This book is printed on paper containinga minimum of 10% post-consumer waste.www.triumphlearning.comPhone: (800) 338-6519 ...
        H SGeorgia Common Core Coach for World Literature and Informational Texts II, First Edition T144GA ISBN-13: 978-1-...
Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLC2ContentsUnit 1 — LiteratureLesson 1: Reading Fictio...
Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLC3Lesson 6: Reading Persuasive Texts.  .  .  .  .  . ...
Lesson3Drama has been important to culturesthroughout the ages, and every aspectof human nature and society—friendship,lov...
ConsiderWhole ClassACT I.Scene I	 As the scene opens, Alceste is joined by his friend Philinte.They are having a lively di...
Whole Classmalicious wit seems to accord so well with the manner of the times.How comes it that, hating these things as mo...
Oronte: [to Alceste] I have been informed yonder, that Elianteand Célimène have gone out to make some purchases. But as Ih...
Whole Class	 Alceste: Sir . . .	 Oronte: What! you refuse me?20	 Alceste: Sir, you do me too much honour; but friendship i...
Oronte: Hope . . . I do not know whether the style will strikeyou as sufficiently clear and easy and whether you willappro...
Whole Class40	 Philinte: The conclusion is pretty, amorous, admirable.	 Alceste: [softly, and aside to Philinte] A plague ...
Oronte: Do I write badly? Am I like them in any way?	 Alceste: I do not say that. But, in short, I said to him, What press...
Whole ClassConflict  The conflict is themain struggle or problem in aplay or story. What conflict isintroduced here? Betwe...
Alceste: Unless an express order from the King himselfcommands me to approve of the verses which cause all thistrouble, I ...
Whole Classis just; I know how culpable I must appear to you, that everythingspeaks of my treachery to you, and that, in s...
Whole ClassIntroducing and Developing CharactersPlaywrights introduce characters in the stage directions at the beginning ...
Whole ClassVocabulary StrategyWords with Multiple MeaningsConsider how context clues can help you determine how a word wit...
Small GroupConsiderCHARACTER  In the cast of char-acters, what does the note etc. tellyou about Peter Stockmann?	 The play...
Small GroupCHARACTER  How does Petra’sresponse contrast with those ofthe other characters? What doesthat tell you about he...
Dr. Stockmann: Quite an unusually healthy spot, in fact—a placethat deserves to be recommended in the warmest possible man...
1infusoria  microscopic organismsSmall Group	 Mrs. Stockmann: Then that is what you have been so busy with?35	 Dr. Stockma...
Dr. Stockmann: Well, to your grandfather, then. The old boy willhave something to be astonished at! I know he thinks I amc...
Small GroupTONE  Think about Peter andDr. Stockmann’s dialogue. What isthe tone of each man’s comments?How is Ibsen using ...
Dr. Stockmann: Do youimagine that in a freecountry it is no use havingright on your side? You areabsurd, Katherine. Beside...
Small Group	 Dr. Stockmann: Yes, that is part of my new discovery, too. Andanother part of it is that broad-mindedness is ...
CHARACTER  What change doyou sense in Petra in this para-graph? How does this change helpreveal the theme?	 Dr. Stockmann:...
Small Group	 Dr. Stockmann: Yes, here. This is the field of battle—this is wherethe fight will be. This is where I shall t...
Small GroupDiscussionDiscuss these questions with your group, and together write a paragraph in response to eachquestion. ...
TextsComparingInformationalLesson10Informational texts may present very differentapproaches to the same topic. For example...
ConsiderWhole Class1		 On March 11, 2011, at 2:46 p.m., a violent undersea earthquakeoccurred off the east coast of Japan....
Whole ClassEarth’s Structure		 Earth is a sphere made of several distinct layers, like an onion.The center, called the cor...
Earthquakes and tsunamis occur because of the way Earth isstructured and the forces that exist within the planet. Scientis...
Whole Class		 Seismologists have learned that not all plates move in the samedirection or at the same speed, which means t...
Seismologists have identified three types of faults, which aredefined by the direction in which they move:		 •  Normal fau...
Whole ClassThe Aftermath of Earthquakes		 Depending on their magnitude, which is a measure of poweror intensity, earthquak...
25		 One of the leading causes of deaths from earthquakes is thecollapse of buildings and other structures, such as bridge...
Whole Class		 Earthquakes can also crack dams, causing them to give wayand release the huge volume of water stored in thei...
that was only one to three feet high in the middle of the oceanbecomes a gigantic wall of water just before it crashes ont...
Whole ClassRichter ScaleMagnitude Description EffectsLess than 2.9 micro rarely felt3.0 to 3.9 minor felt by some people i...
PacificOceanBanning FaultSan Jacinto FaultFault1872194019791952OwensValleyFaultSan FranciscoSanCalifornia18361836Segments o...
1 2 3DROP! COVER HOLD ON!Whole ClassImproving Earthquake Safety		 Since it is currently impossible to accurately predict e...
Whole ClassReview the article to find one example of each kind of presentation element.Write the example and page number w...
Whole ClassRefining Key TermsIn each of the following sentences, the author defines one of the vocabularywords. The author...
ConsiderSmall Group1		 During the afternoon of Saturday, March 12, 2011—oneday after a devastating earthquake and tsunami ...
OnagawaFukushima 1–DaiichiFukushima 2–DainiTokaiTOKYOKeyOnagawaMiyagi PrefectureFukushima 1–DaiichiFukushima 2–DainiTokaiJ...
Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, World Literature, Level II
Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, World Literature, Level II
Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, World Literature, Level II
Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, World Literature, Level II
Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, World Literature, Level II
Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, World Literature, Level II
Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, World Literature, Level II
Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, World Literature, Level II
Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, World Literature, Level II
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, World Literature, Level II

773 views

Published on

Get direct instruction on key comprehension strategies and Common Core Georgia Performance Standards reading skills.
