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Project IV RESEARCH FINAL

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Project IV RESEARCH FINAL

  1. 1. 0 STUDY TITLE An investigation into information technology project failure in Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. By Student Name Remember Mathebula Student Number 211056673 Submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of BACCALAUREUS TECHNOLOGIAE: Information Management In the Department of Informatics, Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Tshwane University of Technology Supervisor: Makgopela MM Co-Supervisor: Giresse KM
  2. 2. 1 Table of Contents Dedication..........................................................................................................................................2 Acknowledgement............................................................................................................................2 Abstract............................................................................................................................................3 CHAPTER 1....................................................................................................................................4 1.1 Introduction: ..................................................................................................................6 1.2 Aim of the study: ...........................................................................................................4 1.3 Research objectives: .......................................................................................................4 1.4 Research questions: ........................................................................................................4 1.5 Participants: ...................................................................................................................5 1.6 Limitations and delimitations of the study..........................................................................5 1.7 Research methodology: ..............................................................................................….5 1.8 Conclusion: .................................................................................................. …………..5 CHAPTER 2.....................................................................................................................................6 2.0 Analysis of research results………………………………………………………………….....6 2.1 Introduction: ..................................................................................................................6 CHAPTER 3....................................................................................................................................6 3.0 Presentation and interpretation of results: …………………………………………………….6 3.1 Introduction: ..................................................................................................................7-18 CHAPTER 4...................................................................................................................................18 4.0 Recommendations and conclusions: ………………………………………………………….18 4.1 Introduction: .................................................................................................................18 4.2 Why projects fails: ……………………………………………………………………………18-20 4.3 Defining success and failure: ..........................................................................................20-21 4.4 Roles and responsibilities of the project manager: ............................................................21-22 4.5 Areas for future research:..............................................................................................22 4.6 References:..................................................................................................................23 4.7 Appendix: ....................................................................................................................24-26
  3. 3. 2 Dedication I dedicate thisresearchtothe almightyGodwhogave me the strengthandbrainsto write this research. God isgreat! Acknowledgement Firstand foremostIwishto expressmygratitude to Mr. MakgopelaMM and hisassistant Mr. Giresse KM fortheirvaluable guidance andsupportandthe time theysacrificedtomake these researcha success.I am eternallygrateful fortheircommentandsuggestionwhichimprovedmy workto bestone among the best.Withouttheirassistance the successof thiswork wasgoingto be verydifficult. Secondly,Iwouldlike toextendmyappreciationtomylovingfamilyandfriendsfortheirlove, prayersand support.Iam grateful fortheirencouragementandfaithinme.
  4. 4. 3 ABSTRACT ProjectManagementisthe wave of the future.Thisdiscipline anditsevolutioncontinuestobe one of the principal meansbywhichoperationalandstrategicchanges are managedinthe enterprise. The importance of ProjectManagementfororganizational successwill expand,ratherthanwane,in yearsto come. Projects,particularlylarge scale complex oneswithmultiple stakeholders,are failingatalarming ratesdespite awide spectrumof effortstosolve the problem.The lackof meaningful resultsand outcomesisdue,inpart, to the fact that organizationstendtooperate ona setof unproven assumptionsconcerningprojectobjectives,businessrequirements,userexpectations,motivations, agendas,schedules,costsandtime frames. The objective of thisdissertationwasfirstlyto establishthe factorsthatinfluence information technologyprojectfailure inTshwane MetropolitanMunicipality;andsecondly, todetermine the possibilitiesavailable toimprove informationtechnologyprojectssuccess,thatcouldbe applied withinthe City. The methodof researchwas to issue questionnairestothe entire populationof GroupICT at Tshwane Municipality.The questionnaireswere designedaroundthe simplifiedfive-pointLikert scale usingclosedquestions.Questionnaireswereusedtogauge the perceptionsonthe current projectenvironmentwithinthe City.
  5. 5. 4 1.0 CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY 1.1 INTRODUCTION To stay competitive,companiesare increasinglyimplementinginitiativestoimprove theirproject deliverybycontinuallyreducingcycle times,minimizingcostsandcontrollingquality.These initiativesrequire skilledpeople,standardizedprocessesandsuperiortechnologyunifiedanddriven by effective projectmanagement. Whetherdeliveringproductsorservices,all organizationsneedtomeetprojectdeadlines,budgets and stakeholderexpectations.Tomaintaincustomersatisfactionandmeetcustomerexpectations, no roomexistsforprojecterrorsor delays. Thischapter describesthe motivationandcontextof the studyandintroducesthe readertothe projectenvironment.Thischapterfurtherbrieflyoutlinesthe objectivesof the research. 1.2 Aim of the study the aim of the studyis to establishthe factorsthat influence informationtechnologyprojectfailure inTshwane MetropolitanMunicipality. 1.3 Objectives The objectivesof thisstudyare:  To identify the factorsthatinfluence informationtechnology projectfailure.  To provide clientandthe projectteamwithguidelinesof the role theymustplayin informationtechnologyprojects.  To determine the possibilitiesavailable toimprove informationtechnologyprojectssuccess.  To encourage an understandingof the projectrequirementsandoutcomesatthe initiation phase of the project,withclearlydefineddeliverables 1.4 Research Questions  What are the factors that influence information technology project failure?  What are the guidelines that must be followed by client and the project team during the development of information technology project?  What are the possibilities available to improve information technology project success?
