Written tests were widely used until the early 1960s when they fell into disfavor. They were frequently characterized as discriminatory and not job related. However, since well-constructed tests can help predict success on the job, tests have made a comeback. It is, though, important that organizations use tests that are reliable and valid and have been designed to measure the skill or ability. Good tests can help reduce the likelihood of making a poor hiring decision.
Reference checks occur when a potential employer contacts previous employers to verify information that the applicant has provided.It is important to ask good questions in order to get the information necessary to make a good hiring decision. Important to have well-constructed questionsCan you Outsource This? How far can you dig?
Sometimes when you contact the previous employer, the person contacted might have some grudge against the candidate and give false information. Or he might not have been a proper judge of the candidate’s potential. Secondly if the nature of the job is different , the candidate’ s performance in a previous job of different nature might not be that important a factor.Moreover there are many factors linked to an employees performance which may result in his good/bad performance at a previous workplace. Since these cannot be judged with a phone call..this method is not exactly reliable.
Selection Dr. Desai
Selection – the process by which an organization chooses from a list of applicants the person or personswho best meet the selection criteria for the position available, considering current environmental conditions
Internal Environmental FactorsInfluencing Selection Organization characteristics that can influence the selection process: – Size – Complexity – Technological ability
External Environmental FactorsInfluencing Selection Government employment laws and regulations Size, composition, and availability of local labor markets
Selection Prediction exercise – Thus, Not Perfect Decision-making exercise Purpose is to hire the person(s) best able to meet the needs of the organization Tied Back to Strategy
Selection Are there ways that managers can ensure that the decision achieves the desired outcome? (time and time again) – Yes, use HR Tools which are Reliable & Valid
Reliability of Selection Criteria Degree to which selection tool measures the same thing consistently Can be a test or an interview Same questions need to be asked.
Validity Relationship between selection tool and appropriate criterion What a selection technique measures and how well it measures Must be proven and relevant to job – E.g.: keyboarding skills for data entry clerk.
Selection Criteria Experience Formal and Past Education Performance Personal Physical characteristics Characteristics and Personality type
Steps in the Selection Process Background Preliminary and Selection Screening Reference Decision checks Employment Employment Physical Interview Tests Examination
The Selection Process Initial Screening – Involves screening of inquiries and screening interviews. – Job description information is shared along with a salary range.
The Selection Process Employment Interview Interviews involve a face-to-face meeting with the candidate to probe areas not addressed by the application form or tests Two strategies for effective use of interviews: 1. Structuring the interview to be reliable and valid 2. Training managers on best interview techniques
The Effectiveness of Interviews Prior knowledge about an applicant Attitude of the interviewer The order of the interview Negative information The first five minutes The content of the interview The validity of the interview Structured versus unstructured interviews
Common Types of Interviews Non-directive – Most Latitude – Questions are open ended – This can get you into trouble Behavioral Description – As about a situation you have experienced. – Candidates are observed not only for what they say, but how they behave. – Role playing is often used. Structured – Panel – Situational • Why is a Situational Analysis Good.
The Selection Process Realistic Job Preview – RJP’s present unfavorable as well as favorable information about the job to applicants. – May include brochures, films, tours, work sampling, or verbal statements that realistically portray the job. – RJP’s reduce turnover without lowering acceptance rates.
Activity : Interview Questions Lets come up with some interview questions!
The Selection Process Employment Tests Estimates say 60% of all organizations use some type of employment tests. Mechanism that attempts to measure certain characteristics of individuals, e.g., – aptitudes – intelligence – Personality – Ability – interest Should be validated before being used to make hiring decisions
The Selection Process Employment Tests – Performance simulation tests: requires the applicant to engage in specific job behaviors necessary for doing the job successfully. – Work sampling: Job analysis is used to develop a miniature replica of the job on which an applicant demonstrates his/her skills.
The Selection Process Employment Tests – Assessment centers: A series of tests and exercises, including individual and group simulation tests, is used to assess managerial potential or other complex sets of skills. – Testing in a global arena: Selection practices must be adapted to cultures and regulations of host country.
The Selection Process Background Investigation or Reference Checks : Verify information from the application form Typical information verified includes: – former employers – previous job performance – education – legal status to work – credit references – criminal records
The Selection Process Background Investigation Do not always provide an organization with meaningful information about applicants Concerns over the legality of asking for and providing confidential information about applicants
The Selection Process Physical Examinations Should be required only after a conditional offer of employment has been made
Summary Putting more money into selection can significantly reduce the amount of money it must spend on training A selection system will make some mistakes – No guarantee of successful job performance