The Common Core Georgia Performance Standards place new demands on the upper grades, requiring all students to read critically texts at higher levels of complexity, and placing an unprecedented emphasis on informational nonfiction texts. Common Core Coach, World Literature, CCGPS Edition, Level II, more than meets this challenge, with higher readability passages and instruction that is more sophisticated than in our Level I text. Reading passages include works by Chekhov, Angela Merkel, Moliere, Shakespeare, and more. International topics and universal themes are covered throughout.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
773
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, World Literature, Level II

  1. 1. This book is printed on paper containinga minimum of 10% post-consumer waste.www.triumphlearning.comPhone: (800) 338-6519 • Fax: (866) 805-5723 • E-mail: customerservice@triumphlearning.comCommonCoreCoachforWorldLiteratureandInformationalTextsIICommonCoreCoachCommonCoreCoachDevelopedExclusivelyfortheCCGPSYourInstructionalAnchor!ISBN-13: 978-1-62362-055-49 7 8 1 6 2 3 6 2 0 5 5 49 0 0 0 0GEORGIAGEORGIAT144GAFirst Editionfor World Literature andInformational TextsIICCGPSEdition
  2. 2.         H SGeorgia Common Core Coach for World Literature and Informational Texts II, First Edition T144GA ISBN-13: 978-1-62362-055-4Cover Image Credit: © Kevin Osbourne/Fox Fotos/Lonely Planet Images/Getty ImagesTriumph Learning®136 Madison Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016 © 2014 Triumph Learning, LLC. All rights reserved. No part of this publication maybe reproduced in whole or in part, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording orotherwise, without written permission from the publisher.Printed in the United States of America.  10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1The National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers are the sole owners and developers of the CommonCore State Standards, © Copyright 2010. All rights reserved.CommonCoreCoachFirst EditionGEORGIAforWorldLiteratureandInformationalTextsIICC13_ELA_L2W_FM_SE 1 5/7/13 2:33 PM
  3. 3. Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLC2ContentsUnit 1 — LiteratureLesson 1: Reading Fiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Whole Class A Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Small Group abridged from The Umbrella. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Lesson 2: Reading Poetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Whole Class selections from The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám. . . . . . . . . 30Small Group The Passionate Shepherd to His Love. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Lesson 3: Reading Drama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Whole Class abridged from The Misanthrope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Small Group abridged from An Enemy of the People. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Lesson 4: Comparing Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65Whole Class King Leir. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66Small Group abridged from King Lear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84Unit 2 — Informational TextLesson 5: Reading Articles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85Whole Class Leonardo vs. Michelangelo: A Heavyweight Battle. . . . . . . 86Small Group India’s Long Road to Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102Common CoreGeorgia PerformanceStandards (GPS)RL.11–12.1, RL.11–12.2,RL.11–12.3, RL.11–12.5,RL.11–12.6, RL.11–12.10,SL.11–12.1, L.11–12.4.aRL.11–12.1, RL.11–12.2,RL.11–12.4, RL.11–12.5,RL.11–12.10, SL.11–12.1,L.11–12.4.bRL.11–12.1, RL.11–12.2,RL.11–12.3, RL.11–12.4,RL.11–12.5, RL.11–12.10RL.11–12.1, RL.11–12.2,RL.11–12.3, RL.11–12.4,RL.11–12.5, RL.11–12.7,RL.11–12.10RI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.5,RI.11–12.10, SL.11–12.1,L.11–12.6CC13_ELA_L2W_FM_SE 2 5/7/13 2:33 PM
  4. 4. Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLC3Lesson 6: Reading Persuasive Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103Whole Class Bicycles: A Viable Alternative to Public Transportation?. . 104Small Group Central America: A “Can’t Miss” Travel Destination. . . . . 114Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118Lesson 7: Reading Historical Documents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119Whole Class excerpted from A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. . . 120Small Group abridged from “Speech to the European Parliament”. . . 130Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140Lesson 8: Reading Scientific and Technical Texts. . . . . . . 141Whole Class The Discoveries of DNA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142Small Group Protecting Our Ocean Heritage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156Lesson 9: Reading Internet Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157Whole Class Voluntourism: Pros and Cons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158Small Group The Rise of Voluntourism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172Lesson 10: Comparing Informational Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . 173Whole Class When Earth Shakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174Small Group Japan’s Triple Disaster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199Common CoreGeorgia PerformanceStandards (GPS)RI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.5,RI.11–12.6, RI.11–12.10,L.11–12.5.bRI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.4,RI.11–12.5, RI.11–12.6,RI.11–12.10, L.11–12.6RI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.4,RI.11–12.5, RI.11–12.10,SL.11–12.1RI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.5,RI.11–12.6, RI.11–12.10,L.11–12.4.a, L.11–12.4.c,L.11–12.4.dRI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.4,RI.11–12.5, RI.11–12.6,RI.11–12.7, RI.11–12.10,L.11–12.6CC13_ELA_L2W_FM_SE 3 5/7/13 2:33 PM
  5. 5. Lesson3Drama has been important to culturesthroughout the ages, and every aspectof human nature and society—friendship,love, phases of life, historical events,current politics—has provided material forplaywrights. There’s something enjoyableabout watching people act out scenes that arefamiliar, even if the play takes place in foreignlands. Great plays transcend time and placebecause their themes remain relevant.In this lesson you will read parts of playsby two of the world’s greatest playwrights.Molière (born Jean-Baptiste Poquelin,1622–1673) was a masterful French writerof comedy. You will read a play he wrote in1666, The Misanthrope, in which he useswit to poke fun at Parisian society.Henrik Ibsen (1828–1906) was a Norwegianplaywright who often based his dramason social conditions and perceptions. AnEnemy of the People, written in 1883, is nothumorous, but like Molière’s play, it leaves usquestioning the power of society and the rolespeople play in it.ReadingDramaLesson 3  •  Reading Drama 41CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 41 5/3/13 8:37 AM
