EnglishLanguageArts 4CommonCoreCoachGEORGIAFirst Edition
2ContentsLesson 1: Reading Myths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Listen and Learn Fires of Pel...
3Lesson 5: Writing Personal Narratives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .871. Get Ready: Brainstorm . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
4Lesson 9: Reading Technical Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171Listen and Learn Talking Underwater. . . . . . ...
How do myths help peopleunderstand the worldaround them?ESSENTIAL QUESTIONLook at this eruptingvolcano in Hawaii. How doyo...
MYTH A myth is oftena story that explainssomething about theworld and involves gods orsuperheroes. Myths usuallyexplain ho...
Listen and LearnCONNECT TEXTAND ILLUSTRATIONSIllustrations can be used tohelp readers imagine a scene,understand character...
THEME Makore continuesto chase Pele from islandto island. Each time Peledigs a new fire pit, Makorefloods and destroys it.Th...
Listen and LearnTHEME In this story, thetheme is that anger canhave lasting effects. Storiescan have more than onetheme or...
Listen and LearnHow does a myth in graphic form differ from a traditionaltelling of a myth?How are the gods and goddesses ...
Listen and LearnCOMPARE PLOT Inboth versions of the story,Pele gets the canoe fromher brother. But in thisversion, the plo...
CONNECT TEXTAND ILLUSTRATIONSIn the first version ofthe story, Pele uses adigging stick to digher fire pit. Comparethat desc...
Listen and LearnPele had found her new home. She remained forever sadthat she could not return to the home of her birth, a...
Comprehension CheckLook back at “Fires of Pele” and “Like Fire and Water!” How are the theme,plot, and structure different...
Listen and LearnVocabularyUse the word map below to help you define and use one of the highlightedvocabulary words from the...
CONTEXT CLUESWhich clues help youfigure out what dislodgedmeans? Circle them.Thenunderline the wordsthat help you figureout ...
COMPARE THEMEIn “Fires of Pele,” thetheme was that angercan have a lasting effect.How is the theme of thisstory similar?“B...
Sometimes Loowit heard thunder or felt a sudden coolbreeze. Then she would build the fire very high. That way anycoming ra...
Share and LearnCHARACTER What kindof person is Loowit? Whydoes she refuse to chooseone of the brothers?Soon the news of Lo...
Mount St. HelensMount AdamsMount HoodThis myth explains the origin of three volcanoes in thePacific Northwest. Mount St. He...
Share and LearnAnchor Standard Discussion QuestionsDiscuss the following questions with your peer group. Then record your ...
Read another myth, “How Night Came,” independently. Apply whatyou learned in this lesson and check your understanding.Read...
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Georgia Common Core Coach CCGPS Edition, English Language Arts, Grade 4

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The total CCGPS package, built from the ground up—in full color.

Reading and writing lessons that are genre-specific and differentiated enable learners to meet the rigors of the CCGPS.

Georgia Common Core ELA Coach has been built from the ground up using an integrated approach that suits the philosophy of the Common Core Georgia Performance Standards. Both comprehensive and easy to use, it provides grade-level-appropriate content at a new depth of instruction.

Student texts are organized around reading and writing genres and cover all CCGPS in logical clusters, in the context of reading selections or examples of writing types. Reading lessons use modeled passages and writing and language units use 'mentor texts' to exemplify and teach skills. All lessons are structured around the research-proven model of gradual release, including explicit teacher-led instruction, collaborative peer work, and independent practice.

Georgia Common Core Coach delivers:

Clear lessons to help your students master achievements emphasized by
the CCGPS, including expectations for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language conventions
Anchor standards set the instructional path toward College and Career Readiness (CCR)

Grade-specific CCGPS define cumulative progression and end-of-year requirements; CCR anchor standards define cross-disciplinary literacy expectations that students must meet if they are to find success in college or workforce training programs.

