Successfully reported this slideshow.

Comparative linguistics English- Italian

2,258 views

Published on

Italian language- English language comparative linguistics
İtalyanca İngilizce dilbilimi
le lingue

  • Be the first to comment

Comparative linguistics English- Italian

  1. 1. ITALIAN
  2. 2. ITALIAN A. General information• Italian is a Romance language spoken by 62 million people in Italy andSwitzerland and by 126 million people as a second language in the world.• It derives from Latin and it is the closest national language to Latin. Itretains its origins with both Latin and Greek.
  3. 3. ITALIANA.II. History- ETRUSCAN CIVILIZATION Etruscan civilizaton was developed in Italy after about 800 BC. Later, it gave way in the 7th century to a culture that was influenced by Greek traders and Greek neighbours in Magna Graecia (Great Greece), the Hellenic civilization of southern Italy. After 500 BC the political destiny of Italy passed out of Etruscan hands.
  4. 4. ITALIAN A.II. HistoryBetween 17th and 11th Between 8th and 7th Ancient Rome was atcentury BC , Greeks century BC, Greek first an agriculturalestablished contacts with colonies were community founded atItaly. established 8th BC. Senatus Populusque Romanus
  5. 5. ITALIANB. History After 6th century, Italian was Italian Republic of Italy: divided into Unification 1946 oligarchic city- (1861- 1922) states.
  6. 6. ITALIANA.III. Dante AlighieriIVRA MONARCHIE SVPEROS PHLAEGETONTALACVSQVE LUSTRANDO CECINI FATA VOLVERVNTQVOVSQVE SED QVIA PARS CESSIT MELIORIBVSHOSPITA CASTRIS ACTOREMQVE SVVM PETIITFELICIOR ASTRIS HIC CLAVDOR DANTES PATRISEXTORRIS ABORIS QVIA GENVIT PARVI FLORENTIAMATRIS AMORIS.DANTEItalian language was first vulgar Latin.The father of Italian language is DANTE. He is still credited withstandardizing the Italian language and the dialect of Florencebecame the basis for what would become the official langauge ofItaly.
  7. 7. ITALIANB. Phonetics- The sounds of Languages21 lettere (letters)- 5 vocali (vowels) and 15 consonanti (consonants) letter sound Phonetic example transcription a open /a/ cara e open /ε/ sènza closed /e/ cassétta i closed /i/ micio o open // stòria closed amóre u closed /u/ uva
  8. 8. ITALIANB. Phonetics- The sounds of Languages21 lettere (letters)- 5 vocali (vowels) and 15 consonanti (consonants) a f m r b g n s c h p t d l q v- zJ- (english words): jeans (gins) jet (get)K- (cappa) km, kg, poker, koalaW- (doppia vu) würstel, whiskyX- (ics) taxi, xenofobia, xerodermaY- (ipsilon),style/stail, yogurt/iogurt, boy/boi
  9. 9. ITALIANB. Phonetics- Suprasegmentals- Stress As you know, in any utterance some vovels are perceived as more prominent than others and they be prominent with respect to the parameters of pitch- loudness and length which constitute a cover term, stress. In italian, the use of stress is common and on some of the vowels it is obligatory such as : caffè or perché. There are two types of accents in Italian. One of them is an acute accent (´) and the other one is a grave accent (`) are used.
  10. 10. ITALIANB. Phonetics- Suprasegmentals- Obligatory Stress at the end of polysyllabic words: onestà, perché etc. with monosylabic words containing diphtongs: più, può etc. with monosyllabic words which can be confused with the words written the same. Ché (perché) Che - pronoun Dà (dare-verb) Da- preposition dì (giorno) Di- preposition Pg. 11
  11. 11. ITALIANC. Phonology- The function and patterning of soundsConsanantal Clusters Gl + i Egli, Figli, degli, Gl + Vowels except i Gleba, Gloria, Glucose Gn + Vowels Vergogna, Bologna, Cologna, Ognuno Gh + e- i Ghette, Laghi,- Gi + a – o- u Giacca, Giudice Ch+ e - i Oche, Chimica, Chilo Ci + a - u - o Camicia, Ciuffo Gli + Vowels Figlia, Moglie, Coniglio Sci + Vowels Sciarpa, Sciocco, Sciupare
  12. 12. ITALIAND. Morphology LE RAGAZZ-EIL RAGAZZ-OLA RAGAZZ-A I RAGAZZ-I