  6. 6. ConsiderWhole ClassACT I.Scene I As the scene opens, Alceste is joined by his friend Philinte.They are having a lively discussion about a point on whichthey differ greatly: Alceste despises when people act in publicas though they like one another, even if they do not admireone another at all. Alceste accuses Philinte of this type ofshallow behavior. In turn, Philinte says that Alceste needs tolearn how to act more graciously in public. [Scene: At Paris, in Célimène’s House]1 Philinte: But this rectitude, which you exact socarefully in every case, this absolute integrity inwhich you intrench yourself, do you perceiveit in the lady you love? As for me, I amastonished that, appearing to be atwar with the whole human race,you yet, notwithstanding every-thing that can render it odious toyou, have found aught to charmyour eyes. And what surprises me stillmore, is the strange choice your hearthas made. The sincere Eliante has a lik-ing for you, the prude Arsinoé looks withfavour upon you, yet your heart does notrespond to their passion; whilst you wearthe chains of Célimène, who sports withyou, and whose coquettish humour andby Molièreabridged fromWhat are some reasons people benefit from living in groups?Can you truly love someone whose values differ from yours?WORD CHOICE  Playwrightscarefully choose words to expresscertain ideas or feelings, or for aspecific effect. Molière titles hisplay The Misanthrope. Look upmisanthrope in the dictionary. Whymight Molière have chosen thisword for the title?Figurative Language Writers use language figurativelyto describe feelings or charactersor to emphasize ideas. Philintesays Alceste “wears the chainsof Célimène.” What does hemean by this?Alceste, in love with Célimène.Philinte, his friend.Oronte, in love with Célimène.Célimène, beloved by Alceste.Eliante, her cousin.Arsinoé, Célimène’s friend.Acaste, a marquis.Clitandre, a marquis.Basque, servant to Célimène.An Officer of the Maréchaussée.42  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 42 5/3/13 8:37 AM
  7. 7. Whole Classmalicious wit seems to accord so well with the manner of the times.How comes it that, hating these things as mortally as you do, youendure so much of them in that lady? Are they no longer faults in sosweet a charmer? Do not you perceive them, or if you do, do youexcuse them? Alceste: Not so. The love I feel for this young widow does not makeme blind to her faults, and, notwithstanding the great passion withwhich she has inspired me, I am the first to see, as well as to con-demn, them. But for all this, do what I will, I confess my weakness,she has the art of pleasing me. In vain I see her faults; I may evenblame them; in spite of all, she makes me love her. Her charmsconquer everything, and, no doubt, my sincere love will purify herheart from the vices of our times. Philinte: If you accomplish this, it will be no smalltask. Do you believe yourself beloved by her? Alceste: Yes, certainly! I should not love her at all,did I not think so.5 Philinte: But if her love for you is so apparent,how comes it that your rivals cause you somuch uneasiness? Alceste: It is because a heart, deeplysmitten, claims all to itself; I come hereonly with the intention of telling herwhat, on this subject, my feelingsdictate. . . . A man named Oronte enters as thescene continues.Words with Multiple MeaningsSome words have acquired additional meanings that are based onthe original meaning. Readers have to determine which meaning ofthe word is being used in a sentence by paying attention to context.bond stand conclusionnatural expressVocabulary StrategyCENTRAL IDEA  The centralidea of a work is what it is mostlyabout. From what you have readso far, how would you describe thecentral idea?Inference  Readers often haveto make inferences, or logicalassumptions, about characters andtheir feelings or motivations. Fromthe questions Philinte asks, whatcan you infer about Philinte’s opin-ion of Célimène?Lesson 3  •  Reading Drama 43CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 43 5/3/13 8:37 AM
  8. 8. Oronte: [to Alceste] I have been informed yonder, that Elianteand Célimène have gone out to make some purchases. But as Iheard that you were here, I came to tell you, most sincerely, thatI have conceived the greatest regard for you, and that, for a longtime, this regard has inspired me with the most ardent wish to bereckoned among your friends. Yes; I like to do homage to merit; andI am most anxious that a bond of friendship should unite us. I sup-pose that a zealous friend, and of my standing, is not altogether tobe rejected. [All this time Alceste has been musing and seems notto be aware that Oronte is addressing him. He looks up only whenOronte says to him]—It is to you, if you please, that this speech isaddressed. Alceste: To me, sir? Oronte: To you. Is it in any way offensive to you?10 Alceste: Not in the least. But my surprise is very great; and I didnot expect that honour. Oronte: The regard in which I hold you ought not to astonish you,and you can claim it from the whole world. Alceste: Sir . . . Oronte: Our whole kingdom contains nothing above the dazzlingmerit which people discover in you. Alceste: Sir . . .15 Oronte: Yes; for my part, I prefer you to the most important in it. Alceste: Sir . . . Oronte: May Heaven strike me dead, if I lie! And, to convince you,on this very spot, of my feelings, allow me, sir, to embrace you withall my heart, and to solicit a place in your friendship. Your hand, ifyou please. Will you promise me your friendship?STRUCTURE  Playwrights choosetheir structures carefully to allowtheir works to develop in meaning-ful ways. The play opens with longspeeches by Philinte and Alceste,and when Oronte enters the scene,we find another long speech. Whymight Molière use this structure?CHARACTER  In dramas, authorsmust rely on dialogue and stagedirections for characterization.What do you learn about Alcestefrom the stage directions inparagraph 7 and his dialogue onthis page? What type of persondoes he seem to be?Figurative Language Figurative language is languagethat carries meaning beyond theliteral one. Hyperbole, a type offigurative language, is an exagger-ation that authors use for dramaticeffect or humor. Underline thehyperbole in paragraph 17. Howdoes the hyperbole affect thescene and help you understandOronte’s character?44  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 44 5/3/13 8:37 AM
