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Using KML for  Thematic Mapping Bjørn Sandvik thematicmapping.org MSc in Geographical Information Science University of Edinburgh Project Manager at United Nations Association of Norway Tech Talk at Googleplex 12 December 2008
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Outline Geo- browsers Thematic mapping techniques KML standard Public datasets Visualisations
Proportional symbols
Proportional symbols #1  Scaling image icons
 
 
 
 
 
Mathematical scaling of 2-D point symbols: symbolSize = power(value/maxValue; 1/2) * maxSize   KML for proportional icon images <Style id='sharedStyle'> <IconStyle> <Icon> <href>files/symbol.png</href> </Icon> </IconStyle> <Style> KML <Placemark> <name>China</name> <Snippet>1,312,978,855 (2005)</Snippet> <styleUrl>#sharedStyle</styleUrl> <Style> <IconStyle> <color>e50066ff</color> <scale>7</scale> </IconStyle> </Style> <Point> <coordinates>106.514,33.42,0</coordinates> </Point> </Placemark> KML
Problem: Size affected by viewport
Not working in Google Maps
Proportional symbols #2  Drawing regular polygons
 
Problem: Complicated! function  kmlSymbolCalculator ( $longitude, $latitude, $radius, $vertices) { $EARTH_RADIUS_EQUATOR = 6378140.0; $RADIAN = 180 / pi(); $long = $longitude / $RADIAN; $lat = $latitude / $RADIAN; $f = 1/298.257; $e = 0.08181922; $kml = '<Polygon><outerBoundaryIs><LinearRing><coordinates>'; for ( $bearing = 45; $bearing <= 405; $bearing += 360/$vertices ) { $b = $bearing / $RADIAN; $R = $EARTH_RADIUS_EQUATOR * (1 - $e * $e) / pow( (1 - $e*$e *  pow(sin($lat),2)), 1.5); $psi = $distance/$R; $phi = pi()/2 - $lat; $arccos = cos($psi) * cos($phi) + sin($psi) * sin($phi) * cos($b); $latA = (pi()/2 - acos($arccos)) * $RADIAN; $arcsin = sin($b) * sin($psi) / sin($phi); $longA = ($long - asin($arcsin)) * $RADIAN; $kml .= &quot; “ . round($longA,$this->coordDecimals) . &quot;,“  . round($latA,$this->coordDecimals);  } $kml = '</coordinates></LinearRing><outerBoundaryIs></Polygon>'; return $kml; }
Proportional symbols #3  Scaling 3-D Collada objects
 
 
Mathematical scaling of 3-D point symbols: symbolSize = power(value/maxValue; 1/3) * maxSize   Making proportional Collada objects  Position   Measure / scale Colorize Google SketchUp <Placemark> <name>China</name> <Snippet>1,312,978,855 (2005)</Snippet> <Model> <Link> <href>files/object.dae</href> </Link> <altitudeMode>absolute</altitudeMode> <Location> <longitude>106.514</longitude> <latitude>33.42</latitude> <altitude>0</altitude> </Location> <Scale> <x>140000</x> <y>140000</y> <z>140000</z> </Scale> </Model> </Placemark> KML
Chart maps
 
 
 
Using Google Chart API in KML <Style id='sharedStyle'> <BalloonStyle> <text><![CDATA[ <img src='http://chart.apis.google.com/chart ?cht=p&chd=t:20,45,5 &amp;chd=t: $[chartValues] '> ]]></text> </BalloonStyle> </Style> KML <Placemark> <name>China</name> <Snippet>1,312,978,855 (2005)</Snippet> <styleUrl>#sharedStyle</styleUrl> <Style> <IconStyle> <scale>7</scale> <Icon>   <href> http://chart.apis.google.com/chart?cht=p&chd=t:20,45,5&chs=300x150 &amp;chf=bg,s,ffffff00</href> </Icon> </IconStyle> </Style> <Point> <coordinates>106.514,33.42,0</coordinates> </Point> <ExtendedData> <Data name=&quot;chartValues&quot;> <value>20,45,5</value> </Data> </ExtendedData> </Placemark> KML
Choropleth maps
 
Prism maps
 
 
 