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Georgia Common Core Coach CCGPS Edition, English Language Arts, Grade 4

  1. 1. EnglishLanguageArts 4CommonCoreCoachGEORGIAFirst Edition
  2. 2. 2ContentsLesson 1: Reading Myths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Listen and Learn Fires of Pele / Like Fire and Water! . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Share and Learn Bridge of Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Read On Your Own How Night Came . . . . . . . . Online HandoutLesson 2: Reading Short Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Listen and Learn Secrets of the Sea / A Monumental Mystery . . . . .24Share and Learn Muscle Voyage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36Read On Your Own A Helping Hoof . . . . . . . . . Online HandoutLesson 3: Writing Fictional Narratives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451. Get Ready: Brainstorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .512. Organize: Beginning, Middle, and End. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543. Draft: Using Dialogue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .564. Peer Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .585. Revise: Using Sensory Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626. Edit: Complete Sentences, Capitalization, and FrequentlyConfused Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647. Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68Lesson 4: Reading Historical Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69Listen and Learn This Time Was Different /excerpt from “President Roosevelt’s Fireside Chat” . . . . . . . .70Share and Learn Jim Lovell: Stranded in Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80Read On Your Own A Meeting of Minds . . . . . Online HandoutCommon CoreGeorgia PerformanceStandards (GPS)RL.4.2; RL.4.7; RL.4.9;RL.4.10; RF.4.4.a, b; SL.4.1RL.4.1; RL.4.2; RL.4.3; RL.4.4;RL.4.6; RL.4.9; RL.4.10;RF.4.4.a, b; SL.4.1; L.4.4.aRF.4.4.c;W.4.3.a, b, d, e;W.4.4;W.4.5;W.4.6;W.4.10;L.4.1.f, g; L.4.2.a; L.4.4.a, cRI.4.1; RI.4.2; RI.4.3; RI.4.5;RI.4.6; RI.4.10; RF.4.4.a, b;SL.4.1; L.4.4.b
  3. 3. 3Lesson 5: Writing Personal Narratives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .871. Get Ready: Brainstorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .932. Organize: Beginning, Middle, and End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .963. Draft: Using Transitional Words and Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . .984. Peer Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1005. Revise: Using Effective Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1046. Edit: Prepositional Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1067. Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110Lesson 6: Reading Drama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111Listen and Learn The Hare and the Hedgehog /The Tale of Mr. Jeremy Fisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112Share and Learn The Pot of Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122Read On Your Own Taking Action . . . . . . . . . . . Online HandoutLesson 7: Reading Poetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129Listen and Learn Windy Nights / Wind / The Hen /The Arrow and the Song . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130Share and Learn A Narrow Fellow in the Grass /I’m Nobody! Who Are You?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140Read On Your Own What Is Pink? / Brown and Furry /Some One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Online HandoutLesson 8: Writing Responses to Literature. . . . . . . . . . .1451. Get Ready: Brainstorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1532. Organize: Main Idea and Details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1563. Draft: Using Linking Words and Phrases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1584. Peer Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1605. Revise: Formal and Informal Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1646. Edit: Progressive Verb Tenses and Helping Verbs . . . . . . . . 1667. Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170Common CoreGeorgia PerformanceStandards (GPS)W.4.3.a, c, e;W.4.4;W.4.5;W.4.6;W.4.8;W.4.10; L.4.1.e;L.4.2.d; L.4.3.b; L.4.5.cRL.4.1; RL.4.2; RL.4.3; RL.4.5;RL.4.10; RF.4.4.a, b; SL.4.1;L.4.5.cRL.4.1; RL.4.2; RL.4.4; RL.4.5;RL.4.10; RF.4.4.a, b; SL.4.1;L.4.5.aW.4.1.a–d;W.4.4;W.4.5;W.4.6;W.4.7;W.4.8;W.4.9.a;W.4.10; L.4.1.b, c; L.4.3.c;L.4.5.a, b