  6. 6. 5 1.5 Participants The researchwill be done inTshwane Metropolitanmunicipality andquestionswillbe distributed to managers, senior managers, developers, analyst and testers with ICT department. 1.6 LIMITATIONS AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Some limitations that may influence the outcome of this study are:  Respondentsmayfinditdifficulttogive honestfeedback.  Respondentsmayfeelthatnegative responsesreflectontheirabilitiesinmanagingprojects and noton factors beyondtheircontrol. Delimitationsthatwill confine the boundaryof the researchwill be:  The researchwill onlybe conductedwithinCityof Tshwane MunicipalityGroupICT. 1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Thisresearchwill be conductedbyissuing questionnairesasisknownas a listof printedquestions that needtobe completed,respondentsmaybe requestedtocompletethe questionnairewith the researchernotpresent. The questionnaireswill be designedaroundthe simplifiedfive-pointLikert scale usingclosedquestions(Cooper&Schindler,2001).The type of researchto be undertakencan be classifiedasquantitative innature. The questionnaire wasthendividedintovarioussectionsthatwouldfocusonfundamentalsfor projectsuccess.Questionnaireswere designedtotargetknowledgeable,experiencedandsuitably qualifiedindividualswhowere engagedinmanagingprojectswithinTransnetatthe time. Questionnaireswereusedtogauge the typical understandingof projectownerswithrespectto:  Alignmentbetweenthe businessvisionandthe operational requirements  The requirementsforprojectsuccess.  The common reasonsforprojectfailure. Responseswere analyzedbythe researcherandincludedthe use of descriptive statistics.Responses were comparedtoascertainwhether the resultsobtainedwere significantanddidnothappenby chance. 1.8 CONCLUSION The objective of thisdissertationwasfirstly toidentifythe factorsthatinfluenceinformation technologyprojectfailure withinthe City;andsecondly,torecommendstrategiestoimprove the rate of projectsuccess,that couldbe appliedwithinthe City.
  7. 7. 6 2.0 CHAPTER 2 – ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH RESULTS 2.1. Introduction Twentynine researchquestionnaireswere collectedintotal.The responseswere collatedonan excel spreadsheet.Responseswere codedtoassistinthe analysisprocess.Stronglydisagree responseswere codedas1,disagree were coded2,neitheragree nordisagree were coded3,agree as 4 and stronglyagree responseswere codedasa5. The spreadsheetwasthentestedforvalidity. Basic inferential statisticswereappliedtothe results. 3.0 CHAPTER 3 – PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 3.1 Introduction Thischapter presentsthe resultsobtainedfromdatacollectedthrough questionnairesduringthe study.Informationwill be presentedthroughthe use of tablesandgraphs.Idistributedforty(40) Questionnairestothe Cityof Tshwane GroupICT employees,Only29participantsdecidedtotake part inthis research. The total numberof questionnairesissuedtorespondentswereTwenty nine (29). Data collectionwasquantitative thereforequantitativedatawill be presented.Tablesare usedfor the presentationof quantitative data. The variousquestionsonthe questionnairewere categorizedwithrespecttoapplicabilitytothe objectives.The frequencydistributionwascomputedforeachquestion.Ananalysisof the respective questionsisdiscussedbelow.Thisanalysiswill lenditself toeitherverifyingordisputingthe objectivessupportingthe researchquestion.The codingonthe frequencydistributionsisrelatedto the questionnaireanalysisasfollows: Response rated1 = stronglydisagree Response rated2 = disagree Response rated3 = neitheragree nordisagree Response rated4 = agree Response rated5 = stronglyagree Section1 - Strategic Alignment(SA1-6) 1. Projectsare selectedinline withbusinessgoals. Table 3.1 Projectare in line withbusinessgoals
  8. 8. 7 Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants SA1 7% 7% 14% 48% 24% 29 Table 3.1 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(72%) agreedthat Projectsare selectedin line withbusinessgoals,whilst14%disagree. 2. Project outcomesare generally alignedwithbusinessgoals. Table 3.2 Projectoutcome Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants SA2 3% 3% 17% 55% 21% 29 Table 3.2 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(76%) agreedthat projectoutcomesare generallyalignedwithbusinessgoals,whilst6% disagree. 3. Requirementsare clearly definedfromthe beginning. Table 3.3 Projectrequirements Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants SA3 21% 10% 14% 21% 34% 29 Table 3.3 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(55%) agreedthat projectrequirements are clearlydefinedfromthe beginning,whilst31% disagree. 4. Use of Work breakdownStructure (WBS) and Networkactivity when planninga project. Table 3.4 Projectplanningtools Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants SA4 0% 10% 34% 34% 21% 29 Table 3.4 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(55%) agreedthat the projectteamuse Work breakdownStructure (WBS) andNetworkactivitywhenplanningaproject, ,whilst10% disagree. 5. Project outcomesare clearly definedby the client. Table 3.5 Projectdefinition Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants SA5 3% 10% 24% 41% 21% 29
