Performance Management system include measures of both BEHAVIOURS and RESULTS .
The definition of the performance does not include the results of an employee’s behaviors, but
only the behavior themselves.
Performance is about behavior or what employees do, not about what employees produce or
the outcomes of their work.
Characteristics of the Behaviors : -
Evaluative ( Can be judged as Negative, neutral and positive)
Multidimensional ( have the capacity to advance the organizational goals)
Consider set of behaviors that can be grouped under the general label “ Contribution to
effectiveness of others in the work unit” (What this means)
Works within and outside the unit and helps to improve their effectiveness; shares information
and resources; develops effective working relationships; builds consensus; constructively
Anchors -It’s a scale to measure demonstrating various levels of competence.
Anchors could be words and phrases such as –
Significantly exceeds standards
Fully meets standards
What factors cause an employee to perform at a certain level ?
Why do certain individuals perform better than others?
Below combination of three factors allows some people to perform at higher levels than
Declarative knowledge Procedural Knowledge Motivation
•Choice to perform
• Level of efforts
• Persistence of efforts
Performance = Declarative knowledge X Procedural Knowledge X
If any of the determinants has a value of 0, then performance also has value of 0.
Deliberation practice involves 5 steps :
Approach performance with goal of getting better and better
As you performing focus on what's happening and why you are doing
things the way you do
Once your task is finished , seek performance feedback from expert
sources, the more sources the better
Build and psychological models of your job, your situation, your
Repeat steps 1-4 continuously and on an on going basis
In order to address performance problems properly, managers must take following
1. Find out information that allow you to understand the source of problem
2. Analyse the level of motivation an employee has. (If motivation is low, send him to
a sponsored training programs)
By doing this, it will help the manager not only in measuring performance but also
provides information about the source of any performance deficiencies.
Some of the Factors influencing determinants of performance are:
Employee (their ability & past experience)
Performance is multidimensional
To understand performance, one has to
understand different types of behavior an
employee exhibits in due course of work.
In the broader sense, there are two types of
behavior or performance facet:
1. Task performance
2. Contextual performance
Activities that transform raw materials into
goods and services that are produced by an
Activities that help with the transformation
process by replenishing the supply of raw
materials, distributing finished goods etc
All those behaviors that contribute to the
organisation’s effectiveness by providing a good
environment in which task performance can occur.
It includes behaviors such as
1. Persisting with enthusiasm and exerting extra effort
as necessary to complete one’s own task successfully
2. Volunteering to carry out task that are not a part of
3. Helping & cooperating with others
4. Following organisation rules & procedures
5. Endorsing, supporting & defending organisational
1. Varies across jobs
2. Likely to be role
3. Background :
abilities & skills
1. Fairly similar across jobs
2. Not likely to be role
Many org now realise that there is a need to focus
on both types of performance behaviors.
Organizations cannot perform effectively with
minimum dose of any one of types.
Global competition is raising the levels of effort
required of employees.
Many organizations are forming employees into
The need to offer outstanding customer service.
Employee level of satisfaction will be high.
There are 3 approaches that can be used to
measure performance.They are:
1. Trait approach
2. Behavior approach
3. Results approach
The trait approach emphasizes the individual performer and ignores the
specific situation , behavior and results
Emphasis on individual
• Evaluate stable traits
▪ Cognitive abilities
• Based on relationship between traits & performance
• Structural changes planned for organization
• Improvement not under individual’s control
• Trait may not lead to
▪ Desired behaviors or
▪ Desired results
• Employees take a long time to achieve desired
• Link between behaviors and results is not obvious
• Outcomes occur in the distant future
• Poor results are due to causes beyond the
Not appropriate if
above conditions are not present
• Less time
• Lower cost
• Data appear objective
Most appropriate when:
• Workers skilled in necessary behaviors
• Behaviors and results obviously related
• Consistent improvement in results over time
• Many ways to do the job right