  4. 4. 4Lesson 9: Reading Technical Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171Listen and Learn Talking Underwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172Share and Learn Tools of the Fossil Hunter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180Read On Your Own Don’t Make Light of This! . Online HandoutLesson 10: Writing Informative/Explanatory Texts. . 1891. Get Ready: Take Notes on Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1952. Organize: Introduction and Supporting Paragraphs. . . . . . .2003. Draft: Using Linking Words and Phrases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2024. Peer Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2045. Revise: Using Precise and Domain-Specific Language . . . . . .2086. Edit: Adjectives, Commas, and Quotation Marks. . . . . . . . . .2107. Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214Lesson 11: Reading Scientific Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . .215Listen and Learn Nature’s Worst Storms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216Share and Learn Adapting to Survive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222Read On Your Own Your Brain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Online HandoutLesson 12: Writing Opinion Pieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2311. Get Ready: Brainstorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2372. Organize: Introduction and Supporting Reasons. . . . . . . . . .2403. Draft: Using Linking Words and Phrases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2424. Peer Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2445. Revise: Using Precise Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2486. Edit: Relative Pronouns and Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2507. Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254Writing Handbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268Common CoreGeorgia PerformanceStandards (GPS)RI.4.1; RI.4.2; RI.4.3; RI.4.4;RI.4.5; RI.4.7; RI.4.10;RF.4.4.a, b; SL.4.1; L.4.6RI.4.9;W.4.2.a–e;W.4.4;W.4.5;W.4.6;W.4.7;W.4.8;W.4.9.b;W.4.10; L.4.1.d;L.4.2.b, c; L.4.3.a; L.4.4.b;L.4.6RI.4.1; RI.4.2; RI.4.3; RI.4.4;RI.4.5; RI.4.7; RI.4.8; RI.4.9;RI.4.10; RF.4.4.a, b; SL.4.1;L.4.6W.4.1.a–d;W.4.4;W.4.5;W.4.6;W.4.10; L.4.1.a; L.4.3.a;L.4.4.b
  5. 5. How do myths help peopleunderstand the worldaround them?ESSENTIAL QUESTIONLook at this eruptingvolcano in Hawaii. How doyou think Hawaiians viewedvolcanoes before scientistsexplained them?ReadingMythsLesson1Lesson 1 • Reading Myths 5
  6. 6. MYTH A myth is oftena story that explainssomething about theworld and involves gods orsuperheroes. Myths usuallyexplain how something inthe world began or wascreated.What forces ofnature are part of this myth?Firesof PeleWhat forces of nature have shaped the Hawaiian Islands?Why might people explain these forces with a myth?Listen and LearnTHEME The theme of a storyis the truth about life shownin that story.The beginningof this myth talks aboutPele’s anger.What truthabout anger do you think thestory may be suggesting?Consideradapted from a traditional Hawaiian mythA time long ago, in a faraway land known as Kahiki,there lived a mother named Haumea and a father namedKanehoalani. Together they had seven sons and sevendaughters. All of them were gods and goddesses. Wheneverthe clouds swelled and clung to the mountaintops, or rainfell, or the earth broke open and belched steam or fire, oneof these powerful siblings had caused it.One of the seven daughters was named Pele. She wasthe goddess of fire and volcanoes. She had learned muchfrom the fire god Lonomakua. Pele had a terrible temper.Whenever she became angry or jealous, she would flyinto a wild rage. If she stamped her feet, the groundwould shake. If she cried, fiery lava would flow down themountainsides. When she screamed or tossed her hair,the lava would shoot high into the air. Then it would raindown upon the valleys and the ocean below.Pele didn’t often stop to think about whether somethingseemed good or bad. She simply did whatever she felt likedoing at that moment. This often brought her trouble. Thefires she tended sometimes burned out of control. The firethat she rained down on the ocean sometimes burned thewooden canoes of the people who lived along the shore.This angered Pele’s sister Makore. Makore was the goddessof the sea. When Makore herself was angry, she liked toshow her displeasure by sending fearsome waves to breakthe canoes and pound them to splinters against the shore.But this was not the last time Pele would anger Makore.16 Lesson 1 • Reading Myths