  9. 9. 8 Table 3.5 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(62%) agreedthat the projectoutcomes are clearlydefinedbythe client, whilst13% disagree. 6. The clientdeterminesprojectsuccessby measuringproject outcomes. Table 3.6 Projectsuccess Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants SA6 3% 3% 21% 38% 34% 29 Table 3.6 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(72%) agreedthat the clientdetermines projectsuccessbymeasuringprojectoutcomes, whilst6% disagree. Section1 - Strategic AlignmentGraph The above data from SA1 – SA6 is nowpresentedinaformof graph. Table 3.7 Section2 – ProjectSelection(PS1-5) 1. Project managers are appointedat the concept stage of the project. Table 3.8 Appointmentof projectmanagers Strongly disagree Neitheragree Agree Strongly agree Total number of 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 SA1 SA2 SA3 SA4 SA5 SA6 Strategic alignment Q1 - Q6 Strongly disagree disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree
  10. 10. 9 disagree nor disagree participants PS1 30% 26% 14% 22% 8% 29 Table 5.8 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(56%) disagree that the projectmanagers are appointedatthe concept stage of the project,whilst30% agreed. Resultsdiscussion 2. The project manager isinvolvedin the project selectionprocess. Table 3.9 Involvementof projectmanagersinthe selectionprocess Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PS2 41% 14% 24% 21% 0% 29 Table 3.9 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(55%) disagree that the projectmanagers are involvedinthe projectselectionprocess,whilst21% agreed. 3. Project resultshave a strategic fit inthe designand executionoffuture products and services. Table 3.10 Projectresults Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PS3 0 7% 31% 48% 14% 29 Table 5.10 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(62%) agreedthat the Projectresults have a strategicfitin the designandexecutionof future productsandservices,whilst7% disagree. 4. Projectsare selectedinline withbusinessgrowth and expansionstrategies. Table 3.11 Projectselection Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PS4 0% 7% 17% 45% 31% 29 Table 3.11 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(76%) agreedthat the Projectsare selectedinline withbusinessgrowthandexpansionstrategies,whilst7% disagree. 5. The principlesofproject managementare applieduniformlyirrespective ofthe size of the project. Table 3.12 Principlesof projectmanagement Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants
  11. 11. 10 PS5 10% 21% 34% 17% 17% 29 Table 5.12 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents (34%) agreedthatthe principlesof projectmanagementare applieduniformlyirrespectiveof the size of the project,whilst31% disagree and34% neitheragree nordisagree. Section2 - ProjectSelection(PS1-5) Graph The above data from PS1 – PS5 is now presentedinaformof graph. Table 3.13 Section3 – Projectoutcomes (PO1-6) 1. The project usuallysatisfiesthe businessoperational requirements. Table 3.14 Businessrequirements Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PO1 3% 14% 21% 55% 7% 29 Table 3.15 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(62%) agreedthat the projectusually satisfiesthe businessoperational requirements,whilst17% disagree. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 ProjectSelection Q1 - Q5 Strongly disagree disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree
  12. 12. 11 2. Project deliverablesare generallyproducedontime and withinbudget. Table 3.16 Projectdeliverables Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PO2 45% 7% 10% 34% 3% 29 Table 3.16 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(52%) disagree that the Project deliverablesare generallyproducedontime andwithinbudget,whilst37% agreed. 3. The businessownersusuallybelieve thatthe project was successful. Table 3.17 Business owners Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PO3 7% 21% 21% 38% 14% 29 Table 3.17 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(52%) agreedthatthe businessowners usuallybelievethatthe projectwassuccessful, whilst28% disagree. 4. Projectsalways deliverthe businessvalue itpromises. Table 3.18 Businessvalue Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PO4 7% 34% 10% 41% 7% 29 Table 3.18 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(47%) agreedthatthe projectsalways deliverthe businessvalue itpromises, whilst41% disagree. 5. The time,cost, quality and scope constraints are usuallymanaged as planned. Table 3.19 Projectconstraints Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PO5 14% 34% 24% 24% 10% 29 Table 3.19 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(48%) disagree thatthe time, cost, qualityandscope constraintsare usuallymanagedasplanned,whilst34% agreed. 6. Project ultimatelyprovide satisfactory returnon investmenttothe customer. Table 3.20 Returnon investment
  13. 13. 12 Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PO6 3% 10% 38% 38% 10% 29 Table 3.20 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(48%) agreedthatthe projectultimately provide satisfactoryreturnoninvestmenttothe customer,whilst13% disagree. Section3 – ProjectOutcomes (PO1-6) Graph The above data from PO1 – PO6 is nowpresentedinaformof graph. Table 3.21 Section4 – ProjectAnalysis(PA1-10) 1. Clientsclearlydefinedthe businesscase. Table 3.22 Businesscase Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PA1 21% 17% 31% 28% 3% 29 Table 5.22 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(38%) disagree that the clientsclearly definedthe businesscase,whilst31%agreed. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PO1 PO2 PO3 PO4 PO5 PO6 ProjectOutcomes Q1 - Q6 Strongly disagree disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree
