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D.C. Motor
Simplified SPICE Model



       All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013   1
Contents
 1. Benefit of the Model
 2. Model Feature
 3. Parameter Settings
 4. D.C. Motor Specification (Example)
 5. Motor Start Up Simulation at Normal Load
 6. Motor Start Up Simulation at Half of Normal Load
 7. Lj of the Motor Model (1/2)
 8. Application Example
 9. Winding Characteristic Parameters: Lm
 10.Winding Characteristic Parameters: Rm

 Simulation Index



                 All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013   2
1. Benefit of the Model

• The model enables circuit designer to use D.C. Motor as load in
  their design which include: Back EMF, Torque(Nm) and Speed
  (rpm) characteristics.

• The model can be easily adjusted to your own D.C. Motor
  specifications by editing a few parameters that are provided in the
  spec-sheet.




                  All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013   3
2. Model Feature

               1                    H1
                                             TRQ
                                         +
                                         -         1
                                    H
                             RM                         L1
                             {Rm}                       100m
                                             0

                             LM
                                                   2                    E_EMF
                             {Lm}
                                                   N4                                  EMF
                                                                        IN+     OUT+
                                                       OUT+ IN+         IN-     OUT-
                             H2                                                              Rdmy
                                                       OUT- IN-         EVALUE
                         +
                         -                             GRB
               2              H                        GVALUE
                                                   0                   0


                              Equivalent circuit of the D.C. Motor model


•   This D.C. Motor Simplified SPICE Model is for users who require the model
    of D.C. Motor as a part of their system.
•   Perform electrical (voltage and current) and mechanical (speed and torque)
    characteristics at current load (Ampere) conditions.


                    All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013             4
3. Parameter Settings




D.C. Motor model and Parameters with Default Value           Model Parameters:

                                                             If there is no measurement data, the default value will be used:
                                                                        Rm: motor winding resistance []
                                                                        Lm: motor winding inductance [H]

                                                             Data is given by D.C. motor spec-sheet:

                                                                        V_norm: normal voltage [V]
                                                                        mNm: normal load [mNm]
                                                                        kRPM_norm: speed at normal load [kr/min]
                                                                        I_norm: current at normal load [A]

                                                             Load Condition:

                                                                        IL: load current [A]



                                 All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013                            5
4. D.C. Motor Specification (Example)




                  D.C. Motor Specification
                   Parameters are input




            All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013   6
5. Motor Start Up Simulation at Normal Load (1/2)
Simulation Circuit and Setting
                                           Input the Supply No
                                            Load Voltage* and
                                            Series Resistance



                                                                                Simplified D.C. Motor with
                                                                                   RS-540SH Spec.
                                       Current Sensing




                                                                     Load Condition IL=I_norm




*No Load Voltage is adjusted until the D.C. motor voltage (VM) equals to the normal voltage (7.2V).

*Analysis directives:
.TRAN 0 400m 0 0.1m
.PROBE V(*) I(*) W(alias(*)) D(alias(*)) NOISE(alias(*))

                                All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013          7
5. Motor Start Up Simulation at Normal Load (2/2)


                                                                                Torque Load= 19.6mNm



                                                                          D.C. Motor Speed = 14.4krpm




                                                                              D.C. Motor Voltage = 7.2V




                                                                               D.C. Motor Current = 6.1A




              All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013                          8
6. Motor Start Up Simulation at Half of Normal Load (1/2)

Simulation Circuit and Setting
                                         Input the Supply No
                                          Load Voltage* and
                                          Series Resistance




                                                                                        Simplified D.C. Motor with
                                                                                           RS-540SH Spec.
                                        Current Sensing




                                                                      Load Condition IL=I_norm



 *No Load Voltage is adjusted until the D.C. motor voltage (VM) equals to the normal voltage (7.2V).