  9. 9. Whole Class Alceste: Sir . . . Oronte: What! you refuse me?20 Alceste: Sir, you do me too much honour; but friendship is asacred thing, and to lavish it on every occasion is surely to profaneit. Judgment and choice should preside at such a compact; weought to know more of each other before engaging ourselves; andit may happen that our dispositions are such that we may both ofus repent of our bargain. Oronte: Upon my word! that is wisely said; and I esteem you all themore for it. Let us therefore leave it to time to form such a pleasingbond; but, meanwhile I am entirely at your disposal. If you haveany business at Court, everyone knows how well I stand with theKing; I have his private ear; and, upon my word, he treats me ineverything with the utmost intimacy. In short, I am yours in everyemergency; and, as you are a man of brilliant parts, and to inaugu-rate our charming amity, I come to read you a sonnet which Imade a little while ago, and to find out whether it be good enoughfor publicity. Alceste: I am not fit, sir, to decide such a matter. You will thereforeexcuse me. Oronte: Why so? Alceste: I have the failing of being a little more sincere in thosethings than is necessary.25 Oronte: The very thing I ask; and I should have reason to com-plain, if, in laying myself open to you that you might give me yourfrank opinion, you should deceive me, and disguise anythingfrom me. Alceste: If that be the case, sir, I am perfectly willing. Oronte: Sonnet . . . It is a sonnet . . . Hope . . . It is to a lady who flat-tered my passion with some hope. Hope . . . They are not long,pompous verses, but mild, tender and melting little lines.[At every one of these interruptions he looks at Alceste.] Alceste: We shall see.CENTRAL IDEA  Authors developa central idea over the course of aliterary work. How do Oronte’srequest for friendship andAlceste’s response in paragraph 20advance the development of thecentral idea?TEXT EVIDENCE  Playwrightsoften use what characters sayabout themselves and aboutothers to hint at how they feel orthink. Readers must then usethose clues to make inferencesabout the characters. Does Alcestecare that his attitude may hurtpeople’s feelings? Underline evi-dence that supports your opinion.CHECK IN  Make sure you understand what you have read so far byanswering the following question: Why does Oronte want to be friendswith Alceste and to read him a sonnet?TONE  The tone of a play is theplaywright’s attitude toward thecharacters or subject. An author’schoice of words often reveals hisor her tone. How does Molièrefeel about Oronte? How does hewant the reader to receive him?Underline words in Oronte’sdialogue as well as any cluesin the stage directions thatsupport your response.Lesson 3  •  Reading Drama 45CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 45 5/3/13 8:37 AM
  10. 10. Oronte: Hope . . . I do not know whether the style will strikeyou as sufficiently clear and easy and whether you willapprove of my choice of words.30 Alceste: We shall soon see, sir. Oronte: Besides, you must know that I was only a quarter of anhour in composing it. Alceste: Let us hear, sir; the time signifies nothing. Oronte: [reads]Hope, it is true, oft gives relief,Rocks for a while our tedious painBut what a poor advantage, PhillisWhen nought remains, and all is gone! Philinte: I am already charmed with this little bit.35 Alceste: [softly to Philinte] What! do you mean to tell methat you like this stuff? Oronte:You once showed some complaisance,But less would have sufficed,You should not take that troubleTo give me nought but hope. Philinte: In what pretty terms these thoughts are put! Alceste: How now! you vile flatterer, you praise this rubbish! Oronte:If I must wait eternally,My passion, driven to extremes,Will fly to death.Your tender cares cannot prevent this,Fair Phillis, aye we’re in despair,When we must hope for ever.FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Poets often use personification—attributing human qualities toanimals, ideas, or objects—toemphasize emotions or describefeelings or ideas. Oronte uses per-sonification in his sonnet. Whatis he personifying? Is this figura-tive language effective? Why orwhy not?46  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 46 5/3/13 8:37 AM
  11. 11. Whole Class40 Philinte: The conclusion is pretty, amorous, admirable. Alceste: [softly, and aside to Philinte] A plague on the conclu-sion! I wish you had concluded to break your nose, you poisoner tothe devil! Philinte: I never heard verses more skillfully turned. Alceste: [softly, and aside] Zounds! . . . Oronte: [to Philinte] You flatter me; and you are under theimpression perhaps . . .45 Philinte: No, I am not flattering at all. Alceste: [softly, and aside] What else are you doing, you wretch? Oronte: [to Alceste] But for you, you know our agreement. Speakto me, I pray, in all sincerity. Alceste: These matters, Sir, are always more or less delicate, andeveryone is fond of being praised for his wit. But I was saying oneday to a certain person, who shall be nameless, when he showedme some of his verses, that a gentleman ought at all times to exer-cise a great control over that itch for writing which sometimesattacks us, and should keep a tight rein over the strong propensitywhich one has to display such amusements; and that, in the fre-quent anxiety to show their productions, people are frequentlyexposed to act a very foolish part. Oronte: Do you wish to convey to me by this that I am wrongin desiring . . .50 Alceste: I do not say that exactly. But I told him that writing with-out warmth becomes a bore; that there needs no otherweakness to disgrace a man; that, even if people, onthe other hand, had a hundred good qualities,we view them from their worst sides. Oronte: Do you find anything to objectto in my sonnet? Alceste: I do not say that. But, to keephim from writing, I set before hiseyes how, in our days, that desirehad spoiled a great many veryworthy people.FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE An idiom, also known as a sayingor figure of speech, is a type offigurative language commonlyused by members of the same cul-ture. You probably recognize, andeven use, many idioms in youreveryday speech. Underline andexplain the idioms Alceste uses inparagraph 48.STRUCTURE  Playwrights usestage directions to indicate charac-ter actions. In this scene, the stagedirections indicate that Alcestemakes several comments that onlyPhilinte can hear. In paragraph 43,Alceste says something that onlythe audience is intended to hear.What is the effect of this struc-ture? What do the whisperedremarks and the aside help youunderstand about Alceste?Lesson 3  •  Reading Drama 47CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 47 5/3/13 8:37 AM
