Agile Day Tunisia - ScrumShore 2.0 For Playful Offshoring Agile
ScrumShore 2.0 For Playful Offshoring Agile Day Tunisia, 2d June email@example.com Laurent SARRAZIN firstname.lastname@example.org
Speaker Agilitateur Laurent SARRAZIN email@example.com Bio Speaker Diplômé de l’Université de Paris-Orsay, Laurent Sarrazin exerce depuis 18 ans dans le secteur du développement Agile France, May 2012 informatique de la banque d’investissement, exigeant en Agile Grenoble, Nov 2012 terme de leadership, gourmand en méthodologies et Agile Tour Rennes, Oct 2012 ITSMf , 2010, 2011, 2012 technologies de pointe. French Scrum Day, 2011, 2012 Valtech Days, 2010, 2012 Son parcours est marqué par la mise en œuvre de eSCM Annual Conference, 2010 méthodes agiles (SCRUM, XP, FDD, ..) à grande échelle interculturelle. 3 années dans la Silicon Valley Indienne de Bangalore lui ont permis de développer une Teacher – from 2009 onw expérience authentique. Master and Master Exec HEC / Mines/ SupTelecom A son retour au siège, Laurent a créé et dirige l’ITEC Current Projects AGILE CENTER, un service d’accompagnement/coaching des équipes dans la mise en œuvre et l’amélioration Simplexeo (www.simplexo.com) continue de solutions offshores agiles. To Succeed with Simplexity. A blend of agile value, lean principles, radical management to transform our organizations, toward people firstname.lastname@example.org Scrumshore (www.scrumshore.com) Agility , Lean, Collective Intelligence applied to Smart Offshoring
A big issue with offshoring : The Distance Story of the Day But we just missed that cultures may not fit so easily A great idea : with agility let’s use agility as bridge Let’s try with ScrumShore !email@example.com .. And build a strong partnership with a playful spirit
firstname.lastname@example.org Statement The Problem
The Offshoring Problem Statement Cultural Differences Country, corporate intercultural gaps Loss of ..Visibility, Distance Control, Trust Loss of Client Proximity & Understanding of the Streched context, the expectations, Knowledge getting feedback, .. Limited execution Remoteness scope, less autonomy Loss of Teamness Dispersed Team email@example.com Distributed-On-Team Coordination Breakdown To foster operational efficiency
firstname.lastname@example.org The Idea ? Magical
Bridging with a Third Culture Culture 1 A Third Culture Culture 2 Individual Culturelaurent.email@example.com Working with distributed teams, especially in different countries implies to take care of cultural differences. The idea is to leverage the richness of the differences AND bridge teams with the 3rd culture based on SCRUM (and other agile ingredients)
The Agile Value Proposal for Offshoring Intrinsic Quality Quality in Built-in eXtrem IT Engineering mindset and practices are firstname.lastname@example.org 8
email@example.com Inter- Cultural Orientations
Day to Day True Stories : Cultural Differences Situations • Objectives Setting (definition, understanding, commitments) Opinion • Expectations : Explicit / Implicit, Assumptions • Decision Making • Perception of what is challenging • Meetings : agenda to conclusion Problem • Communication (phone, meetings, interviews, …) Solving • Cross-Visits, Protocols • Absences • Learning Schemes Anger • Leadership Style • Sense of Quality • Yes / No Self • Definition of ‘Done’ Esteem • Clarifications, Troubleshooting, ..firstname.lastname@example.org • Physical Distance, Timelag The Manager Intercultural day-to-day real situations …
IST : Indian Stretchable Timelaurent.email@example.com Time Boxing …
Direct / Indirect Intercultural Communication Patterns http://www.danielnester.com/uploaded_images/Kaplan_RB_Cultural_Thought_Patterns_in_Intercultural_Communication_Diagram-790122.JPGlaurent.firstname.lastname@example.org Daily Standups, Retrospective, … Core Protocols, XP Values, ..
The Challenge : touching the values for sustainability DO is not BElaurent.email@example.com Coaching REQUIRED ! To lead the change at the values level
Cultural differences : Key Models Geert Hofstede (2002)firstname.lastname@example.org Classic models dealing with intercultural differences
Better to be Why and How to use these models ? aware before than after .. To manage the « agile intercultural paradox » (*) -Helper ? how agility can mitigate cultural gaps ? -Blocker ? how the cultural orientations can email@example.com (block or help) agile effectiveness (*) tentative name ..