  14. 14. 13 2. The stakeholdershave knowledge about the project. Table 3.23 Stakeholdersknowledge Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PA2 0% 21% 7% 41% 31% 29 Table 3.23 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(72%) agreedthat the stakeholdershave knowledge aboutthe project, whilst21%disagree. 3. The stakeholdershave a good communicationskills. Table 5.24 Communicationskills Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PA3 0% 7% 41% 31% 21% 29 Table 3.24 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(52%) agreedthatthe stakeholdershave a good communicationskills,whilst7%disagree. 4. All the functional requirementsofthe systemgatheredat the beginning. Table 3.25 Functional requirements Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PA4 10% 17% 31% 28% 14% 29 Table 3.25 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(42%) agreedthatall the functional requirementsof the systemgatheredatthe beginning,whilst27% disagree. 5. The clienthave a better understandingabout what he/she needs. Table 3.26 Clientunderstandingwhathe/sheneeds Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PA5 10% 21% 28% 35% 7% 29 Table 3.26 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(52%) agreedthat the clienthave a betterunderstandingaboutwhathe/she needs,whilst32% disagree. 6. Are there software toolsused inplanning and managementof requirements? Table 3.27 Software tools Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PA6 0% 7% 14% 69% 10% 29
  15. 15. 14 Table 3.27 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(79%) agreedthatare there software toolsusedinplanningandmanagementof requirements,whilst7% disagree. 7. The goals and objectivesare always withinthe projectscope. Table 3.28 Projectscope Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PA7 0% 31% 28% 28% 14% 29 Table 3.28 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(42%) agreedthatthe goalsand objectivesare alwayswithinthe projectscope, whilst31% disagree. 8. Will the employee acceptthe change? Table 3.29 Acceptingchange Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PA8 7% 21% 34% 34% 3% 29 Table 3.29 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(37%) agreedthatthe employeeswill accept change,whilst28%disagree. 9. The project solutionalways meetthe businessneeds. Table 3.30 Projectsolution Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PA9 0% 7% 38% 38% 17% 29 Table 3.30 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(55%) agreedthatthe projectsolution alwaysmeetthe businessneeds,whilst7% disagree. 10. There is a proper planwhich will identifyany change in requirements. Table 3.31 Properplan Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants PA10 0% 24% 38% 31% 7% 29 Table 3.31 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(38%) agreedthatthere isaproperplan whichwill identifyanychange inrequirements, whilst24% disagree. Section5 – ProjectOutcomes (PA1-10) Graph
  16. 16. 15 The above data from PA1– PA10 is nowpresentedinaformof graph. Table 3.32 Section5 – Reasonsfor failure (RFF1-12) 1. Lack of userinvolvement. Table 3.33 User involvement Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF1 3% 7% 17% 38% 34% 29 Table 3.33 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(72%) agreedthatlackof user involvementisone of the reasonwhyICT projectfails,whilst10% disagree. 2. Long or unrealistictimescales. Table 3.34 Timescales Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF2 3% 7% 31% 31% 28% 29 Table 3.34 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(59%) agreedthatICTprojectfails because of longor unrealistictimescales,whilst10% disagree. 3. Failure to adequatelyidentify,documentand track requirements. Table 3.35 Requirementtracking Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF3 3% 17% 14% 31% 34% 29 0 20 40 60 80 100 PA1 PA2 PA3 PA4 PA5 PA6 PA7 PA8 PA9 PA10 ProjectAnalysis Q1 - Q10 Strongly disagree disagree Neither agree nordisagree Agree Strongly agree
  17. 17. 16 Table 3.35 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(65%) agreedthat failuretoadequately identify,documentandtrackrequirementsresultsinprojectfailure,whilst20% disagree. 4. Scope creep. Table 3.36 Scope creep Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF4 0% 3% 38% 48% 10% 29 Table 3.36 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(58%) agreedthatthe change inproject scope resultsinprojectfailure,whilst3%disagree. 5. No formal change control system. Table 3.37 Formal change Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF5 3% 7% 24% 59% 7% 29 Table 3.37 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(66%) agreedthatthe lackof formal change control systemresultsinprojectfailure, whilst10% disagree. 6. Inadequately trained or inexperienced project managers. Table 3.38 Project managers Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF6 0% 14% 10% 41% 38% 29 Table 3.38 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(79%) agreedthat inadequately trained or inexperienced project managers results in project failure, whilst14% disagree. 7. Poor leadershipat any and all levels. Table 3.39 Poor leadership Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF7 3% 3% 10% 52% 31% 29 Table 3.39 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(83%) agreedthat Poorleadership resultsinprojectfailure,whilst6%disagree.
