2010 4.7


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2010 4.7

  1. 1. SECTION 4.7 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4.7.1 Introduction 4.7.2 Regulatory Requirements 4.7.3 Standard Operating Practices A. YARD WASTES B. DOMESTIC REFUSE C. SCRAP METAL D. BATTERIES E. CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION DEBRIS 4.7.4 Colleague Example
  2. 2. SECTION 4.7 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4.7.1 Introduction Solid wastes generated by golf courses include the following: • Grass clippings, leaves and tree trimmings (also known as "Yard Wastes") • Food wastes, cans, bottles, paper, cardboard and glass generated by the office, clubhouse and concessions (commonly referred to as "Domestic Refuse") • Scrap metal from maintenance operations • Batteries (vehicle and dry cells) • Filters (oil, air, etc.) • Vehicle tires • Construction and demolition debris (i.e., wood, concrete, drywall, insulation, metals, wire, etc.) • Containers (e.g., fertilizer bags, pesticide containers, oil containers, paint cans, brushes, etc.). Of these wastes, yard wastes represent the largest volume. However, from a liability perspective, the management of small volume, potentially hazardous wastes, such as batteries and chemical containers, should not be overlooked by the superintendent. Waste management issues for those materials, which pose the greatest potential hazard, including fertilizer bags, pesticide containers, oil filters and containers and solvent containers, are discussed
  3. 3. in other sections. This section deals only with yard wastes, domestic refuse, scrap metal, batteries, and construction and demolition debris. 4.7.2 Regulatory Requirements Provincial environmental legislation generally places restrictions on the types of wastes, which can be deposited in landfills. In general, potentially hazardous wastes such as batteries cannot be disposed of in landfills unless the landfills are specifically designed to accommodate such material. In addition, certain provinces require notification of any large-scale composting operations. However, most composting operations associated with golf course operations would not be sufficiently large to warrant notification. A summary of the applicable legislation and regulations, regulatory contacts and specific requirements for golf course waste management issues is presented in Table 4.32. Despite this legislation, the provinces generally do not get involved in solid waste management issues. Typically, municipalities are responsible for waste collection, landfills and waste reduction (e.g., recycling). Therefore in most instances you will be dealing with the local municipality on solid waste management-related issues. Municipalities regulate waste-reduction requirements and determine the types of wastes that can be deposited in their landfills. Some municipalities may require you to separate certain types of wastes (e.g., newspapers, plastics, glass, etc.) for recycling purposes. Each municipality is different, so be sure that you understand the requirements in your particular area. Municipal bylaws also regulate the burning of solid wastes (e.g., trees, wood demolition debris). Check with the municipality to determine restrictions on burning, and if a burn permit is required. 4.7.3 Standard Operating Practices A. YARD WASTES Options available for the management of yard wastes include: • Composting (for grass clippings, leaves and branches less than 12 mm (0.5") in diameter) • Landfill disposal • Burning (note: some municipalities require for you to have a burn permit, or have put an outright ban on burning all “green wastes” that could be otherwise composted) • Wood-chipping for branches and trees: wood chips can then be used for landscaping purposes • Redistribution back onto the golf course, particularly in the rough and other out-of-the- way areas. Composting can be carried out either on the golf course, or at an off-site facility. Some municipalities have developed their own composting facilities. You should check into the availability of these with your particular municipal representatives. In some cases, municipalities may require you to separate yard wastes from other wastes in order to facilitate composting at their facilities. The development of a composting facility on your golf course has advantages and disadvantages.
  4. 4. The main advantage is that compost is an excellent soil amendment, and can therefore be used in landscaping and course renovations and repairs. The main disadvantage is that composting facilities take up space. Other concerns about composting facilities, such as odors, rodents and insects, can be minimized through proper operation of the facility. Did You Know . . . Adding sediment accumulation from your equipment wash station to your compost pile could contaminate your entire compost collection. Refer to Section 4.6 for further information. Should you decide to consider the development of a composting facility on your course, the following guidelines should be taken into consideration in siting, sizing, constructing and operating the facility. • Facilities should be located in an area which has good exposure to the sun to enhance the microbiological activity required to generate compost. • Facilities should be located in an area which has minimal exposure to the wind to minimize problems associated with blowing debris. • Facilities should be located at least 30 m away from property lines, the clubhouse, maintenance shop and course facilities. If possible, facilities should also be located downwind of the clubhouse and the maintenance shop to minimize the impact of odors should they develop. • Facilities should be located in close proximity to a water supply, as compost facilities should be watered on a weekly basis to enhance microbiological activity. • Facilities should be located on a level area, graded so that surface runoff from outside area is diverted around the facility. This minimizes the potential for leachate generation. • The base of a composting facility should be constructed from compacted clay or clay till to minimize the potential for leachate migration into the subsurface. • Two main types of composting facilities are used: windrows and vessel-type composters. Vessel-type composters are very expensive (at least $300,000) and are used only for very large applications (e.g., large municipalities). They need not be considered for golf courses, as windrow composters are more than adequate. • Windrow composting involves constructing piles of organic material, and turning the material on a monthly basis throughout the spring, summer and fall months (or during course operations for courses which may be open in a portion of the winter). • Windrow piles should not be wider than 3.0 m (10 feet) or higher than 2.4 m (8 feet). The type of equipment which you have available may further restrict the dimensions of the pile. The length of the pile is normally restricted by the available space, but should not exceed 15.0 m (50 feet).