Problem: Polygon holes
KML used in prism maps Suggestion: <Placemark> <name>China</name> <Snippet>1,312,978,855 (2005)</Snippet> <styleUrl>#sharedStyle</styleUrl> <Style> <PolyStyle> <color>DC0066FF</color> </PolyStyle> </Style> <MultiGeometry> <Polygon> <extrude>1</extrude> <altitudeMode>absolute</altitudeMode> <outerBoundaryIs> <LinearRing> <coordinates>  110.72,20.06, 2000000  109.26,19.9, 2000000 108.63,19.28, 2000000  108.69,18.51, 2000000 110.05,18.38, 2000000  111.03,19.64, 2000000 (...)  </coordinates> </LinearRing> </outerBoundaryIs> </Polygon> <Polygon> (...) </Polygon> </MultiGeometry> </Placemark> KML <Placemark> <name>China</name> <Snippet>1,312,978,855 (2005)</Snippet> <styleUrl>#sharedStyle</styleUrl> <Style> <PolyStyle> <color>DC0066FF</color> </PolyStyle> </Style> <MultiGeometry> <Polygon> <extrude>1</extrude> <altitude>2000000</altitude> <altitudeMode>clampToAltitude</altitudeMode>  <outerBoundaryIs> <LinearRing> <coordinates>  110.72,20.06 109.26,19.9 108.63,19.28 108.69,18.51 110.05,18.38 111.03,19.64 (...)  </coordinates> </LinearRing> </outerBoundaryIs> </Polygon> <Polygon> (...) </Polygon> </MultiGeometry> </Placemark> KML
3-D bar maps
3-D bars: One variable
3-D bars: Two variables
Animated maps
 
Thematic Mapping Engine
Thematic mapping parameters Web Interface PHP Library Web Processing Service KML/KMZ Thematic Mapping Engine Thematic Mapping Engine
 
 
 
Apache MySQL PHP Web server HTML / JavaScript Ext JS Google Earth API Web browser 1. Get list of indicators   2. Get list of available years  3. Make KML/KMZ document 4. Download KML/KMZ file  How it works
MySQL Data Connector Form Handler Database File Server Web server Web browser KML/KMZ files Web server infrastructure Thematic  Mapping  Engine
include ('TME_MySQL_DataConnector.php'); include ('TME_Engine.php'); $dataConnector = new DataConnector(); $dataStore = $dataConnector->getDataStore(68, 2005, 0);  $parameters = array( 'mapType’  => 'choropleth',   'indicator'  => 68,   'year'  => 2005,   'classification' => 'equal' ); $map = new ThematicMap($dataStore, $parameters); $file = $map->getKML(); Application Programming Interface (API)
KML structure Add KML header Technique Choropleth Prism Bar  Image Polygon Collada Type For each year For each feature Technique Choropleth Bar  Image Polygon Collada Type Prism  Add shared style Add shared style Add shared style Add shared style Colourise Collada object(s) Add style and feature Add style and feature Add style and feature Add style and feature Add style and feature Add link to Collada object Add map title and legend <Folder> <Placemark> </Placemark> </Folder> <kml> </kml> Symbol Symbol
Map legends Unclassed Equal intervals Quantiles
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Google Earth fix!
thematic mapping.org

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Using KML for Thematic Mapping