  18. 18. 17 8. Politics. Table 3.40 Politics Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF8 0% 10% 10% 34% 45% 29 Table 3.340 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(78%) agreedthatpoliticsresultsin projectfailure,whilst24%disagree. 9. Poor plans and planningprocesses. Table 3.41 Poor planning Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF9 0% 14% 17% 52% 17% 29 Table 3.41 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(69%) agreedthat poorplansand planningprocesses resultsinprojectfailure,whilst14% disagree. 10. Misalignment between the project team and the business it serves. Table 3.42 Misalignment Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF10 0% 21% 24% 45% 10% 29 Table 3.42 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(55%) agreedthat misalignment between the project team and the business it serves, whilst21% disagree. 11. Inadequate or misusedmethods,processesand procedures. Table 3.43 Misusedof methods,processesandprocedures Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF11 3% 14% 38% 31% 14% 29 Table 3.43 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(45%) agreedthat inadequate or misusedmethods,processesandproceduresresultsinprojectfailure,whilst17% disagree. 12. Inadequate communicationin process tracking and reporting. Table 3.44 Communication Strongly disagree disagree Neitheragree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total number of participants RFF12 0% 3% 0% 52% 45% 29
  19. 19. 18 Table 3.44 above indicatesthatthe majorityof respondents(97%) agreedthatthere isaproperplan whichwill identifyanychange inrequirements, whilst3% disagree. Section5 – Reasonsfor Failure (RFF1-12) Graph The above data from RFF1 – RFF12 isnow presentedinaformof graph. Table 3.45 4.0 Chapter 4: RECOMMENDATIONSAND CONCLUSION 4.1 INTRODUCTION Followingfromthe analysisof the resultsof thisdissertation,the followingrecommendationsare put forwardwiththe viewtoaddressthe gapsin the projectmanagement. Thischapter will summarizeresearchfindingsandwill proposerecommendationstobridge the gap inTshwane’sinformationtechnologyprojectmanagementapproach. 4.2 WHY PROJECTS FAIL Typically,projectsfail whentheydonotdeliveronthe schedule,budget,scope andquality constraints.A keyfactor to consideristhatthere isno one overridingfactortodetermine project failure orsuccess.Some of the most importantreasonsforfailure are listedbelow: Lack of User Involvement 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 RFF1 RFF2 RFF3 RFF4 RFF5 RFF6 RFF7 RFF8 RFF9 RFF10 RFF11 RFF12 Reasons for failureQ1 - Q12 Strongly disagree disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree
  20. 20. 19 Withoutuserinvolvement,nobodyinthe businessfeelscommittedtoa system, andcan evenbe opposedto it.If a projectisto be a success,seniormanagementandusersneedtobe involvedfrom the start and continuallythroughoutthe developmentof the project.Seniormanagementmust continuouslysupportthe projecttomake itclear to the staff that the projectispriority. Long or UnrealisticTime Scales Long timescalesforaprojectgenerallyleadtoa systembeingdeliveredforproductsandservicesno longerinuse by an organization.The keyrecommendationisthatprojecttimescalesshouldbe short. Short time scalescouldbe createdbyphasingor separatinglargerprojectssothat theybecome more manageable. Many managersare aware of the needforfastdelivery,leadingthe problemof unrealistic timescales.Thesetime scalesare setwithoutconsideringthe volume of workthatneedstobe completedtoensure delivery.Asaresult,these systemsare eitherdeliveredlate oronlyhave a fractionof the facilitiesthatwere required.The recommendationhere istoreview all projectplans to see if theyare realistic. Scope Creep Scope isthe overall view of whatthe systemwill deliver.Scope creepisthe growthinthe scale of a systemduringthe life of the project.Since all the functionalityof the revisedsystemhastobe deliveredatone time, projecttimescalesare negativelyimpacted.Scope creepisamanagement issue closelyrelatedtochange control.Managementmustbe realisticaboutprojectdeliverablesand time scales.Changestothe projectmustbe closelycontrolledandmonitored. Lack of a Meaningful Change Control System Change