Quick Illustration with Hofstede Tolerance to ambiguity, uncertainty No Upfront spec/design KISS Rules, LEAN Process Power of the hierarchy Scrum-master command/control to manager-coach Radical Transparency Burn charts, .. Inter-Relationships Collective ownership Daily Meeting Reactivity to the changes DEEP Backlog Iterative & Incrementallaurent.firstname.lastname@example.org
Exploring the Arab Culture Source : http://geert-hofstede.com/arab-world-egiqkwlblysa.html (based on scores for Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia)email@example.com
Overview of Scrum vs Cultural Attributes http://hasith.net/documents/Culturally_Distributed_Scrum.firstname.lastname@example.org
To Sum’Up : Take Care ;) Culture 1 <!> Agile Intercultural The Third Paradox <!> Culture Culture email@example.com Good to have Agility as an opportunity to bridge teams with a 3rd Culture, AND take care of the “agile intercultural paradox”
firstname.lastname@example.org Shore SCRUM Idea #02
The 3 Components of SCRUMShore ONE Team Spirit Smart Team Work Evolutive Iterative & Incremental Delivery Model Features Teamslaurent.email@example.com SCRUMShore is a trust-based operating model, fostering the ONE TEAM Spirit, relying on SCRUM and a SMART transition path
Component #01 : the Foundations ONE Team ONE Team Spirit ONE Culture = We are equal Shared Vision Common Goals Unified Working Principles We are within the same company ! “us” / “them” syndrome killer No SLAs, No penalty, … Distance Reducer But virtual distributed teams Lead Site Remote Site Client Accountability Delivery Capabilities Client Proximity Execution Capacity Integration, Roll-Out Feature Team 3 Perspectives a good way to structure the thinking / design / implementation of your firstname.lastname@example.org Infinite reusability … The key enabler : 2 simple concepts to envision the ONE TEAM Spirit. Leveraging Edouard De Bono : Lateral Thinking
Ingredient #01 : 5 Dysfunctions of a Team Trust !!email@example.com Without trust, nothing will work
Ingredient #02 : Lateral Thinking, Edouard de Bonolaurent.firstname.lastname@example.org A powerful approach for creative thinking, problem solving. Enable a group to be synchronized on a single perspective at a time, and go perspective by perspective. Agile Tip : a great way to conduct retrospective.
Component #02 : The SMART TeamWork Foundations View 1 : High-level Goals & Roles Distribution View 2 : Detailed Work Distribution Mutual Expectations Working Mix #1 Roles Distribution View 4 : Vertical Interactions Expectation, Communication, Deliverables, Tools, … #4 Vertical ONE #2 Collaboration Team Working Mix View 3 : Horizontal Interactions Expectations, Communication, Deliverables, Tools, … #3 Horizontal Collaborationlaurent.email@example.com We push teams to define a clear cut working manifesto, write down their mutual expectations, shared commitment. Real Coaching (with an exercise book) We avoid the RACI spirit
Evolutive Delivery Model From Shared to Managed Delivery Developments Value-Based Evolution, driven by success conditions Shared Development Feature-Driven Development Managed Delivery Development Deliveries are co-developed at both locations Delivery activities are segregated Client Exposure for Remote Site Lead Site : Client Requirement and Integration Lead Site : Client Requirement and Integration Lead Site : Client Accountability and Integration Both Sites : Shared delivery activities Remote Site : High autonomy on delivery activities Remote Site : High autonomy on delivery activities Significant coupling between sites limiting the Light coupling leading higher productivity Loose coupling unleashing the highest productivity value Managed Feature-Driven Value Initial Value Optimized Value Maximized Value Stream Moderate Savings Significant savings Best firstname.lastname@example.org Optimal use of remote execution capacity Maximized use of remote execution capacity Limited use of remote execution capacity Higher Collective Ownership Client Exposure instilling higher understanding of Limited Remote Domain Knowledge Domain knowledge at remote site the requirements, constraints, expectations Success Conditions / Trigger Success Conditions / Trigger Success Conditions / Trigger Good to kick-start an activity Mature remote site capabilities Matured Client Relationship Established Distributed TeamWork Interfaces Enforced Release Mgt
Component #03a : Distributed SCRUM + XPlaurent.email@example.com Distribute across the 2 sites : the agile and lean software principles Apply SCRUM as-it-is (SCRUM is enough lean and “kiss”. Kill the “yes/buts” ) Iteration-pipelining has been introduced on need basis (C. Larman in Bangalore in 2006) We apply XP Core Engineering Practices : TDD, CI, JIT Design,..