  5. 5. • Equipment which can be used for turning compost piles includes Bobcats, backhoes, front end loaders or tractors equipped with buckets. Specialized compost turning equipment has been developed, but is too expensive for a single golf course to purchase. If such equipment is available in the area, it can be contracted for turning operations. • It will normally take 2 years for composting to be completed. This may be faster in warm areas, or slower in cold ones. In any event, in sizing a compost facility, you should allow for at least 3 piles: one for actively disposing material, one for composting and one for removing finished compost. If your annual waste volumes exceed the capacity of a pile having the dimensions identified above, then additional piles will be required. Further information on composting systems can be obtained from the provincial ministries of the environment. Contacts are listed in Table 4.32. B. DOMESTIC REFUSE As previously mentioned, some municipalities may require that you set up facilities for the recycling of specific waste products. If so, or if you wish to attempt to reduce the amount of waste being sent to a landfill, a recycling program can easily be implemented. Issues to be considered in developing a recycling program are as follows: • Recycle only what is collected by the municipality or a contractor, or what can be reasonably taken to a depot. You don't want to spend a large amount of time transporting small quantities of recycled materials around. • Be careful with plastics. In recent years the market for recycled plastics has been highly volatile, and it is often difficult to find depots for waste plastics. • Set up containers on the course and throughout the clubhouse and maintenance shop for returnable beverage containers. This is easy to do and can generate a significant amount of revenue. You will have to purchase the containers, however. Contact your provincial environment ministry, your municipal solid waste representative or your provincial Environmental Services Association for places to purchase these. • Set up a paper-recycling program in the office and maintenance shop areas. This is easy to do, and will generally generate a small (probably very small) amount of revenue. Recycling contractors will supply you with the containers, normally at no cost. • Contact your provincial Environmental Services Association for a list of recycling contractors in your area. • Ensure that pallets are not disposed of with materials to be landfilled. There is a good market available for reuse of waste pallets. Check in the Yellow Pages of your Telephone Directory under Pallet Manufacturing. C. SCRAP METAL Markets for scrap metal are currently very strong. Scrap metal dealers will normally provide you with a bin for storage of waste metal products, and will pick them up, usually at no cost. In some cases, the dealers may be willing to pay you for the waste materials. As such, it is worthwhile contacting scrap metals dealers in your area to investigate.
  6. 6. D. BATTERIES Disposal of vehicle batteries in landfills is not normally permitted. Battery recyclers are generally available in each of the provinces and should be contacted. Names and addresses can be obtained from your provincial Environmental Services Association. Refer to Table 4.11 for addresses, phone numbers and fax numbers for these associations. In many cases the supplier of the batteries will take care of the disposal. This should be reviewed with prospective suppliers. Disposal of dry cell batteries (e.g., flashlight batteries) in a landfill does not normally contravene provincial legislation, as long as volumes are small (generally, less than 5 kg is acceptable). However, from an environmental perspective, it is a good idea to keep these batteries out of landfills, as they contain heavy metals (e.g., nickel and cadmium), which can leach into the subsurface. Instead, discuss the potential for recycling these with battery recyclers. Alternately, dry cell batteries can be stored and disposed of in hazardous waste roundups which are carried out periodically by municipalities. E. CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION DEBRIS Construction and demolition debris consists of wood, concrete, metals, electrical cable, wallboard and other building materials. The disposal of this material is normally looked after by the building or demolition contractor. When you are involved in demolition of old buildings, you must ensure that hazardous materials are removed and properly disposed of prior to the demolition of the main structure and foundations. Specific hazardous materials that should be considered include: Asbestos Asbestos was used for the insulation of pipes and equipment (e.g., boilers) prior to 1960. Asbestos fibres are extremely hazardous from a health perspective, and therefore asbestos insulation must be removed by licensed contractors. In addition, the material must be double- bagged in polyethylene bags prior to being disposed of in a landfill. If you suspect that asbestos insulation may be present, you should contact an environmental consultant or an asbestos removal contractor to have it checked. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) PCBs are toxic chemicals which were used in transformers and lighting ballasts prior to 1975. If you have transformers or old fluorescent lighting fixtures, you should determine whether they contain PCBs. This can be determined by an environmental consultant. Alternately, you can record the serial number of the transformer or lighting ballast and contact the manufacturer directly. Disposal options for PCBs are very limited. Options are normally limited to incineration at licensed facilities. Contact your provincial Environmental Services Association for a listing of companies who can look after PCB disposal for you.
  7. 7. Table 4.32 Golf Course Solid Waste Management Regulatory Contacts
  8. 8. 4.7.4 Colleague Example