  7. 7. Listen and LearnCONNECT TEXTAND ILLUSTRATIONSIllustrations can be used tohelp readers imagine a scene,understand characters, orbetter grasp ideas in the text.How does the illustrationon this page help youunderstand Pele’s feelingsas she sets out in her canoe?PLOT The plot of a storyis the sequence of eventsthat includes the actions ofthe characters and a conflict.How do one character’sactions make anothercharacter act in this story?How do one character sactions make anothercharacter act in this story?Makore was older than Pele. She had taken noticeof a strong, handsome warrior whom she had carried,this way and that, upon the waves she commanded.After some years, she admitted to him that she was inlove with him. She then told her younger sister Peleabout her feelings for the warrior. Pele wanted to seewho had inspired Makore’s love. When Pele saw him forherself, she too began to fall in love. Soon after, withoutconsidering Makore’s feelings, Pele told the warrior thatshe loved him.When Makore learned what Pele had done, shebecame enraged. She set out to chase Pele away fromKahiki forever. Pele quickly packed her things into acanoe her brother gave her. Then she paddled away fromKahiki as quickly as she could. She traveled for a longtime, south and east across the warm Pacific Ocean,through the blinding brightness of day and the lonelydarkness of night.At last Pele reached the island of Kauai. There sherested for a while before choosing a mountain andclimbing to the very top. There she took her digging stickand carefully carved a fire pit. She prepared to move intothe pit and make it her new home.But Pele’s sister Makore had other plans. She followedPele all the way to Kauai. She waited until Pele hadfinished digging the fire pit. Then Makore stirred upthe ocean’s waves. The wavessplashed higher and higher,until they crested over the verytop of the mountain. Pele’s fire pitdisappeared under water.5Lesson 1 • Reading Myths 7
  8. 8. THEME Makore continuesto chase Pele from islandto island. Each time Peledigs a new fire pit, Makorefloods and destroys it.Thestory describes how thetwo sisters’ anger begins tochange the Hawaiian Islands.How does this add to thetheme of the story?CONNECT TEXT ANDILLUSTRATIONS The mapon this page shows theislands that Pele went to asMakore chased her.Whatfeatures of the map connectto the details of the story?NiihauKauaiOahuMolokaiMauiHawaiiLanaiKahoolawePele was not discouraged when her fire pit wasflooded. She slid down the mountain with her things andset out in her canoe once more. She forced her tired armsto paddle until she came ashore at the island of Oahu.Slowly, she climbed to the peak of a mountaintop there.Again she dug a large fire pit for herself.Makore, still furious, was not so easily discouraged,either. She followed Pele to Oahu. When she saw the newpit Pele had dug, she stirred the sea again until wavesflooded the mountaintop. For many days, Pele paddledpatiently from island to island, with Makore pursuing her.From Oahu Pele went to Molokai, then to Lanai, and thento Maui. At each island, she would climb a mountain, diga fire pit, and prepare to move in. Then her sister Makorewould appear, sending enormous waves rolling at themountainside. Each time, the pit was flooded, and Pelehad to flee.Finally, Pele landed on the “Big Island” of Hawaii. Sheclimbed the mountain known as Kilauea. She found thatshe was very distant from the ocean waves. Her sisterfollowed her to Hawaii and pushed the waves as highas she could. But Makore couldn’t send the waves highenough or fast enough to wash to the top of Kilauea.108 Lesson 1 • Reading Myths
