Creolization and ethnovet


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  • Sorry, I never noticed this comment. Basically this is a history of the Caribbean that shows how each race contributed to Creolization and brought their own plant knowledge to the Caribbean. It includes a bit about farming because that is how I first learned about these plants. Other people who have written about Creolization do not include all of the races. The slide of George W was used in a history class to demonstrate the huge impact that sugar has had on history. The part about masculinity is included because some men want to reject folk medicine because it is not modern and because it is typically women's knowledge.
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Creolization and ethnovet

  1. 1. Trouillot: Caribbean anthropology <ul><li>Overview of the key literature, the key theorists and their theories. These theories have dominated the Caribbean academic life with positive and negative consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Incongruity between the history of the Caribbean and Anthropology’s traditional search for subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus landed in the Caribbean in 1492. </li></ul><ul><li>The Caribbean became a symbolic place of savage others. </li></ul><ul><li>The Caribs and Arawaks were rapidly decimated before the creation of the myth of the Enlightenment in Europe of the ‘noble savage’ </li></ul><ul><li>African slaves and indentured Asians were brought to labour on sugar and cotton plantations after the Amerindians were decimated. </li></ul><ul><li>The decimation of the Amerindians, their replacement with ‘other others’ and the long period of colonisation of the region meant that the Caribbean was considered to have no ‘natives’ or ‘pure cultures’ but rather a multi-ethic population. The Caribbean could not fit into the ‘primitive’ slot since the plantations were ‘modern’. </li></ul>The Caribbean Region:An Open Frontier in Anthropological Theory Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 21: 19-42 (Volume publication date October 1992) DOI: 10.1146/ Michel-Rolph Trouillot Cheryl Lans
  2. 2. <ul><li>A CIDA funded project in Tobago. The project was called the Caribbean Sheep Production and Marketing Project (CSP/M) and was based in Tobago, Barbados and Guyana. The project was run by CARDI (Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute). </li></ul><ul><li>The project farmers were small scale farmers who used sheep as a kind of back account, selling them when they needed to buy school books or if there was a family emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>They were not making any money and were exploited by traffickers. In T&T traffickers were of Indian descent. Most Tobago farmers were of African descent. </li></ul><ul><li>After 3.5 years the project economist decided that farmers were too marginal to use imported technology including dewormers and needed appropriate technology. Farmers used “bush medicine” which was cheaper than imported worm medicines. </li></ul>Why ethnoveterinary medicine ? Cheryl Lans
  3. 3. CARDI- LOCATIONS Antigua-Barbuda, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St Kitts-Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent-Grenadines, Trinidad-Tobago Cheryl Lans
  4. 4. Veterinary anthropology <ul><li>Ethnoveterinary medicine includes local descriptions of disease and knowledge of how to treat or avoid these. </li></ul><ul><li>In Trinidad and Tobago ethnoveterinary practices and beliefs are based on Caribbean folk medicine, which incorporates knowledge from Africa, Europe, India, and South America. Vaccinations and brandings have not been noted in Caribbean ethnoveterinary medicine, but tools, technologies and magico-religious beliefs are found. Focus is on both ethnoveterinary medicine and creolization. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three main areas of ethnoveterinary medicine reflected in the readings. Anthropologists and sociologists tend to focus on the folk beliefs and magical practices associated with veterinary anthropology: Hirshkind 2000, McCorkle 1989 and Lawrence 1998. There are also general papers arguing for a role for ethnoveterinary medicine in the public sphere: McCorkle 1997, Kohler-Rollefson & Braunig and Mathias 2001. The other articles focus on how ethnoveterinary medicine can fit into livestock production and primary health care. Behaving like a Warao . Selected Papers from the Conference held at Edinburgh University (the Geography Department), 2-4 July 2008 shows how [veterinary] medicine and anthropology are combined. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  5. 