iscontinuousinbusiness.Itisnot practical to expectnochange inrequirementswhile a systemisbeingbuilt.However,uncontrolledchangesplayhavocwithasystemunderdevelopment and have causedmanyprojectfailuresinthe past.Thisresultemphasizesthe advantagesof shorter timescalesandaphasedapproachto projectmanagement. PoorlyDefinedProjectOutcomes Many projectshave highlevel,vague andgenerallypoorlydefinedrequirements.Poorly defined outcomesleadstodevelopers,havinglittle ornoinputfromthe users,buildingwhattheybelieve is required,withouthavinganyreal knowledgeof the business. Inevitably,whenthe systemisdelivered,businessusersare dissatisfiedwiththe projectresults. Users mustknowwhattheyrequire andmustbe able tomatch projectdeliverableswithbusiness requirements.Inordertomatch deliverableswithrequirementssuccessfully,usersneedskillsand training. Projectmanagersare appointedat the conceptstage of the project. The most frequentresponsetothisquestionwas“disagree‟.56% respondentsnotedfromtheirpast experience thatprojectmanagersare notappointedatthe conceptstage of the project. Thisdelayinappointingaproject managerposesa problematthe veryonsetof the projectas the projectmanagerisnot fullyconversantwiththe historyorrequirementsof the project,he/she may not have boughtintothe projectdynamicsandhis/heroverall influence onthe outcomesof the
  21. 21. 20 projectisthus limited.The PMIadvocatesthat the projectmanagerbe appointedatthe conceptual stage of a project.He/she isthe strategistthatformulatesthe managementapproach.The project charter isdevelopedduringthe conceptstage,andthe projectmanagerbecomesthe custodianof thischarter forthe life of the project.Hence,his/heracceptance andbuyinfromthe onsetof the projectiscrucial to projectsuccess. The appointmentof the projectmanagerat the conceptstage of the project isthe responsibilityof the client(projectowner).A failure totimeouslymake thisappointmentcouldinhibitproject success. The projectmanageris involvedinthe projectselectionprocess. The most frequentresponsetothisquestionwas“disagree‟.55% respondentsnotedfromtheirpast experience thatprojectmanagersare notinvolvedinthe projectselectionprocess. Accordingto ClelandandIreland(2002: page 212), ideally,anorganizationwillselectprojectsthat alignwiththe strategicgoalsandthat buildoncurrent capability.Eachprojectthatis selectedand implementedshouldbe abuildingblockthatpromotesthe organization’spurposeandthatpositions the organizationforan improvedfuture capability.Anyprojectnotalignedwiththe strategicgoals may detractfrom the organizationspurpose anddelayitsgrowth. As suggestedbyBurke (2004: page 56), the selectionof the rightprojectforfuture investmentisa crucial decisionforthe long-termsurvival of acompany.The selection of the wrongprojectmaywell precipitate projectfailure leadingtocompanyliquidation. The executionof aprojectwill tie upcompanyresourcesand,as an opportunitycost,the selection of one projectmaypreclude acompanyfrom pursuinganother(more profitable) project.Therefore, a processis requiredtoselectandrankprojectsonthe basisof beneficial change toa company. Typically,the methodstobe employedare: 1. ConstrainedOptimization(mathematical models) 2. BenefitsMeasurement(these includecalculationsof the netpresentvalue,internal rate of returnand cost benefitanalysis) PMI recommendsinvolvementof the projectmanagerduringthe projectselectionprocess.His/her buy-inandcommitmentisinvaluableinestablishingthe businesscase forthe project,developing the projectcharter,clearlydefiningtangibleprojectobjectivesanddeliverablesand,hence,initiating the project.Projectsuccesswill be definedbydeliveringonthese tangible objectivesthatare clearly definedatprojectinitiation. 4.3 DEFINING SUCCESSAND FAILURE In the realmof projectmanagement,aprojectthat satisfiesall the criteriaof successmaystill carry the stigmaof failure because of people’sperceptions.Projectfailureismeasuredacrossaspectrum. On one hand,there are clear failuressuchas:  No value formoneydelivered;  The wrong thingwasdelivered;  The deliverywassolate as to renderthe productuseless;  The product qualitywassopoor as to make the product useless;  The projectcost much more than wasplannedmakingthe productfinanciallynotviable.