  • 1. Using KML for Thematic Mapping Bjørn Sandvik thematicmapping.org MSc in Geographical Information Science University of Edinburgh Project Manager at United Nations Association of Norway Tech Talk at Googleplex 12 December 2008
  • 2.
  • 4. Proportional symbols #1 Scaling image icons
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10. Mathematical scaling of 2-D point symbols: symbolSize = power(value/maxValue; 1/2) * maxSize KML for proportional icon images <Style id='sharedStyle'> <IconStyle> <Icon> <href>files/symbol.png</href> </Icon> </IconStyle> <Style> KML <Placemark> <name>China</name> <Snippet>1,312,978,855 (2005)</Snippet> <styleUrl>#sharedStyle</styleUrl> <Style> <IconStyle> <color>e50066ff</color> <scale>7</scale> </IconStyle> </Style> <Point> <coordinates>106.514,33.42,0</coordinates> </Point> </Placemark> KML
  • 11. Problem: Size affected by viewport
  • 12. Not working in Google Maps
  • 13. Proportional symbols #2 Drawing regular polygons
  • 14.  
  • 15. Problem: Complicated! function kmlSymbolCalculator ( $longitude, $latitude, $radius, $vertices) { $EARTH_RADIUS_EQUATOR = 6378140.0; $RADIAN = 180 / pi(); $long = $longitude / $RADIAN; $lat = $latitude / $RADIAN; $f = 1/298.257; $e = 0.08181922; $kml = '<Polygon><outerBoundaryIs><LinearRing><coordinates>'; for ( $bearing = 45; $bearing <= 405; $bearing += 360/$vertices ) { $b = $bearing / $RADIAN; $R = $EARTH_RADIUS_EQUATOR * (1 - $e * $e) / pow( (1 - $e*$e * pow(sin($lat),2)), 1.5); $psi = $distance/$R; $phi = pi()/2 - $lat; $arccos = cos($psi) * cos($phi) + sin($psi) * sin($phi) * cos($b); $latA = (pi()/2 - acos($arccos)) * $RADIAN; $arcsin = sin($b) * sin($psi) / sin($phi); $longA = ($long - asin($arcsin)) * $RADIAN; $kml .= &quot; “ . round($longA,$this->coordDecimals) . &quot;,“ . round($latA,$this->coordDecimals); } $kml = '</coordinates></LinearRing><outerBoundaryIs></Polygon>'; return $kml; }
  • 16. Proportional symbols #3 Scaling 3-D Collada objects
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. Mathematical scaling of 3-D point symbols: symbolSize = power(value/maxValue; 1/3) * maxSize Making proportional Collada objects Position Measure / scale Colorize Google SketchUp <Placemark> <name>China</name> <Snippet>1,312,978,855 (2005)</Snippet> <Model> <Link> <href>files/object.dae</href> </Link> <altitudeMode>absolute</altitudeMode> <Location> <longitude>106.514</longitude> <latitude>33.42</latitude> <altitude>0</altitude> </Location> <Scale> <x>140000</x> <y>140000</y> <z>140000</z> </Scale> </Model> </Placemark> KML
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24. Using Google Chart API in KML <Style id='sharedStyle'> <BalloonStyle> <text><![CDATA[ <img src='http://chart.apis.google.com/chart ?cht=p&chd=t:20,45,5 &amp;chd=t: $[chartValues] '> ]]></text> </BalloonStyle> </Style> KML <Placemark> <name>China</name> <Snippet>1,312,978,855 (2005)</Snippet> <styleUrl>#sharedStyle</styleUrl> <Style> <IconStyle> <scale>7</scale> <Icon> <href> http://chart.apis.google.com/chart?cht=p&chd=t:20,45,5&chs=300x150 &amp;chf=bg,s,ffffff00</href> </Icon> </IconStyle> </Style> <Point> <coordinates>106.514,33.42,0</coordinates> </Point> <ExtendedData> <Data name=&quot;chartValues&quot;> <value>20,45,5</value> </Data> </ExtendedData> </Placemark> KML
  • 26.  
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 32. KML used in prism maps Suggestion: <Placemark> <name>China</name> <Snippet>1,312,978,855 (2005)</Snippet> <styleUrl>#sharedStyle</styleUrl> <Style> <PolyStyle> <color>DC0066FF</color> </PolyStyle> </Style> <MultiGeometry> <Polygon> <extrude>1</extrude> <altitudeMode>absolute</altitudeMode> <outerBoundaryIs> <LinearRing> <coordinates> 110.72,20.06, 2000000 109.26,19.9, 2000000 108.63,19.28, 2000000 108.69,18.51, 2000000 110.05,18.38, 2000000 111.03,19.64, 2000000 (...) </coordinates> </LinearRing> </outerBoundaryIs> </Polygon> <Polygon> (...) </Polygon> </MultiGeometry> </Placemark> KML <Placemark> <name>China</name> <Snippet>1,312,978,855 (2005)</Snippet> <styleUrl>#sharedStyle</styleUrl> <Style> <PolyStyle> <color>DC0066FF</color> </PolyStyle> </Style> <MultiGeometry> <Polygon> <extrude>1</extrude> <altitude>2000000</altitude> <altitudeMode>clampToAltitude</altitudeMode> <outerBoundaryIs> <LinearRing> <coordinates> 110.72,20.06 109.26,19.9 108.63,19.28 108.69,18.51 110.05,18.38 111.03,19.64 (...) </coordinates> </LinearRing> </outerBoundaryIs> </Polygon> <Polygon> (...) </Polygon> </MultiGeometry> </Placemark> KML
  • 34. 3-D bars: One variable
  • 35. 3-D bars: Two variables
  • 37.  
  • 39. Thematic mapping parameters Web Interface PHP Library Web Processing Service KML/KMZ Thematic Mapping Engine Thematic Mapping Engine
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43. Apache MySQL PHP Web server HTML / JavaScript Ext JS Google Earth API Web browser 1. Get list of indicators 2. Get list of available years 3. Make KML/KMZ document 4. Download KML/KMZ file How it works
  • 44. MySQL Data Connector Form Handler Database File Server Web server Web browser KML/KMZ files Web server infrastructure Thematic Mapping Engine
  • 45. include ('TME_MySQL_DataConnector.php'); include ('TME_Engine.php'); $dataConnector = new DataConnector(); $dataStore = $dataConnector->getDataStore(68, 2005, 0); $parameters = array( 'mapType’ => 'choropleth', 'indicator' => 68, 'year' => 2005, 'classification' => 'equal' ); $map = new ThematicMap($dataStore, $parameters); $file = $map->getKML(); Application Programming Interface (API)
  • 46. KML structure Add KML header Technique Choropleth Prism Bar Image Polygon Collada Type For each year For each feature Technique Choropleth Bar Image Polygon Collada Type Prism Add shared style Add shared style Add shared style Add shared style Colourise Collada object(s) Add style and feature Add style and feature Add style and feature Add style and feature Add style and feature Add link to Collada object Add map title and legend <Folder> <Placemark> </Placemark> </Folder> <kml> </kml> Symbol Symbol
  • 47. Map legends Unclassed Equal intervals Quantiles
  • 48.

Editor's Notes

  1. Thank Michael/Google for inviting me Introduce myself This work is based on a MSc in GIS at University of Edinburgh Currenlty working as in UN Association of Norway Making data from UN organisations more accessible to the public Globalis