5. <ul><li>McCorkle, C.M., Martin, M. 1998. Parallels and potentials in animal and human ethnomedical technique. Agriculture and Human Values 15: 139–144. </li></ul><ul><li>Köhler-Rollefson, I., Bräunig, J. 1998. Anthropological Veterinary : The Need for Indigenizing the Curriculum Paper presented at the 9th AITVM Conference in Harare 14th-18th September 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Blanco E, Macía MJ, Morales R. 1999. Medicinal and veterinary plants of El Caurel (Galicia, northwest Spain). J Ethnopharmacol 65:113-124. </li></ul><ul><li>Pieroni, A.1999. Ed., Herbs, humans and animals/Erbe, uomini e bestie, Experiences, Cologne, Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>IIRR, 1994. Ethnoveterinary medicine in Asia: An information kit on traditional animal health care practices. Volume 4. IIRR, Silang, Cavite, Philippines, 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>ITDG and IIRR, 1996. Ethnoveterinary medicine in Kenya: A field manual of traditional animal health care practices. Nairobi, Kenya , pp. 136–137, 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse and Bräunig, Juliane, 1998. Anthropological Veterinary Medicine: The Need for Indigenizing the Curriculum . Paper presented at the 9th AITVM Conference in Harare , 14–18 September 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Martin, M., Mathias, E., & McCorkle, C. M. 2001, Ethnoveterinary Medicine: An Annotated Bibliography of Community Animal Healthcare ITDG Publishing, London. </li></ul><ul><li>Mathias, E. 2004. &quot;Ethnoveterinary medicine: Harnessing its potential.&quot; Vet Bull 74 (8): 27N – 37N. </li></ul><ul><li>Lans, C. and Brown, G. 1998. &quot;Some observations on ethnoveterinary medicine in Trinidad and Tobago.&quot; Preventive Veterinary Medicine 35 (2), 125 - 142. </li></ul><ul><li>Lans, C. and Brown, G. 1998. &quot;Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in Trinidad and Tobago&quot;. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 35 (3), 149 - 163. </li></ul><ul><li>Lans, C., Harper, T., Georges, K., Bridgewater, E. 2000. &quot;Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago .&quot; Preventive Veterinary Medicine 45 (3-4), 201 - 220. </li></ul><ul><li>Lans, C., Turner, N., Brauer, G., Lourenco, G., and Georges, K. 2006. &quot;Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada.&quot; Journal of Ethnobology and Ethnomedicine 2006, 2(1):31. </li></ul><ul><li>Prelude Medicinal Plants Database specialized in Central Africa. Metafro Infosys. Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium, N.D . </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  6. 6. <ul><li>Veterinary anthropology/ethnoveterinary medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean anthropology (academic and external viewpoint). </li></ul><ul><li>Creolization: a ‘new’ discourse in anthropology but also necessary to know in order to understanding Caribbean ethnoveterinary medicine and Creole medicine in other parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Creolite (Caribbean viewpoint from writers and linguists which is a reflection back on and critique of the external Anthropology. </li></ul>Créolité is a literary movement first developed in the 1980s by Martinican writers Patrick Chamoiseau, Jean Bernabé and Raphaël Confiant. Cheryl Lans
  7. 7. When Cristòbal Còlon 'discovered' Trinidad in 1498 <ul><li>There were several Amerindian tribes; these were the Aruaca, Garini, Nepuyo, Shebaio and Yaio . These Meso Indians (population 10,000 - 40,000) lived in coastal and riverine villages and were fishermen, hunters and gatherers . </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1700s, Trinidad belonged as an island province to the vice royalty of New Spain along with modern Mexico and Central America. </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch and the Courlanders had established themselves in Tobago in the 16th and 17th centuries and produced tobacco and cotton. </li></ul><ul><li>However Trinidad in this period was still mainly forest, populated by a few Spaniards with their handful of slaves and a few thousand Amerindians. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  8. 8. Creolization in T&T ethnoveterinary medicine <ul><li>Of one hundred and eighty nine plants examined in Lans 2001, the geographical origin of eight is unknown, nine were European, 15 were pantropical, 17 plants were of African origin, 41 were Asian and 103 came from Latin America and the Caribbean. </li></ul><ul><li>Thirteen plants that were not being used similarly in other places were tentatively judged to be “indigenous” to Trinidad and Tobago. </li></ul><ul><li>The small number of indigenous plants implies that extensive “borrowings” from other cultures took place. </li></ul><ul><li>The large number of native plants suggests that the Amerindian knowledge found throughout South and Central America is well represented in folk medicine. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  9. 9. French and Spanish Creoles <ul><li>Religious orders such as the Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, Capuchins, tried to establish themselves in Trinidad from 1591. The last Aragon Capuchin came to Trinidad in 1758. The friars organized missions at several areas that are still the major villages and towns in Trinidad. </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 1700s, settlers began coming to Puerto d'España. The conquering British drove French plantation owners and their slaves and families from their estates in Grenada, Martinique and Guadeloupe. Some were French royalists who fled from the French Revolution in France and its aftermath in the Caribbean; others were serving with the British forces in the Caribbean. Amongst these were the Count of Lopinot and his four sons, Chevalier de Verteuil, Chevalier de Bruny, Marquis de Montrichard and Vicomte de Bragelonne. These Chevaliers had a profound influence on social attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>The snobbishness of the times are illustrated in this local rhyme: &quot;and this was sweet old Trinidad, land of the sugarcane and the cocoa pod, where the Ganteaumes spoke only to the de Verteuils, and the de Verteuils spoke only to God&quot; </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  10. 10. The Cedula <ul><li>Under the Cédula de Población 1783, local people of all races were granted certain rights by Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Articles of Surrender of 1797, the British accepted these rights, which allowed all people to inherit property, hold commissions in the local forces, practice professions, to have exemption from certain taxes, and to apply to the crown for grants of land, citizenship after five years of residence and few distinctions between whites and coloureds, which was unique to Trinidad. The free blacks and coloureds received free grants of land: 16 acres for each man, woman and child and half of that for each slave brought. This was about half the grant of a white settler. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  11. 11. Cedula <ul><li>D ue to the Cédula some free blacks were slave-owning proprietors of large sugar estates. They had come to Trinidad from Martinique, Guadeloupe, Ste. Domingue, Grenada and St. Lucia as educated and professional people or military men. Sometimes their sons were educated in Europe or took the grand tour of Europe and they adopted the style of European élite's of equal education and wealth. Some young sons had blood ties to titled people of a previous generation, which provided some mobility in the social stratification system. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
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  14. 14. Readings from Kathleen Balutansky & Marie Anges Courieau <ul><li>Incomplete creolization </li></ul><ul><li>Collision of cultures and ideologies. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Plantation, rhythm and performance’ as three words that define Caribbean creolization: Antonio Benitez-Rojo. This paper shows how African imports into the culture became redefined as national culture in Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>Internalised racism and skin whitening “the race must be improved’ in Carlos Wilson’s ‘Marvelous Cradle-Hammock and Painful Conucopia’ </li></ul><ul><li>Pain of having elite fathers and slave mothers. </li></ul><ul><li>Erasure of African heritage in ‘Victory of the Concubines and the Nannies’ </li></ul><ul><li>Indo/Afro-groups have erased or renamed the Amerindian heritage (hunting dog paper)]. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  15. 15. French & Spanish Creoles <ul><li>The French did not discover or conquer Trinidad but they constituted a large proportion of the population (twenty Frenchmen to every Spaniard) and as the élite they influenced the culture of the society. French words are still part of the local dialect of Trinidad, often as &quot;Patois&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>The term &quot;French Creole&quot; should but does not always include the free people of colour, the children of the French planters of the early times with their African slaves, and later, their mulatto, quadroon and octoroon mistresses. These locally born people passed on the French share of the creolised culture to their descendants. </li></ul><ul><li>  Spanish traditions were handed down from the original colonial heritage but are reinforced by visits and migrants escaping the turbulent politics of Venezuela. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  16. 16. Plural society <ul><li>M. G. Smith claims that as a consequence of their profound cultural differences the members of different sections of &quot;biracial Creole societies ... participate differentially in such sectors of the public domain as education, industry, commerce. </li></ul>Michael Garfield Smith OM (1921 - 1993) was a Jamaican poet and social scientist - The Plural Society in the British West Indies (1965) Cheryl Lans