firstname.lastname@example.org Play ! (but seriously ;)
email@example.com Plenty of « Serious Games » + a Place : the PlayRoom
Round 01 - The Collective GOALSlaurent.firstname.lastname@example.org A first set of easy games to carve our collective and SMART goals
Round 02 : How it email@example.com The Start Your Day Game, With the wheel of respect
Round 03 : Who is doing what ? Project Y Project Xlaurent.firstname.lastname@example.org The Give & Take Game. Forget the RACIs !!
To know more Plongez dans les Référenceslaurent.email@example.com
Some References Challenges in Applying Scrum Methodology on Culturally Distributed Teams http://hasith.net/documents/Culturally_Distributed_Scrum.pdf Analyzing Intercultural Factors Affecting Global Software Development Philippe Kruchten http://www.kruchten.com/site/publications.html Investigating Cultural Differences in Virtual Software Teams, G. Dafoulas http://www.ejisdc.org/ojs2/index.php/ejisdc/article/view/37 THE IMPACT OF INTERCULTURAL FACTORS ON GLOBAL SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT ftp://ftp.eng.auburn.edu/pub/mynenls/.../software.pdf On Empirical Research Into Scrum www.scrumalliance.org/resource_download/989 Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions www.geert-hofstede.com/ Rosinski’s Cultural Orientation Frameworklaurent.firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.philrosinski.com/
INDIA • Power distance • Masculinity / Feminity • This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not equal – it • A high score (masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will be driven by expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities amongst us. competition, achievement and success, with success being defined by the winner / best in field – a value system that starts in school and continues throughout organisational behaviour. • Power distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of • A low score (feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values in society are caring institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is for others and quality of life. A feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what distributed inequally. motivates people, wanting to be the best (masculine) or liking what you do (feminine). • India scores high on this dimension, 77, indicating an appreciation for hierarchy and • India scores 56 on this dimension and is thus considered a masculine society. Even though it is mildy above the mid range in score, India is actually very masculine in terms of visual display of a Top – Down Structure in society and Organizations. If one were to encapsulate the success and power. The designer brand lable, the flash and bling that goes with advertising one’s Indian attitude, one could use the following words and phrases : dependent on the success, is widely practiced. However, India is also a spritual country with millions of deities and boss or the powerholder for direction, acceptance of un-equal rights between the various religious philosophies. It is also an ancient country with one of the longest surviving cultures which gives it ample lessons in the value of humility and abstinence. This often reigns in power-priviledged and those who are lesser down in the pecking order, immediate people from indulging in Masculine displays to the extent that they might be naturally inclined superiors accessible but one layer above less so, paternalistic leader, management to. In more Masculine countries the focus is on success and achievements, validated by material gains . Work is the center of one’s life and visible symbols of success in the work place is very directs, gives reason / meaning to ones work life and rewards in exchange for loyalty important. from employees. Real Power is centralized even though it may not appear to be and managers count on the obedience of their team members.Employees expect to be • Uncertainty avoidance directed clearly as to their functions and what is expected of them. Control is • The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? familiar, even a psychological security, and attitude towards managers are formal This ambiguity brings with it anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety even if one is on first name basis. Communication is top down and directive in its in different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is style and often feedback which is negative is never offered up the ladder. reflected in the UAI score. • India scores 40 on this dimension and thus has a medium low preference for avoiding uncertainty. In India there is acceptance of imperfection; nothing has to be perfect nor has to go • Individualism exactly as planned. India is traditionally a patient country where tolerance for the unexpected is • The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of high ; even welcomed as a break from monotony. People generally do not feel driven and compelled to take action-initiatives and comfortably settle into established rolls and routines interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with whether without questioning. Rules are often in place just to be circumvented and one relies on people´s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “We”. innovative methods to “bypass the system”. A word used often is “adjust” and means a wide range of things, from turning a blind eye to rules being flouted to finding a unique and inventive • In Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and their solution to a seemingly unsurmoutable problem. It is this attitude that is both the cause of direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to ‘in groups’ that take care misery as well as the most empowering aspect of the country. There is a saying that “nothing is impossible” in India, so long as one knows how to “adjust”. of them in exchange for loyalty. • India, with a score of 48 is a society with clear collectivistic traits. This means that • Long term orientation there is a high preference for belonging to a larger social framework in which • The long term orientation dimension is closely related to the teachings of