  9. 9. Listen and LearnTHEME In this story, thetheme is that anger canhave lasting effects. Storiescan have more than onetheme or message.Whatother message about angeris in this story?SUMMARIZE A goodsummary states only themost important details ofa story. Two sisters whowere goddesses were angry.One sister chased the otherfrom island to island.Asthey went, they shapedthe mountains as they stillare today. How would yousummarize the story?MYTH The purpose ofthis myth is to explain howthe volcanoes of Hawaiiwere shaped.Why doyou think this story wasimportant to people wholived in Hawaii long ago?At last Makore relented. She gave up her anger andslowly returned to Kahiki. No longer pursued by her sister,Pele settled into her fire pit on Kilauea, and there shestayed. But just as before, when Pele lost her temper, aroar could be heard as the ground rumbled. Hot lava shothigh into the air. Then it flowed down the mountain asPele screamed and tossed her hair.That is how the Hawaiian Islands came to be the waythey are. Pele, in retreat from Makore, would dig hermountaintop fire pit. Then Makore would push oceanwaves at the mountain until the pit was filled with water.As they went along, the sisters left the story of theirconflict behind them. It was forever carvedinto the rocks.If you visit the island of Hawaiitoday, you can go to Kapoho and lookfor Green Mountain. Green Mountainholds an old pit—a volcanic crater.The crater is filled with water.If you visit Kilauea, where Peleresides, you can still hear a roar.You can feel rumbling beneathyou. You can see the lavaexplode into the air and flowdown the mountain slopes.As you watch and listen tothe earth stir, you may tellyourself that Pele has oncemore lost her temper.Lesson 1 • Reading Myths 9
  10. 10. Listen and LearnHow does a myth in graphic form differ from a traditionaltelling of a myth?How are the gods and goddesses in myths like real people?ConsiderCONNECT TEXTAND ILLUSTRATIONSThis version of the story isa graphic novel. Most ofthe story is told throughillustrations and dialogue.The illustrations on thispage show Makore andher mother. How doesthis version help youunderstand why Makoreacts the way she does?COMPARE PLOTIn this part of the plot,Makore and her mothertalk about Pele’s anger.How does this differfrom the events in thefirst version?10 Lesson 1 • Reading Myths
  11. 11. Listen and LearnCOMPARE PLOT Inboth versions of the story,Pele gets the canoe fromher brother. But in thisversion, the plot includesdifferent details aboutMakore and her brother.What details are includedhere that were not in thefirst version of the story?How do those detailshelp you understandthe characters?Lesson 1 • Reading Myths 11
  12. 12. CONNECT TEXTAND ILLUSTRATIONSIn the first version ofthe story, Pele uses adigging stick to digher fire pit. Comparethat description withthe illustration anddialogue at the top ofthis page. How is thisversion different? Howdoes it add to yourunderstanding ofthe story?COMPARE PLOT Unlikethe first version, thisversion of the storyincludes dialoguebetween Pele andMakore. How does thatmake the story different?12 Lesson 1 • Reading Myths
  13. 13. Listen and LearnPele had found her new home. She remained forever sadthat she could not return to the home of her birth, and shestill grumbles and weeps tears of fire to this day.COMPARE THEMEIn the first version ofthe story, the themefocuses on how angercan have lasting effects.This version focusesmore on the relationshipbetween Pele andMakore. How does thismake the theme of thegraphic novel different?COMPARE PLOTThe ending of the firststory tells what youmight experience if youvisit Kilauea.The graphicnovel ends with Pelealone on the mountain.How are the endingsin the two versionsdifferent? How are theythe same?Lesson 1 • Reading Myths 13
  14. 14. Comprehension CheckLook back at “Fires of Pele” and “Like Fire and Water!” How are the theme,plot, and structure different in the two stories? How are they the same?Use the Venn diagram below to list your ideas. In the center, write what isthe same in both stories. On the sides, list what is different in the stories.Firesof PeleThe storydescribes Pele’sterrible temper.Like Fireand Water!Bothstories14 Lesson 1 • Reading Myths
  15. 15. Listen and LearnVocabularyUse the word map below to help you define and use one of the highlightedvocabulary words from the Share and Learn reading or another word yourteacher assigns you.dislodged bestowed saplingdismay eternal monumentMy wordSynonyms AntonymsDefinition Other formsMy sentenceLesson 1 • Reading Myths 15