*Analysis directives:
.TRAN 0 400m 0 0.1m
.PROBE V(*) I(*) W(alias(*)) D(alias(*)) NOISE(alias(*))

                                 All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013                 9
6. Motor Start Up Simulation at Half of Normal Load (2/2)



                                                                                       Torque Load= 9.8mNm



                                                                           D.C. Motor Speed = 18.4krpm




                                                                             D.C. Motor Voltage = 8.725V




                                                                               D.C. Motor Current = 3.05A




                 All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013                          10
7. Lj of the Motor Model (1/2)
Simulation Circuit and Setting




                                                                                                  Input the Lj value or input
                                                                                                 “{Lj}” for parametric sweep




*Analysis directives:
.TRAN 0 400m 0 0.1m
.STEP PARAM Lj LIST 100m, 200m



                           All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013                                  11
7. Lj of the Motor Model (2/2)
                                                                               The Motor Start-up Waveform is
                                                                                 changed by the Lj values.
      Lj=200m

                                                                                              Torque Load= 19.6mNm
   Lj=100m


                                                                                              D.C. Motor Speed = 14.4krpm
    Lj=100m



              Lj=200m


    Lj=100m                                                                                   D.C. Motor Voltage = 7.2V



         Lj=200m



                    Lj=200m
                                                                                              D.C. Motor Current = 6.1A

   Lj=100m




                        All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013                               12
8. Application Example (1/3)
Simulation Circuit and Setting

            VDD             VCC                                                                     VCC
                                                                                                           Simplified D.C. Motor with
                                                                                                          RS-380PH Spec at No load.
                     Vdd          Vcc
                     15V          15V
                                                                                                          U2
                                                                                                          SMPL_DC_MOTOR
                                                                                                          Rm = 0.576
                0             0                                                           D2          +   Lm = 165u
                                                                                          D4001       -   V_norm = 7.2
                                                                                                          mNm = 9.8
                                                                                                          kRPM_norm = 14.2
                                                                                                          I_norm = 2.9
                                             U1
                                                                                                          IL = 0.6
                       R1               NC                   VCC VDD
                       1u
                                         A                   NC                    RG                                No load IL=0.6
                                                                                   120                        D3
   V1 = 0       V1                      K                    VO                                               DGT10J321_s
   V2 = 1.8                                                                                     U3
   TD = 0                               NC                   GND                          GT10J321
   TR = 10n
   TF = 10n
   PW = 199.99u                              TLP350
   PER = 400u

                0                  0                               0                                  0




                              All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013                               13
8. Application Example (2/3)


 Measurement                                             Simulation
                                        14A        20V
                                    1         2

                                        12A        10V


                                        10A         0V
                                                                                     Motor Voltage (10V/Div)
                                         8A       -10V


                                         6A       -20V
                                                                                      Motor Current (2A/Div)
                                         4A       -30V


                                         2A       -40V


                                         0A       -50V

                                                    >>
                                        -2A       -60V
                                                    -100ms 0s 100ms       300ms      500ms     700ms    900ms
                                                       1    I(U2:1) 2     V(U2:1,U2:2)
                                                                                Time




               All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013                              14
8. Application Example (3/3)


 Measurement                                          Simulation
                              14A        50V        20V
                          1         2          3

                              12A        40V        10V


                              10A        30V         0V

  IGBT: VGE                                               IGBT: VGE (10V/Div)
                               8A        20V       -10V


                               6A        10V       -20V


                               4A         0V       -30V
  IGBT: VCE                                               IGBT: VCE (10V/Div)
                               2A       -10V       -40V


                               0A       -20V       -50V
  IGBT: IC                     >>                          IGBT: IC (2A/Div)
                              -2A       -30V       -60V
                                                    898.0ms   898.4ms      898.8ms    899.2ms    899.6ms
                                                        1   I(U3:C) 2        V(U3:C) 3      V(U3:G)
                                                                                  Time




               All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013                         15
9. Winding Characteristic Parameters: Lm

                      Winding Characteristic:2 Lm
                                    1
                                      14A       50V
                                                               3
                                                                    20V
      U2
      SMPL_DC_MOTOR
                                               12A      40V         10V
      Rm = 0.576
  +   Lm = 165u
  -   V_norm = 7.2    Motor Spec.
                                               10A      30V          0V
      mNm = 9.8
      kRPM_norm = 14.2                                                         Lm=100u
                                                8A      20V        -10V
      I_norm = 2.9
                                                                                            Lm=165u
      IL = 0.6                                  6A      10V        -20V
                      Load Condition

                                                4A       0V        -30V


                                                                            Lm=100u
   The Motor Current Waveform is                2A     -10V        -40V

     changed by the Lm values.                                                          Lm=165u
                                                0A     -20V        -50V