  12. 12. Oronte: Do I write badly? Am I like them in any way? Alceste: I do not say that. But, in short, I said to him, What press-ing need is there for you to rhyme, and what the deuce drives youinto print? If we can pardon the sending into the world of a badly-written book, it will only be in those unfortunate men who writefor their livelihood. Believe me, resist your temptations, keep theseeffusions from the public, and do not, how much so-ever you maybe asked, forfeit the reputation which you enjoy at Court of being aman of sense and a gentleman, to take, from the hands of a greedyprinter, that of a ridiculous and wretched author. That is whatI tried to make him understand.55 Oronte: This is all well and good, and I seem to understand you.But I should like to know what there is in my sonnet to . . . Alceste: Candidly, you had better put it in your closet. Youhave been following bad models, and your expressions are notat all natural. . . .SETTING  Playwrights choosesettings—or the time and locationsa story takes place—just ascarefully as they choose theirwords. The entire play takes playin Célimène’s house. Based on theintroduction to the scene and whatyou have read so far, how mightthe setting affect the plot?CHARACTER  Writers usedescriptive details to recreateexperiences and help the readervisualize a character. Circle thewords that Basque uses todescribe how the visitor looks.What do you visualize? Why doesBasque’s description get a reactionfrom Célimène?ACT II.Scene VI Act II also takes place in Célimène’s home. Alceste expresses anger atCélimène for allowing other men to call on her and write her letters.Different men come and go, including Philinte. Célimène refuses toexplain or defend her actions to Alceste. Her servant Basque inter-rupts their discussions. Basque: [to Alceste] There is a man down stairs, sir, who wishesto speak to you on business which cannot be postponed. Alceste: Tell him that I have no such urgent business. Basque: He wears a jacket with large plaited skirts embroideredwith gold.60 Célimène: [to Alceste] Go and see who it is, or else let himcome in.INFERENCE  An inference is aneducated guess people make whensomething is not directly stated.People use details or clues andtheir personal experience to inferwhat someone means. Why doesOronte infer that Alceste does notlike his sonnet?CHECK IN  Make sure you understand what you have read so far byanswering the following question: Summarize the scene. What did youlearn about each character?48  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 48 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  13. 13. Whole ClassConflict  The conflict is themain struggle or problem in aplay or story. What conflict isintroduced here? Between whichcharacters is the conflict?Character  One techniqueauthors use to develop charactersis the way they react to each otherand to situations. How doesAlceste react to the summons?How does Philinte react to Alcestebeing summoned? What does thistell you about their characters? Scene VII Alceste: [going to meet the guard] What may beyour pleasure? Come in, sir. Guard: I would have a few words privately withyou, sir. Alceste: You may speak aloud, sir, so as to letme know. Guard: The Marshals of France, whose com-mands I bear, hereby summon you to appearbefore them immediately, sir.65 Alceste: Whom? Me, sir? Guard: Yourself. Alceste: And for what? Philinte: [to Alceste] It is this ridiculousaffair between you and Oronte. Célimène: [to Philinte] What do you mean?70 Philinte: Oronte and he have been insultingeach other just now about some trifling verseswhich he did not like; and the Marshals wish tonip the affair in the bud. Alceste: Well, I shall never basely submit. Philinte: But you must obey the summons: come, get ready. Alceste: How will they settle this between us? Will the edict ofthese gentlemen oblige me to approve of the verses which are thecause of our quarrel? I will not retract what I have said; I thinkthem abominable. Philinte: But with a little milder tone . . .75 Alceste: I will not abate one jot; the verses are execrable. Philinte: You ought to show a more accommodating spirit. Comealong. Alceste: I shall go, but nothing shall induce me to retract. Philinte: Go and show yourself.Lesson 3  •  Reading Drama 49CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 49 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  14. 14. Alceste: Unless an express order from the King himselfcommands me to approve of the verses which cause all thistrouble, I shall ever maintain, egad, that they are bad, and thata fellow deserves hanging for making them. [to Clitandreand Acaste who are laughing] Hang it! Gentlemen, I did not thinkI was so amusing.80 Célimène: Go quickly whither you are wanted. Alceste: I am going, Madam; but shall come back here to finishour discussion. . . .FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Playwrights frequently use idiomsto make dialogue more realistic.Circle the idiom Alceste uses inparagraph 82. What does it mean?How does it help characterizeAlceste? As the play progresses, Alceste and Oronte continue to have their dif-ferences. By Act V, they are battling over the affections of Célimène.There are many men who court Célimène, and a letter is exposedin which she makes fun of every one of them.Despite this, Alceste remains steadfast inhis love for her. However, he has vowed toleave all of society behind and go some-where to live alone, away from all of thefalseness around him. In the next to thelast scene of the play, he goes to speak toCélimène again. Alceste: [to Célimène] Well! I have heldmy tongue, notwithstanding all I haveseen, and I have let everyone have his saybefore me. Have I controlled myself longenough? and will you now allow me . . . Célimène: Yes, you may say what youlike; you are justified when you com-plain, and you may reproach me withanything you please. I confess that I amin the wrong; and overwhelmed by con-fusion I do not seek by any idle excuse topalliate my fault. The anger of the othersI have despised; but I admit my guilttowards you. No doubt, your resentmentFIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Authors sometimes use hyperbole,or exaggeration, as a method ofcharacterization. Underline thehyperbole in paragraph 79. Whatdoes it help you understand aboutAlceste’s personality?CHECK IN  Make sure you understand what you have read so far byanswering the following questions: Why is Alceste being summoned? Howdoes the summons move the plot forward?50  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 50 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  15. 