  16. 16. CONTEXT CLUESWhich clues help youfigure out what dislodgedmeans? Circle them.Thenunderline the wordsthat help you figureout the meaning ofbestowed. Finally,circle the words thathelp you figure out themeaning of saplings.adapted from a Puyallup mythLong ago, along the steep banks of the Columbia River,a pile of giant rocks was dislodged from the earth andtumbled into the water. There, the rocks created a bridgeof stone. This bridge allowed the people to cross the rivereasily. Their feet stayed dry. There was no danger of beingswept downstream by the rushing waters. The people lovedthe bridge. They named it Tamanawas Bridge, whichmeans “Bridge of the Gods.”For a long time, the people were thankful for the bridge.They felt as if a great gift had been bestowed upon them. Andthe bridge led to many other gifts. Using the bridge, peoplecould easily seek plants, trees, and animals on both sides ofthe river. People from one side of the river would cross thebridge to look for rare stones. People from the other sidewould cross to cut strong, straight saplings, the young treesthey used to build their camps. Then each group would crossthe bridge again to return to their homes.But as time passed, people on eachside of the bridge began to grumble. Theycomplained about the things people acrossthe river were taking away. One began toaccuse the other, saying, “You are takingthings from our side of the bridge! Youmust find them on your own side!”1Bridge of FireShare and LearnHow is the world of myths different from the real world?Why do myths sometimes include angry or destructiveactions?ConsiderPLOT What conflict hasdeveloped as a result ofcharacters’ actions?16 Lesson 1 • Reading Myths
  17. 17. COMPARE THEMEIn “Fires of Pele,” thetheme was that angercan have a lasting effect.How is the theme of thisstory similar?“But you take from our side of the bridge, also!” the otherswould respond. “The bridge serves each of us. What I findacross it, I may keep. After all, who has the right to claim thegifts of the earth as their own? How can things be yours afterthey have been cut or carried by another?” The argumentsgrew worse. Soon, everyone was fighting. They fought aboutthe bridge, the land around it, and just about everything uponthe land.The Great Spirit Tyee Sahale watched with dismay. Hegrew sad and angry that the people were fighting with theirneighbors. He decided that he must punish all of the peoplefor their greediness. He thought about it for a long time.Finally, he caused all the fires in their homes to go out. Therewas only one way for people to light their fires again. Theywould have to travel to the one fire that still burned. TyeeSahale placed this fire in the middle of the Bridge of the Gods.A very old woman named Loowitlatkla, or “Lady of Fire,”lived on the bridge. It was her job to look after the sacred fire.She was devoted to it. Night and day, Loowit worked to keepthe fire going. Usually she added a handful of wood. If woodwas scarce, she would use dry moss or anything else shecould find to feed the fire.5Share and LearnCHARACTERWhat kind of characteris Tyee Sahale? Why doeshe decide to punish thepeople?CONTEXT CLUESCircle the words thathelp explain the meaningof dismay.Lesson 1 • Reading Myths 17
  18. 18. Sometimes Loowit heard thunder or felt a sudden coolbreeze. Then she would build the fire very high. That way anycoming rain would not extinguish it. She always began toworry when the fire’s flames burned low.Loowit knew that the fire she tended was vital to thepeople. How would they stay warm at night or cook a mealwithout their fires? So Loowit was always kind to those whocame to her for some of the fire’s glowing embers. Althoughher back was bent and her hands were hard and worn, shewould greet each visitor warmly. She always sent them homewith hot coals and her good wishes.Loowit’s hard work and kindness caught the attention ofTyee Sahale. He could see that her back hurt and her handsached. He wanted to give her something that would pleaseher. He offered Loowit the gift of eternal life as a specialreward for her efforts and her good nature. He had alreadygiven this same gift to his sons, Klickitat and Wyeast.Tyee Sahale gave eternal life to Loowit, only to find thatshe did not want it. She did not want to be an old womanforever. But Tyee Sahale could not take back the gift he hadgiven. He told Loowit he would grant her one wish. Loowitquickly wished to be full of youth and beauty again.Instantly she became a fair young woman.10CONNECT TEXTAND ILLUSTRATIONSLook at the illustrationof Loowit.What do youlearn about Loowit fromthe illustration?THEME How doesLoowit’s hard work andkindness connect to thetheme that anger andgreed cause destruction?18 Lesson 1 • Reading Myths