  13. 13. ITALIAND. Derivational Morphology - AFFIXESItalian is morphologically rich and uniform language. LIBR- O radice-stem desinenza-ending Libr-iccin-o A small book Libr-ett-o A small and pretty book Libr-on-e A big and heavy book Libr-acci-o A bad and immoral book Brutto: in-brutt-ment-o: imbruttimento
  14. 14. ITALIAND. Inflectional Morphology In Italian, there are both suffixes and prefixes but more significantly, desinenza (ending) may refer to number, gender in nouns, adjectives or even pronouns and also mood, tense, person/gender and number aspects of the verbs. • Number (nouns and adjectives) Il ragazzo -> i ragazzi La casa bianca-> le case bianche Il libro pesante-> i libri pesanti • Verb (person and number agreement) parl-o -> I- present tense first singular parl-iamo parl-i parl-ate parl-a parl-ano
  15. 15. ITALIANE. SYNTAX pro-drop head- initial SVOPens-are Scriv-ere Sent-ireIo pens-o. Io scriv-o. Io sent-o.Tu pens-i. Tu scriv-i. Tu sent-i.Egli/ Lui pens-a. (esso) Egli/ Lui scriv-e. (esso) Egli/ Lui sent-e. (esso)Ella/ Lei pensa. (essa) Ella/ Lei scrive. (essa) Ella/ Lei sente. (essa)Noi pens-iamo. Noi scriv-iamo. Noi sent-iamo.Voi pens-ate. Voi scriv-iate. Voi sent-ite.Loro pens-ano. Loro scriv-ono Loro sent-ono.
  16. 16. ITALIANE. SYNTAX Ieri Paolo and Laura hanno fatto un escursione in montagna. Il tempo è stato bello per tutta la giornata. I due ragazzi sono tornata a casa stanchi ma contenti. Marco era in casa e stava studiando Latino, quando ha udito un rumore soffocato provenire dalla stanza di sua sorella. Sapeva che in casa non c’era nessuno perché tutti quella sera erano usciti. Senza spaventarsi, ha messo da parte i libri e lentamente si è avvicinato alla porta della stanza, trattenendo il respiro per non insospettire chi si era probabilmemnte intrufolato nella casa. L’uomo si alzò, prese il microfono, espose le ragioni … .
  17. 17. ITALIANE. SYNTAX- INVERSION YES/NO and WH QsQs Yes/No-Dove vivi? Sai che oggi era l’ultima giornata miaVivo a Roma. al lavoro? Ehh ssiiiii.Che hai fatto di bello oggi? Non sapevi che era qua?Niente. Noo, ma come posso sapere?Chi chiede il mio nome? Sei un turco?Signorina Rossi. Si, sono un turco.
  18. 18. ITALIAND. SEMANTICS-NOUNSItalians use a number of metonoyms, metaphors and antonomesiain their daily speech and they love using them as conversationalstrategies. Per ubriacarmi mi basta un bicchiere. Antonia non ha orecchio. Sei un casanova ( implied by the great actor GiacomoCasanova) Questa stanza é una Sibiria.
  19. 19. ITALIAND. ADJECTIVESIn Italian, adjectives may be before or after the noun. Il nostro vicino è un uomo povero. OR Il nostro vicino è un povero uomo.
  20. 20. ITALIAND. ADJECTIVES Roberto è più/meno alto di Giovanna Comparative Roberto è alto come Roberto è Giovanna. alto. Superlative Roberto è altissimo. Pg.165
  21. 21. ITALIAND. ADJECTIVES
  22. 22. ITALIANE. ADVERBSADJECTIVE + mente :Camminiamo lentamente.Adesso non posso uscire: ci vedremo domani.Noi viviamo laggiù.Qui piove.Questa pianta cresce ovunque/ dappertutto.Luca studia molto.Forse ha ragione Laura.MICA: Non sono mica stato io. Mica è brutto questa film.
  23. 23. ITALIANF. Prepositions
  24. 24. ITALIANF. Prepositions
  25. 25. ITALIANE. VERBS- Modo Indicativo Passato prossimo & Trapassato prossimo Trapassato remoto & Futuro anteriore
  26. 26. ITALIANE. VERBS- Modo Condizionale
  27. 27. ITALIANE. VERBS- Modo Congiuntivo
  28. 28. ITALIANE. VERBS- Attiva & Passiva & Riflessiva Gender is important! Il medico visitò il malato. Il malato è visitato dal madico.
  29. 29. ITALIANE. VERBS- Riflessiva io mi lavo=I wash myself tu ti lavi=you wash yourself lui/lei si lava=he/she washes him/herself noi ci laviamo=we wash ourselves voi vi lavate=you wash yourself loro si lavano=they wash themselves
  30. 30. ITALIANBASIC VOCABULARY