15. Whole Classis just; I know how culpable I must appear to you, that everythingspeaks of my treachery to you, and that, in short, you have cause tohate me. Do so, I consent to it. Alceste: But can I do so, you traitress? Can I thus get the better ofall my tenderness for you? And although I wish to hate you with allmy soul, shall I find a heart quite ready to obey me. [to Elianteand Philinte] You see what an unworthy passion can do, and Icall you both as witnesses of my infatuation. Nor, truth to say, isthis all, and you will see me carry it out to the bitter end, toshow you that it is wrong to call us wise, and that in all heartsthere remains still something of the man. [to Célimène] Yes,perfidious creature, I am willing to forget your crimes. I can find,in my own heart, an excuse for all your doings, and hide themunder the name of a weakness into which the vices of the agebetrayed your youth, provided your heart will second the designwhich I have formed of avoiding all human creatures, and thatyou are determined to follow me without delay into the solitude inwhich I have made a vow to pass my days. It is by that only, that, ineveryone’s opinion, you can repair the harm done by your letters,and that, after the scandal which every noble heart must abhor, itmay still be possible for me to love you.85 Célimène: What! I renounce the world before I grow old, and burymyself in your wilderness! Alceste: If your affection responds to mine what need the rest ofthe world signify to you? Am I not sufficient for you? Célimène: Solitude is frightful to a widow of twenty. I do not feelmy mind sufficiently grand and strong to resolve to adopt such aplan. If the gift of my hand can satisfy your wishes, I might beinduced to tie such bonds; and marriage . . . Alceste: No. My heart loathes you now, and this refusal aloneeffects more than all the rest. As you are not disposed, in thosesweet ties, to find all in all inme, as I would find all in all inyou, begone, I refuse youroffer, and this much-felt out-rage frees me forever fromyour unworthy toils.Imagery  Writers use languagein interesting ways to createimages or emphasize ideas. Whatdoes Célimène mean when shesays “bury myself in your wilder-ness!”? What is the purposeof this image? What does itemphasize? Explain.THEME  The theme of a literarywork is the universal truth it pro-motes about people, society, ornature. A work may have morethan one theme. One themeMolière shares is that living byyour morals must involve compro-mise if you exist in a society. Whatis another theme of this play?WORD CHOICE  The words anauthor chooses may have negativeor positive connotations, or emo-tional associations. Underline thewords with negative connotationsin paragraph 84. Why mightMolière have chosen such power-ful words for this scene? How dothey help you understand thecharacters and develop thecentral idea?SUMMARY  A summary is arestatement in your own wordsof the main ideas in a text.Summarize the action in Scene VII.Lesson 3  •  Reading Drama 51CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 51 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  16. 16. Whole ClassIntroducing and Developing CharactersPlaywrights introduce characters in the stage directions at the beginning ofthe play. Often, these stage directions provide some basic information about thecharacters, such as their relationships to one another. At the beginning of TheMisanthrope, Molière provides brief descriptions of each character, such as:Alceste, in love with Célimène. Oronte, in love with Célimène.Philinte, his friend. Célimène, beloved by Alceste.In a drama, the dialogue, rather than prose descriptions, drives the action andserves to develop the characters and their relationships. Consider this examplefrom The Misanthrope, which shows the friendly relationship between Alceste andPhilinte.Alceste: I will not abate one jot; the verses are execrable.Philinte: You ought to show a more accommodating spirit. Come along.Alceste: I shall go, but nothing shall induce me to retract.Philinte: Go and show yourself.Choose one of the characters from The Misanthrope. How does Molière developthat character? In the chart, write examples from the beginning, the middle, andthe end of the play that show the character’s development.Character name: Beginning Middle EndTry It52  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 52 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  17. 17. Whole ClassVocabulary StrategyWords with Multiple MeaningsConsider how context clues can help you determine how a word with multiplemeanings is used. Use context clues from the play to determine each word’smeaning and write a definition for it. Consider the word’s other possiblemeanings. Then write a sentence using a meaning different from the one inthe play.1. bond: 2. stand: 3. conclusion: 4. natural: 5. express: Comprehension CheckAnswer these questions about the selection you have just read. Use details fromthe selection to support your responses.1. Who is the protagonist, or the character the audience is most likely to identifywith? Explain.2. What examples from the play show how Célimène treats people? What doesthis reveal about her character?3. How is Oronte’s poem important to the play’s plot?Lesson 3  •  Reading Drama 53CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 53 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  18. 18. Small GroupConsiderCHARACTER  In the cast of char-acters, what does the note etc. tellyou about Peter Stockmann? The play is set in a coastal town in southern Norway, where newBaths have just been developed to attract tourism. Baths wereresorts that featured mineral spas, which were believed to helpimprove health and even cure some illnesses. The first act takesplace in the living room of Dr. Stockmann’s home, one eveningaround dinnertime. About halfway through the act, Petra arriveshome from work and gives the doctor a letter he has been hoping toreceive for several days. He goes into the study to read it and emergesshortly to tell all who are present what the letter is about.An Enemy of the PeopleAn Enemy of the PeopleDramatis Personae Dr. Thomas Stockmann, Medical Officer of the Municipal Baths. Mrs. Stockmann, his wife. Petra (their daughter), a teacher. Ejlif Morten (their sons, aged 13 and 10 respectively). Peter Stockmann (the Doctor’s elder brother), Mayor of the Townand Chief Constable, Chairman of the Baths’ Committee, etc. Morten Kiil, a tanner (Mrs. Stockmann’s adoptive father). Hovstad, editor of the “People’s Messenger.” Billing, sub-editor. Captain Horster. Aslaksen, a printer.by Henrik Ibsenabridged fromWhat should be the primary goal of a public servant?What makes people truly powerful?54  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 54 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  19. 