  17. 17. <ul><li>“ P lural societies &quot; are usually former colonies with self-consciously culturally heterogeneous populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Each nation is made up of different ethnic groups which have a common political and economic systems, but think of themselves as distinctive culturally. </li></ul><ul><li>Often one ethnic group dominates politics. In Trinidad and Guyana the dominant group was traditionally the Afro-Creole group, but Indo- groups have recently asserted their economic and political dominance. </li></ul><ul><li>In Trinidad and Guyana there are debates about whether Indo groups are creolizing or can creolize. Amerindians have been neglected in the official debates on creolization. </li></ul><ul><li>Minority groups may not be nationalistic but may prefer to identify with their ethnic group. </li></ul><ul><li>The former colony is usually too small to divide into smaller countries or nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Each ethnic group has internal divisions according to class and religion. </li></ul><ul><li>There is constant group competition and contests for power. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  18. 18. Caribbean gatekeeping concepts Peter Wilson’s construct of reputation and respectability. <ul><li>Wilson (1969) has drawn parallels between Mediterranean concepts of 'honour' and 'shame' in his theorization of Caribbean concepts of 'reputation' and 'respectability'. </li></ul><ul><li>Respectability or 'social worth' can only be obtained by adhering to the Eurocentric colonial system of social stratification based on class, colour, education, and propriety based on church-going and marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson claims that Caribbean women value respectability. Reputation is derived in opposition to the values of respectability and is based on 'personal' worth and is valued by young Caribbean men. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  19. 19. Reputation and respectability <ul><li>Groups of men meet in bars and recreate their reputations based on their recounted boasting of sexual conquests, fathering many children, being able to use words impressively in arguments or debates, participating in Rastafarianism, and having skills like music, hunting, healing, obeah, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>As men age and become less able to compete on 'reputation' and more concerned with careers and the after-life they become more interested in 'respectability'. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  20. 20. Long-term implications of the everyday practices <ul><li>Wilson's concepts are important because folk medicine, village midwives and obeah men are firmly lodged in the 'reputation' realm, while medicine and pharmacy are located in the 'respectability' realm. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans Crab Antics: A Caribbean Study of the Conflict Between Reputation and Respectability Peter J. Wilson
  21. 21. Gatekeeping concept: crab antics <ul><li>The dialectic between reputation and respectability is manifested in 'crab antics' behaviours that are designed as status levellers. </li></ul><ul><li>If one crab is placed in a bucket it climbs out and escapes easily, so you have to cover the bucket. If there are many crabs in the bucket each one will prevent the others from escaping 'in order to retain a community of the impoverished'. So no lid is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Ridicule and gossip are everyday 'crab antics'. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  22. 22. Crab antics <ul><li>Praedial larceny of crops and livestock are 'crab antics' that undermine the viability of the agricultural sector, while petty business thefts and deliberate unproductivity undermine the small business and entrepreneurial sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>The irony is that these two sectors (small business and agriculture) if vibrant, could provide the lifestyles desired by those engaged in 'crab antics'. </li></ul>Cheryl Lans
  23. 23. Crab antics can manifest itself as the 'politics of disappearance of local knowledge' ( Shiva, 1993). <ul><li>The scientific actor-network offers the security of a valued social identity and some herbalists are seeking to occupy this privileged space. </li></ul>Monocultures of the mind: perspectives on biodiversity and biotechnology  By Vandana Shiva Cheryl Lans
  24. 24. Cheryl Lans