isn’t linear…
development is a fractal!TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 57
Stories, spikes, 
iterations, sprints, 
releases; whatever 
name for some burst 
of development 
work.
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 58
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
What about standards?
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 59
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
“Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.” 
“Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through…valuable software”
http://agilemanifesto.org/principles.html
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 62
Productive Polarities
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 63
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Some Caveats
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 64
Further Reading
• In addition to the bibliographies in Agile Testing and More Agile 
Testing, have a look at…
• “Test Cases Are Not Testing: Toward a Culture of Test Performance” 
by James Bach & Aaron Hodder
– http://www.testingcircus.com/documents/TestingTrapeze‐2014‐
February.pdf#page=31) 
• Testing Problems are Test Results
– http://www.developsense.com/blog/2011/09/testing‐problems‐are‐
test‐results/
• Testers: Get Out of the QA Business
– http://www.developsense.com/blog/2010/05/testers‐get‐out‐of‐the‐
quality‐assurance‐business/
• Testing and Checking Refined
– http://www.satisfice.com/blog/archives/856
• RST Methodology:  Responsible Tester
– http://www.satisfice.com/blog/archives/1364
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 65
Copyright © 2017
James Bach / Satisfice Inc.
Michael Bolton / DevelopSense
Further Reading
• Test Jumpers: One Version of Agile Testing
– http://www.satisfice.com/blog/archives/1372
• Done, The Relative Rule, and The Unsettling Rule
– http://www.developsense.com/blog/2010/09/done‐the‐relative‐rule‐
and‐the‐unsettling‐rule/
• The Undefinition of “Done”
– http://www.developsense.com/blog/2011/07/the‐undefinition‐of‐
done/
• At Least Three Good Reasons for Testers to Learn to Program
– http://www.developsense.com/blog/2011/09/at‐least‐three‐good‐
reasons‐for‐testers‐to‐learn‐to‐program/
TestingIsTestingAgileIsContext.pdf ‐ 66

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