19. Small GroupCHARACTER  How does Petra’sresponse contrast with those ofthe other characters? What doesthat tell you about her possiblerole in this play?FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Underline the figurative languageDr. Stockmann uses to describepeople and the Baths. Whatdo these descriptions tell youabout Dr. Stockmann andthe townspeople?ACT I1 Dr. Stockmann: [waving the letter] Well, now the town will havesomething new to talk about, I can tell you! Billing: Something new? Mrs. Stockmann: What is this? Dr. Stockmann: A great discovery, Katherine.5 Hovstad: Really? Mrs. Stockmann: A discovery of yours? Dr. Stockmann: A discovery of mine. [Walks up and down.] Just letthem come saying, as usual, that it is all fancy and a crazy man’simagination! But they will be careful what they say this time, I cantell you! Petra: But, father, tell us what it is. Dr. Stockmann: Yes, yes—only give me time, and you shall knowall about it. If only I had Peter here now! It just shows how we mencan go about forming our judgments, when in reality we are asblind as any moles—10 Hovstad: What are you driving at, Doctor? Dr. Stockmann: [standing still by the table] Isn’t it the universalopinion that our town is a healthy spot? Hovstad: Certainly.Lesson 3  •  Reading Drama 55CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 55 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  20. 20. Dr. Stockmann: Quite an unusually healthy spot, in fact—a placethat deserves to be recommended in the warmest possible mannereither for invalids or for people who are well— Mrs. Stockmann: Yes, but my dear Thomas—15 Dr. Stockmann: And we have been recommending it and praisingit—I have written and written, both in the “Messenger” and inpamphlets . . . Hovstad: Well, what then? Dr. Stockmann: And the Baths—we have called them the “mainartery of the town’s life-blood,” the “nerve-centre of our town,”and the devil knows what else— Billing: “The town’s pulsating heart” was the expression I onceused on an important occasion. Dr. Stockmann: Quite so. Well, do you know what they really are,these great, splendid, much praised Baths, that have cost so muchmoney—do you know what they are?20 Hovstad: No, what are they? Mrs. Stockmann: Yes, what are they? Dr. Stockmann: The whole place is a pest-house! Petra: The Baths, father? Mrs. Stockmann: [at the same time] Our Baths?25 Hovstad: But, Doctor— Billing: Absolutely incredible! Dr. Stockmann: The whole Bath establishment is a whited, poi-soned sepulchre, I tell you—the gravest possible danger to thepublic health! All the nastiness up at Molledal, all that stinkingfilth, is infecting the water in the conduit-pipes leading to thereservoir; and the same cursed, filthy poison oozes out on theshore too— Horster: Where the bathing-place is? Dr. Stockmann: Just there.30 Hovstad: How do you come to be so certain of all this, Doctor? Dr. Stockmann: I have investigated the matter most conscien-tiously. For a long time past I have suspected something of thekind. Last year we had some very strange cases of illness amongthe visitors—typhoid cases, and cases of gastric fever— Mrs. Stockmann: Yes, that is quite true. Dr. Stockmann: At the time, we supposed the visitors had beeninfected before they came; but later on, in the winter, I began tohave a different opinion; and so I set myself to examine the water,as well as I could.Setting  How is the play’s set-ting an important part of the plot?Imagery  Circle the wordsDr. Stockmann uses to create avivid image of the Baths. How dothese words affect your impressionof the Baths?56  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 56 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  21. 21. 1infusoria  microscopic organismsSmall Group Mrs. Stockmann: Then that is what you have been so busy with?35 Dr. Stockmann: Indeed I have been busy, Katherine. But hereI had none of the necessary scientific apparatus; so I sent samples,both of the drinking-water and of the sea-water, up to theUniversity, to have an accurate analysis made by a chemist. Hovstad: And have you got that? Dr. Stockmann: [showing him the letter] Here it is! It proves thepresence of decomposing organic matter in the water—it is full ofinfusoria1. The water is absolutely dangerous to use, either inter-nally or externally. Mrs. Stockmann: What a mercy youdiscovered it in time. Dr. Stockmann: You may well say so.40 Hovstad: And what do you proposeto do now, Doctor? Dr. Stockmann: To see the matterput right, naturally. Hovstad: Can that be done? Dr. Stockmann: It must be done.Otherwise the Baths will be abso-lutely useless and wasted. But weneed not anticipate that; I have a veryclear idea what we shall have to do. Mrs. Stockmann: But why have youkept this all so secret, dear?45 Dr. Stockmann: Do you supposeI was going to run about the towngossiping about it, before I hadabsolute proof? No, thank you.I am not such a fool. Petra: Still, you might have told us— Dr. Stockmann: Not a living soul.But tomorrow you may run aroundto the old Badger— Mrs. Stockmann: Oh, Thomas!Thomas!TEXT EVIDENCE  Which detailsfrom the text support the idea thatDr. Stockmann is a determinedindividual? Underline these details.Words with MultipleMeanings  What does theword matter mean as used inparagraph 37? What othermeanings does the word have?CHARACTER  What do para-graphs 45­–49 reveal aboutDr. Stockmann’s character?Lesson 3  •  Reading Drama 57CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 57 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  22. 22. Dr. Stockmann: Well, to your grandfather, then. The old boy willhave something to be astonished at! I know he thinks I amcracked—and there are lots of other people who think so, too, Ihave noticed. But now these good folks shall see—they shall justsee! [Walks about, rubbing his hands.] There will be a nice upset inthe town, Katherine; you can’t imagine what it will be. All theconduit-pipes will have to be relaid.50 Hovstad: [getting up] All the conduit-pipes—? Dr. Stockmann: Yes, of course. The intake is too low down; it willhave to be lifted to a position much higher up. Petra: Then you were right after all. Dr. Stockmann: Ah, you remember, Petra—I wrote opposing theplans before the work was begun. But at that time no one would lis-ten to me. Well, I am going to let them have it now. Of course I haveprepared a report for the Baths Committee; I have had it ready for aweek, and was only waiting for this to come. [Shows the letter.] Nowit shall go off at once. [Goes into his room and comes back with somepapers.] Look at that! Four closely written sheets!—and the lettershall go with them. Give me a bit of paper, Katherine—somethingto wrap them up in. That will do! Now give it to-to-[stamps hisfoot]—what the deuce is her name?—give it to the maid, and tellher to take it at once to the Mayor. [Mrs. Stockmann takes thepacket and goes out through the dining-room.]ACT II In Act II, Dr. Stockmann’s friends all promise to support him as heattempts to set things right at the Baths. His brother, however, hasdifferent ideas about the situation, which he expresses during a visitto Dr. Stockmann’s home. Peter Stockmann: Your report has not convinced me that the con-dition of the water at the Baths is as bad as you represent it to be.55 Dr. Stockmann: I tell you it is even worse!