                                                                   >>
                                               -2A     -30V      -60V
                                                                  898.0ms 898.4ms       898.8ms 899.2ms   899.6ms
                                           1         I(U3:C)   2      V(U3:C) 3           V(U3:G)
                                                                                              Time




                      All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013                           16
10. Winding Characteristic Parameters: Rm

                       Winding Characteristic: Rm
      U2
      SMPL_DC_MOTOR
      Rm = 0.576
  +   Lm = 165u
  -   V_norm = 7.2    Motor Spec.                                                Rm=0.1
      mNm = 9.8
      kRPM_norm = 14.2
      I_norm = 2.9

      IL = 0.6
                        Load Condition
                                                                                  Rm=0.576




                 The Motor Start-up is Current
                  changed by the Rm values.




                        All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013   17
Simulation Index

Simulations                                                                                    Folder name

1. Motor Start Up Simulation at Normal Load...................                                 Normal
2. Motor Start Up Simulation at Haft of Normal Load........ Half
3. Lj of the Motor Model....................................................                   Lj




                         All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013                 18

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Simple Model of DC Motor using LTspice

  • 1. D.C. Motor Simplified SPICE Model All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 1
  • 2. Contents 1. Benefit of the Model 2. Model Feature 3. Parameter Settings 4. D.C. Motor Specification (Example) 5. Motor Start Up Simulation at Normal Load 6. Motor Start Up Simulation at Half of Normal Load 7. Lj of the Motor Model (1/2) 8. Application Example 9. Winding Characteristic Parameters: Lm 10.Winding Characteristic Parameters: Rm Simulation Index All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 2
  • 3. 1. Benefit of the Model • The model enables circuit designer to use D.C. Motor as load in their design which include: Back EMF, Torque(Nm) and Speed (rpm) characteristics. • The model can be easily adjusted to your own D.C. Motor specifications by editing a few parameters that are provided in the spec-sheet. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 3
  • 4. 2. Model Feature 1 H1 TRQ + - 1 H RM L1 {Rm} 100m 0 LM 2 E_EMF {Lm} N4 EMF IN+ OUT+ OUT+ IN+ IN- OUT- H2 Rdmy OUT- IN- EVALUE + - GRB 2 H GVALUE 0 0 Equivalent circuit of the D.C. Motor model • This D.C. Motor Simplified SPICE Model is for users who require the model of D.C. Motor as a part of their system. • Perform electrical (voltage and current) and mechanical (speed and torque) characteristics at current load (Ampere) conditions. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 4
  • 5. 3. Parameter Settings D.C. Motor model and Parameters with Default Value Model Parameters: If there is no measurement data, the default value will be used: Rm: motor winding resistance [] Lm: motor winding inductance [H] Data is given by D.C. motor spec-sheet: V_norm: normal voltage [V] mNm: normal load [mNm] kRPM_norm: speed at normal load [kr/min] I_norm: current at normal load [A] Load Condition: IL: load current [A] All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 5
  • 6. 4. D.C. Motor Specification (Example) D.C. Motor Specification Parameters are input All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 6
  • 7. 5. Motor Start Up Simulation at Normal Load (1/2) Simulation Circuit and Setting Input the Supply No Load Voltage* and Series Resistance Simplified D.C. Motor with RS-540SH Spec. Current Sensing Load Condition IL=I_norm *No Load Voltage is adjusted until the D.C. motor voltage (VM) equals to the normal voltage (7.2V). *Analysis directives: .TRAN 0 400m 0 0.1m .PROBE V(*) I(*) W(alias(*)) D(alias(*)) NOISE(alias(*)) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 7