  22. 22. 21 Each of these clearfailurescanbe seenalongaspectrummovingfromcomplete failure tocomplete success.To avoidthe perceptionof failure,it’snotenoughtosucceed –but it’sa start. Definingthe boundariesof the projectwell,couldalleviatethe perceptionof failure,throughthe following:  Whenthe projectstarts and ends;  Prescribingthe budget;  Clearlydefininggoalsanddeliverables;  Identifyingstakeholdersandwhatbenefits theyexpect;  Definingwhatlevel of qualityisrequiredandhow qualitywill be measured;  The change control processmustbe well definedandexecuted; Finally,there shouldbe ongoingcommunicationtostakeholdersandotherinterestedpartiesto buildanappropriate level of expectationonaprojectwithwell-definedboundaries.The project mustdeliverwithinboundariesandmeetorexceedexpectationsthatwere set. 4.4 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE PROJECT MANAGER As suggestedbyPMBOKGuide (2004), the role of the projectmanagerencompassesmanyactivities including:  PlanningandDefiningScope;  ActivityPlanningandSequencing;  Resource Planning;  DevelopingSchedules;  Time Estimating;  Cost Estimating;  DevelopingaBudget;  ControllingQuality;  Managing RisksandIssues;  CreatingChartsand Schedules;  RiskAnalysis;  BenefitsRealization;  Documentation;  Team Leadership;  StrategicInfluencing;and  CustomerLiaison. Runninga successful projectrequiresahighdegree of stakeholdermanagement.A stakeholderis anyone whohasan interestinthe projectorwill be affectedbyitsdeliverablesoroutput.Itis importantto understandthe valuesandissuesthatstakeholdershave inordertoaddressthemand keepeveryoneonboardforthe durationof the project.Thisiseffectedthrough: SettingGoalsandObjectives Involve stakeholdersincreatingasetof realisticgoalsandobjectives.Stakeholdersare notalways keentoparticipate butengagingthematthisearlystage of the projectwill help ensuresuccess. Stakeholdersare mostlikelytobe activelyengagedbyasetof goalsand objectivesaimedat improvingbusinessperformance andtherebytake aninterestinthe project. AgreeingDeliverables
  23. 23. 22 All projectsneedaclearsetof deliverables aimedatachievingthe projectgoalsandobjectives. These deliverablesshouldbe communicatedclearlytothe stakeholdersandeffortsmade toensure that there isa clear understandingregardingthe qualityandcompositionof eachdeliverable.In orderto achieve success,prototypesandsamplescanbe preparedtoavoidmisunderstandingsor disappointmentlater. CommunicatingInformation Once the projectis runningthere are twogroupsof people whoneedtobe keptinformedof progress,the projectteamandthe stakeholders. The mosteffectivewayof communicatingprogress isvia regularprogressreports.The reportsforma useful recordof the projectand can be e-mailed to all relevantpartiesand/orplacedinacentral repositorytowhicheveryonehasaccess. Accordingto ClelandandIreland(2002),a projectmanagermust have the followingskillsto succeed:  Leadership - inspiringotherstocreate a visionandstrive toachieve the goals;  Good communication - abilitytoprovide valuable informationrelatedtothe projectstatusin a timelyandeffective manner;  Negotiationskills - maintainingrelationshipswithpeople whoare involvedinthe project;  Conflictresolutionskills - assistinginresolutionof anyprojectconflictssothatthe project teammembersall feel partof the processand wantto remaininvolvedinthe project;  Relationshipmanagement - capable of workingwithall levelswithinthe organizationby buildingrelationshipswiththem.  Listeningskills - usinggoodlisteningskillstotrulyhearand try to understandwhatotherson the projectare tryingto say; Morris and Hough(2003) assistinidentifyingotherskillsprojectmanagersneedtobe effective. These include:  To manage,motivate andorganize people;  Vision- understandingwhatneedstobe done andhow to getit done;  Flexibility - capable of changingtofitthe situationforthe goodof the project;  Abilitytoinfluence withouthavingauthority; "The projectmanageris the catalyst,the initiatorwholiftsthe entire projectandputsitintomotion" accordingto Heldman(2002: page 30). He also stated"energyandattitude givesthe project managerpower."Leadershipiscrucial fora projectmanagerwhomustmotivate people whoare on the projectteamsand infunctional departments. 4.5 AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The researchconductedprovedtobe bothvalidandreliable.Responsesreceivedwere consistent and reputable.The researchachievedthe objectivesthatitsetoutto achieve. Furtherresearchcan be undertaken toinvestigatethe reasonsforfailure of community-basedInformationtechnology projectsona regional andnational basis.Thisstudyformsagoodbaseline forfuture research.
  24. 24. 23 4.6 REFERENCES Bailey,E.P.1987. Writing research papers:a practical guide.New York:Holt Creswel,J.W.2012. Educational Research:Planning,ConductingandEvaluatingQualitativeand Quantitative Research.4 th edition.Boston:PearsonEducation,Inc. Cooper,D.& Schindler,P.2001, Research Methodology.7thed.New York:McGraw Hill Cookerman,J.Jan/Feb2005. IdentifyingBusinessNeedsforSuccess.Proquest InformationandLearning,Pgs40-44 ProjectManagementInstitute.2004, A Guide to the ProjectManagementBody of Knowledge. 3rdedition.NewYork:ProjectManagementInstitute Inc Chin,P.2003. Why IT projectsFail [Online].Available: http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/print.php/2201981 [31 May 2011]. Creating Valuein ProjectManagementUsing PRINCE2.2010. [Online].Available: http://www.prince2.com/downloads/CreatingValueInProjectManagementUsingPrince2.p df [15 March 2011]. Dalcher,D. 2009. Software ProjectSuccess:MovingBeyondFailure. TheEuropean Journalforthe InformaticsProfessional, x(5):43-50. Holt,M. 2003. Butler Group Review JournalArticle.Why do so many IT projectsfail? [Online].Available:http://www.brett-tech.com/Downloads/itprojectfailures.pdf [31May 2011]. IT Governance Institute (ITGI).2008. Enterprise Value:Governance of ITinvestments, GettingStartedwithValue Management[Online].Available: http://www.isaca.org/Knowledge-Center/Val-IT-IT-Value-Delivery-/Documents/Val-ITGetting- Started-Jul-2008.pdf [21 March 2011].