  19. 19. Share and LearnCHARACTER What kindof person is Loowit? Whydoes she refuse to chooseone of the brothers?Soon the news of Loowit’s wondrous beauty had travelledacross the land. Tyee Sahale’s sons, the brothers Wyeast andKlickitat, were both curious to see Loowit for themselves.They both set out for the bridge. Wyeast came from the south.Klickitat stomped down from the north. The brothers arrivedat the Bridge of Fire at the same time. Both of them instantlyfell in love with Loowit.Loowit was not used to having handsome young menpursue her. She did not want to cause any trouble betweenthe brothers. When Klickitat and Wyeast each offeredtheir love to her, she refused to choose between them. Thebrothers each believed that he alone could win Loowit’sfavor. They began a long and terrible battle.They argued about which of them should be allowed tomarry the beautiful Loowit. They stomped their feet and setfire to villages. The fires they lit burned out of control. Entireforests were swallowed by the flames. The people livingin the river valley fled in terror. They never resolved theirdisagreements over the bridge.FIGURATIVELANGUAGE Explainthe meaning of “entireforests were swallowedby the flames.”PLOT The people hadto leave the river valley.How did their actionsearlier in the story causethis to happen?Lesson 1 • Reading Myths 19
  20. 20. Mount St. HelensMount AdamsMount HoodThis myth explains the origin of three volcanoes in thePacific Northwest. Mount St. Helens and Mount Adamsare in what is now Washington State. Mount Hood isnear them in Oregon.Tyee Sahale saw all of the destruction caused by his sons.He became angrier than before. In a fit of temper, he struckthe Bridge of the Gods. The bridge tumbled into the river,where it still lies. So angry was Tyee Sahale that he destroyedthe three people to whom he had given eternal life—Loowit,Klickitat, and Wyeast.After Tyee Sahale had punished them and the world fellsilent, he felt great sorrow. He decided that he would make amonument to each of them. Where each suitor had fallen,he pushed the ground up to form a volcano.Loowit had been beautiful. Where she had fallen, TyeeSahale raised a volcano covered with glittering white snow.This is Mount St. Helens. Where Wyeast fell, Mount Hoodstands tall and proud. Klickitat, so much in love with Loowit,still weeps for her, his head hanging sorrowfully in the formof Mount Adams.15COMPARE MYTHSReread the lastparagraph. How are thevolcanoes in this mythsimilar to the volcanoesin “Fires of Pele”?SUMMARIZESummarize the story byretelling only the mostimportant ideas in yourown words.20 Lesson 1 • Reading Myths
  21. 21. Share and LearnAnchor Standard Discussion QuestionsDiscuss the following questions with your peer group. Then record your answers inthe space provided.1. How do the characters in the myths “Bridge of Fire” and “Fires of Pele” viewnature? Support your opinions with examples from each text.2. How would you represent Loowit’s kindness in a graphic novel? Using a sceneof your choice from “Bridge of Fire,” create four panels that help readersbetter understand the goodness of her heart. Create your own dialogue andillustrations, and be prepared to support them with details from the text.Lesson 1 • Reading Myths 21
  22. 22. Read another myth, “How Night Came,” independently. Apply whatyou learned in this lesson and check your understanding.Read On Your OwnComprehension Check1. How does the characters’ anger lead to problems in the plot of both“Fires of Pele” and “Bridge of Fire”?2. How are the themes, or messages, about life in “Fires of Pele” and“Bridge of Fire” the same? How are they different?3. Think about the endings of “Fires of Pele,” “Like Fire and Water!” and“Bridge of Fire.” Tell which ending you think is most hopeful, and why.Share and Learn22 Lesson 1 • Reading Myths

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