Confucius and can be interpreted as dealing with society’s search for virtue, the extent to which a society shows a individuals are expected to act in accordance to the greater good of one’s defined pragmatic future-oriented perspective rather than a conventional historical short-term point of in-group(s). In such situations, the actions of the individual are influenced by various view. concepts such as the opinion of one’s family, extended family, neighbours, work • The Indians score 61, making it a long term, pragmatic culture. In India the concept of “karma” dominates religious and philosophical thought. Time is not linear, and thus not as important email@example.com group and other such wider social networks that one has some affiliation toward. to western societies which typically score low on this dimension. Countries like India have a For a collectivist, to be rejected by one’s peers or to be thought lowly of by one’s great tolerance for religious views from all over the world – Hinduism is often considered a philosophy more than even a religion; an amalgamation of ideas, views, practices and esoteric extended and immediate in-groups, leaves him or her rudderless and with a sense of beliefs. In India there is an acceptance that there are many truths and often depends on the intense emptyness. The employer/employee relationship is one of expectations seeker. Societies that have a high score on Long Term Orientation, typically forgive lack of based on expectations – Loyalty by the employee and almost familial protection by punctuality, a changing game-plan based on changing reality and a general comfort with discovering the fated path as one goes along rather than playing to an exact plan. the Employer. Hiring and promotion decisions are often made based on relationships which are the key to everything in a Collectivist society.
FRANCE • Power distance • Uncertainty avoidance This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not equal – it The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a society expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities amongst us. deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to Power distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel With a score of 68, France scores high on the scale of the PDI. It is therefore a society threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs in which inequalities are accepted. Hierarchy is needed if not existential; the and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the UAI score. superiors may have privileges and are often inaccessible. The power is highly centralized in France, as well as Paris centralizes administrations, At 86 France has one the highest scores on the UAI Index. Certainty is often transports etc. reached through academic work and concepts that can respond for the In management, the attitude towards managers is more formal, the information need of detail, context, and background. Teachings and trainings are more flow is hierarchical. The way information is controlled is even associated with power, therefore unequally distributed. inductive. In management structure, rules and security are welcome and if • lacking, it creates stress. Therefore planning is favored, some level of Individualism expertise welcome, when change policies on the other hand are considered The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of stressful. interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with whether • people´s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “We”. Long term orientation In Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and their The long term orientation dimension is closely related to the teachings of direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to ‘in groups’ that take care Confucius and can be interpreted as dealing with society’s search for virtue, of them in exchange for loyalty. the extent to which a society shows a pragmatic future-oriented At 71 France scores high on the individualistic index. This means that the French perspective rather than a conventional historical short-term point of view. favor individual and private opinions, taking care of themselves and immediate family rather than belonging to a group. At 39 France is a short term oriented society. This means a great respect for In the work environment, the relationship with work is contract based, the focus is tradition as well as a need for norms and absolute truth as guidelines. In on the task and autonomy is favored. The communication is direct and everyone is terms of business this short term orientation focuses on quick results i.e. allowed to speak up, voice out their opinions even more if they do not agree. companies are driven by quarterly results. Consumption is driven by The management is the management of individuals and the recognition of one‘s immediate gratification, sensitivity to social trends and rituals. There’s not work is expected. much focus on saving. Management is based on self reliance, personal • achievement, hard work and managers are judged on short term results. Masculinity / Femininity A high score (masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being defined by the winner / best in field – a value system that starts in school and continues throughout organisational behaviour. A low score (feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life. A feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is not admirable. Thelaurent.firstname.lastname@example.org fundamental issue here is what motivates people, wanting to be the best (masculine) or liking what you do (feminine). With 43, France is a relatively Feminine country. With its famous welfare system (securité sociale), their 35 working hours/week and 5 weeks holidays per year, France cares for its quality of life and focuses more on work in order to live than the reverse. Competition amongst work colleagues is usually not favored as feminine societies have more sympathy for the underdog. And material signs of success, especially flashy ones, should not be too visible. The management should be supportive and dialogue should help resolve conflicts.