  25. 25. 24 4.7 APPENDIX Appendix 1:ResearchQuestionnaire SUBJECT INFORMATIONLETTER FOR PARTICIPANTS Dear Participant I am currently studying towards a BACCALAUREUS TECHNOLOGIAE degree in Business Information Systems.Forthe purposesof mystudy,I intendtocarry out researchintothe factors contributing to projectfailure within City of Tshwane Municipality. The investigation requires the completion of a questionnaire by interested employees. Kindly note that by responding to the questionnaire, you would not only be making a valuable contribution to this research, but also provide invaluable insight into the deterrents to project success within the city. It would therefore be appreciated if you would complete the attached questionnaires. Your individual responses are of importance to this research so therefore please do not consult with colleagues. The completion this questionnaire should not take more than 15 minutes. You are assured of the confidentiality of your responses. Responses may be anonymous and your name is notrequiredonthe questionnaire.Yourparticipationis voluntary and you may withdraw at any time withoutgiving any reasons. Kindly send back the completed questionnaire into my email address (Remember.Mathebula@webmail.co.za) by no later than 15th October 2015. Thank youfor yourco-operationandthe time thatyouhave set aside forthisresearch. Yours faithfully RememberMathebula ResearchSupervisor:Mr. MakgopelaMM Headof subject:Departmentof Informatics:TUT 084 029 6604 / 079 329 7387
  26. 26. 25 I the undersignedagree toparticipate inthisresearch ____________________ Respondentsignature Instructions:Pleaseuse the five-pointscale (shownbelow) torespondtothe questions.Fill ina cross inthe box withthe numberthatcorrespondswithyourview. Example usingthe 5 PointLikertScale Strongly Disagree Neither Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Nor Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Eg 1 Projectoutcomesgenerallymeetthe client's business x requirements Eg 2 ProjectsuccessisentirelywithinCityof Tshwane’scontrol x Section1 - Strategic Alignment 1 Projectsare selectedinline withbusiness goals 2 Projectoutcomes are generallyaligned with business goals 3 Requirementsare clearlydefinedfromthe beginning 4 Use of Work breakdownstructure(WBS), Networkactivitywhenplanningaproject 5 Projectoutcomesare clearlydefinedbythe client 6 The client determines project success by measuring projectoutcomes Strongly Disagree Neither Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Nor Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Section2 - ProjectSelection 1 Project managers are appointed at the concept stage of the project 2 The projectmanageris involved inthe project selection
  27. 27. 26 process 3 Project results have a strategic fit in the design and executionof future productsandservices 4 Projectsare selectedinline withbusiness growthand expansionstrategies 5 The principles of project management are applied uniformlyirrespective of the size of the project Section3 - ProjectOutcomes 1 The project usually satisfies the business operational requirements 2 Project deliverables are generally produced on time and withinbudget 3 The business owners usually believe that the project was successful 4 Projectsalwaysdeliverthe businessvalue it promises 5 The time, cost, quality and scope constraints are usually managedas planned 6 Projects ultimately provide satisfactory return on investmenttothe customer Section4 – ProjectAnalysis 1 Clientsclearlydefinedthe businesscase 2 The stakeholdershave knowledge aboutthe project 3 The stakeholdershave agoodcommunication skills 4 All the functional requirementsof the system gatheredat the beginning 5 The clienthave a betterunderstandabout whathe/she needs 6 Are there software toolsusedinplanningand managementof requirements 7 The goals andobjectivesare alwayswithinthe projectscope 8 Will the employeesacceptthe change 9 The projectsolutionalwaysmeetthe business needs 10 There isa properplanwhichwill identifyany
  28. 28. 27 change in requirements Section5 - Reasonsfor failure 1 Lack of userinvolvement 2 Long or unrealistictimescales 3 Failure to adequately identify, document and track requirements 4 Scope creep 5 No formal change control system 6 Inadequately trained or inexperienced project managers 7 Poorleadershipatanyand all levels 8 Politics 9 Poorplansand planningprocesses 10 Misalignment between the project team and the business it serves 11 Inadequate or misused methods, processes and procedures 12 Inadequate communication in process tracking and reporting Thanks for your time and contribution in the study. Wishyou the bestin your work.

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