  • 8. 5. Motor Start Up Simulation at Normal Load (2/2) Torque Load= 19.6mNm D.C. Motor Speed = 14.4krpm D.C. Motor Voltage = 7.2V D.C. Motor Current = 6.1A All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 8
  • 9. 6. Motor Start Up Simulation at Half of Normal Load (1/2) Simulation Circuit and Setting Input the Supply No Load Voltage* and Series Resistance Simplified D.C. Motor with RS-540SH Spec. Current Sensing Load Condition IL=I_norm *No Load Voltage is adjusted until the D.C. motor voltage (VM) equals to the normal voltage (7.2V). *Analysis directives: .TRAN 0 400m 0 0.1m .PROBE V(*) I(*) W(alias(*)) D(alias(*)) NOISE(alias(*)) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 9
  • 10. 6. Motor Start Up Simulation at Half of Normal Load (2/2) Torque Load= 9.8mNm D.C. Motor Speed = 18.4krpm D.C. Motor Voltage = 8.725V D.C. Motor Current = 3.05A All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 10
  • 11. 7. Lj of the Motor Model (1/2) Simulation Circuit and Setting Input the Lj value or input “{Lj}” for parametric sweep *Analysis directives: .TRAN 0 400m 0 0.1m .STEP PARAM Lj LIST 100m, 200m All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 11
  • 12. 7. Lj of the Motor Model (2/2) The Motor Start-up Waveform is changed by the Lj values. Lj=200m Torque Load= 19.6mNm Lj=100m D.C. Motor Speed = 14.4krpm Lj=100m Lj=200m Lj=100m D.C. Motor Voltage = 7.2V Lj=200m Lj=200m D.C. Motor Current = 6.1A Lj=100m All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 12
  • 13. 8. Application Example (1/3) Simulation Circuit and Setting VDD VCC VCC Simplified D.C. Motor with RS-380PH Spec at No load. Vdd Vcc 15V 15V U2 SMPL_DC_MOTOR Rm = 0.576 0 0 D2 + Lm = 165u D4001 - V_norm = 7.2 mNm = 9.8 kRPM_norm = 14.2 I_norm = 2.9 U1 IL = 0.6 R1 NC VCC VDD 1u A NC RG No load IL=0.6 120 D3 V1 = 0 V1 K VO DGT10J321_s V2 = 1.8 U3 TD = 0 NC GND GT10J321 TR = 10n TF = 10n PW = 199.99u TLP350 PER = 400u 0 0 0 0 All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 13
  • 14. 8. Application Example (2/3) Measurement Simulation 14A 20V 1 2 12A 10V 10A 0V Motor Voltage (10V/Div) 8A -10V 6A -20V Motor Current (2A/Div) 4A -30V 2A -40V 0A -50V >> -2A -60V -100ms 0s 100ms 300ms 500ms 700ms 900ms 1 I(U2:1) 2 V(U2:1,U2:2) Time All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 14
  • 15. 8. Application Example (3/3) Measurement Simulation 14A 50V 20V 1 2 3 12A 40V 10V 10A 30V 0V IGBT: VGE IGBT: VGE (10V/Div) 8A 20V -10V 6A 10V -20V 4A 0V -30V IGBT: VCE IGBT: VCE (10V/Div) 2A -10V -40V 0A -20V -50V IGBT: IC >> IGBT: IC (2A/Div) -2A -30V -60V 898.0ms 898.4ms 898.8ms 899.2ms 899.6ms 1 I(U3:C) 2 V(U3:C) 3 V(U3:G) Time All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 15
  • 16. 9. Winding Characteristic Parameters: Lm Winding Characteristic:2 Lm 1 14A 50V 3 20V U2 SMPL_DC_MOTOR 12A 40V 10V Rm = 0.576 + Lm = 165u - V_norm = 7.2 Motor Spec. 10A 30V 0V mNm = 9.8 kRPM_norm = 14.2 Lm=100u 8A 20V -10V I_norm = 2.9 Lm=165u IL = 0.6 6A 10V -20V Load Condition 4A 0V -30V Lm=100u The Motor Current Waveform is 2A -10V -40V changed by the Lm values. Lm=165u 0A -20V -50V >> -2A -30V -60V 898.0ms 898.4ms 898.8ms 899.2ms 899.6ms 1 I(U3:C) 2 V(U3:C) 3 V(U3:G) Time All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 16
  • 17. 10. Winding Characteristic Parameters: Rm Winding Characteristic: Rm U2 SMPL_DC_MOTOR Rm = 0.576 + Lm = 165u - V_norm = 7.2 Motor Spec. Rm=0.1 mNm = 9.8 kRPM_norm = 14.2 I_norm = 2.9 IL = 0.6 Load Condition Rm=0.576 The Motor Start-up is Current changed by the Rm values. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 17
  • 18. Simulation Index Simulations Folder name 1. Motor Start Up Simulation at Normal Load................... Normal 2. Motor Start Up Simulation at Haft of Normal Load........ Half 3. Lj of the Motor Model.................................................... Lj All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2013 18