  31. 31. Know him? Enrico Fermi? The founder of atomic bomb
  32. 32. ITALIANF. ITALIAN MODERN LITERATUREBorn in Cuba in 1923, Calvino was raised in Italy,where he lived most of his life.He died in Siena at the age of sixty-one in 1985.My favorite writer:ITALO CALVINO “Mr. Palomar is standing in line in a cheese shop, in Paris. This is a shop whose range seems meant to exemplify every conceivable form of dairy product; the very sign, "Spe-cialites froumageres," with that rare archaic or vernacular adjective, advises that here is guarded the legacy of a knowledge accumulated by a civilization through all its history and geography. This shop is a dictionary; the language is the system of cheeses as a whole: a language whose morphology records declensions and conjugations in countless variants, and whose lexicon presents an inexhaustible richness of synonyms, idiomatic usages, connotations, and nuances of meaning, as in all languages nourished by the contribution of a hundred dialects. It is a language made up of things; its nomenclature is only an external aspect, instrumental; but for Mr. Palomar, learning a bit of nomenclature still remains the first measure to be taken if he wants to stop for a moment the things that are flowing before his eyes.” http://des.emory.edu/mfp/calvino/
  33. 33. ITALIAN F. ITALIAN MODERN LITERATUREAn Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher, literary critic, andnovelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nomedella rosa, 1980), an intellectual mystery combining semiotics infiction, biblical analysis, medieval studies and literary theory.UMBERTO ECOhttp://www.umbertoeco.com/en/
  34. 34. ITALIANF. ITALIAN MODERN LITERATUREAn Italian poet, novelist. (1908- 1950)CESARE PAVESE“We do not remember days, we remembermoments. The richness of life lies in memorieswe have forgotten.” Hard Labor &“No woman marries for money; they are all clever enough, Your Villages & before August Holiday &marrying a millionaire, to fall in love with him first.” Death will come etc.“Give me the ready hand rather than the ready tongue.”“Lessons are not given, they are taken.”
  35. 35. Verrà la morte e avrà i tuoi occhi Death will come and will have yourquesta morte che ci accompagna eyes –dal mattino alla sera, insonne, the death that is with ussorda, come un vecchio rimorso from morning to evening, sleepless,o un vizio assurdo. I tuoi occhi deaf, like an old regretsaranno mortevana parola, Verrà la una e avrà i tuoi occhi or an absurd vice. Your eyesun grido taciuto, un silenzio. will be a futile word, (Death will stare at me out of your eyes)Cosí li vedi ogni mattina a cry kept silent, a silence.quando su te sola ti pieghi Thus you see them every morningnello specchio. O cara speranza, when alone you stoop over yourselfquel giorno sapremo anche noi in the mirror. O dear hope,che sei la vita e sei il nulla. that day we too will know that you are life and nothingness.Per tutti la morte ha uno sguardo.Verrà la morte e avrà i tuoi occhi. Death keeps an eye on each of us.Sarà come smettere un vizio, Death will come and will have yourcome vedere nello specchio eyes.riemergere un viso morto, It will be like giving up a vice,come ascoltare un labbro chiuso. like watching a dead faceScenderemo nel gorgo muti. re-emerge in the mirror, like listening to closed lips. We will go down into the vortex mute.
  36. 36. Amalfi Coast
  37. 37. Sanremo Music Festival
  38. 38. Eros Ramazzotti & Laura Pausini http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6hTVG3qC4RE
  39. 39. Giuseppe Verdi Luciano Pavarotti
  40. 40. ReferencesSensini, M. (2010) La lingua e i testi. Arnoldo Mondori ScuolaO’Grandy, W. (1997) Introduction to Linguistics. St. Martin’s Press, New York.Fromkin, V. (1988) Introduction to Language. Holt, Rineheart.Wardraugh, R. Introduction to sociolinguistics. Wiley- Blackwell.

×