—or at all events it willbe in summer, when the warm weather comes. Peter Stockmann: As I said, I believe you exaggerate the matterconsiderably. A capable physician ought to know what measures totake—he ought to be capable of preventing injurious influences orof remedying them if they become obviously persistent. Dr. Stockmann: Well? What more? Peter Stockmann: The water supply for the Baths is now an estab-lished fact, and in consequence must be treated as such. Butprobably the Committee, at its discretion, will not be disinclined toconsider the question of how far it might be possible to introducecertain improvements consistently with a reasonable expenditure.FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE  Whatdoes the idiom “I am cracked”mean? What clues help youdetermine its meaning?SUMMARY  Summarize theevents of the play up to this point.CHARACTER  Remember thatPeter and Dr. Stockmann arebrothers. What kind of relationshipdo they have?58  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 58 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  23. 23. Small GroupTONE  Think about Peter andDr. Stockmann’s dialogue. What isthe tone of each man’s comments?How is Ibsen using tone toinfluence how readers feelabout each man?Words with Multiplemeanings  What does the wordguard mean in Peter’s dialogue inparagraph 64? How is this wordrelated to the other meanings ofthe word?Inference  What can you inferabout Peter based on his requestto keep the matter private? Whatdoes it reveal about his character?CENTRAL IDEA  How isDr. Stockmann similar to Alcestein The Misanthrope? Do you thinkthat he, like Alceste, will havetrouble living in society? Why? Dr. Stockmann: And do you suppose that I will have anything todo with such a piece of trickery as that?60 Peter Stockmann: Trickery!! Dr. Stockmann: Yes, it would be a trick—a fraud, a lie, a downrightcrime towards the public, towards the whole community! Peter Stockmann: I have not, as I remarked before, been able toconvince myself that there is actually any imminent danger. Dr. Stockmann: You have! It is impossible that you should not beconvinced. I know I have represented the facts absolutely truth-fully and fairly. And you know it very well, Peter, only you won’tacknowledge it. It was owing to your action that both the Bathsand the water conduits were built where they are; and that is whatyou won’t acknowledge—that damnable blunder of yours. Pooh!—do you suppose I don’t see through you? Peter Stockmann: And even if that were true? If I perhaps guardmy reputation somewhat anxiously, it is in the interests of thetown. Without moral authority I am powerless to direct publicaffairs as seems, to my judgment, to be best for the common good.And on that account—and for various other reasons too—itappears to me to be a matter of importance that your report shouldnot be delivered to the Committee. In the interests of the public,you must withhold it. Then, later on, I will raise the question andwe will do our best, privately; but, nothing of this unfortunateaffair not a single word of it—must come to the ears of the public.65 Dr. Stockmann: I am afraid you will not be able to prevent thatnow, my dear Peter. Peter Stockmann: It must and shall be prevented. Dr. Stockmann: It is no use, I tell you. There are too many peoplethat know about it. Peter Stockmann: That know about it? Who? Surely you don’tmean those fellows on the “People’s Messenger”? Dr. Stockmann: Yes, they know. The liberal-minded independentpress is going to see that you do your duty. . . . After Peter leaves the house, Dr. Stockmann’s wife anddaughter chime in with their ideas about what will happenif Dr. Stockmann continues to try to force the town toaddress the problem.70 Mrs. Stockmann: But, dear Thomas, your brotherhas power on his side. Dr. Stockmann: Yes, but I have right on mine, I tell you. Mrs. Stockmann: Oh yes, right—right. What is the use of havingright on your side if you have not got might? Petra: Oh, mother!—how can you say such a thing!Lesson 3  •  Reading Drama 59CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 59 5/3/13 8:38 AM
  24. 24. Dr. Stockmann: Do youimagine that in a freecountry it is no use havingright on your side? You areabsurd, Katherine. Besides,haven’t I got the liberal-minded, independentpress to lead the way, andthe compact majoritybehind me? That is mightenough, I should think!75 Mrs. Stockmann: But, goodheavens, Thomas, you don’tmean to? Dr. Stockmann: Don’tmean to what? Mrs. Stockmann: To set yourself up in opposition to your brother. Dr. Stockmann: In God’s name, what else do you suppose I shoulddo but take my stand on right and truth? Petra: Yes, I was just going to say that.80 Mrs. Stockmann: But it won’t do you any earthly good. If theywon’t do it, they won’t. Dr. Stockmann: Oho, Katherine! Just give me time, and you willsee how I will carry the war into their camp. Mrs. Stockmann: Yes, you carry the war into their camp, and youget your dismissal—that is what you will do. Dr. Stockmann: In any case I shall have done my duty towards thepublic—towards the community, I, who am called its enemy! Mrs. Stockmann: But towards your family, Thomas? Towards yourown home! Do you think that is doing your duty towards those youhave to provide for?85 Petra: Ah, don’t think always first of us, mother.ACT IV In Act III, the friends who promised to stand by Dr. Stockmannexpress doubt about his convictions. As a result, in Act IV, he isforced to defend himself in front of the whole town at a public meet-ing. He reveals he has now determined that there are even moreburning issues to address than the situation at the Baths and givesa political speech that leaves the crowd quite angry. Hovstad: So it is only the distinguished men that are liberal-mindedin this country? We are learning something quite new! [Laughter.]THEME  In paragraph 74, Ibsenis touching on a universal truth.What is it? How do the brothersembody the theme?CHARACTER  Petra andMrs. Stockmann have differentopinions. How do these womenact as foils for each other?CONFLICT  Which characters areinvolved in this conflict with Dr.Stockmann? What effect couldtheir relationships with Dr.Stockmann have on the resolutionof the conflict?60  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 60 5/3/13 8:39 AM
  25. 25. Small Group Dr. Stockmann: Yes, that is part of my new discovery, too. Andanother part of it is that broad-mindedness is almost precisely thesame thing as morality. That is why I maintain that it is absolutelyinexcusable in the “People’s Messenger” to proclaim, day in andday out, the false doctrine that it is the masses, the crowd, thecompact majority, that have the monopoly of broad-mindednessand morality—and that vice and corruption and every kind ofintellectual depravity are the result of culture, just as all the filththat is draining into our Baths is the result of the tanneries up atMolledal! [Uproar and interruptions. Dr. Stockmann is undis-turbed, and goes on, carried away by his ardour, with a smile.] Andyet this same “People’s Messenger” can go on preaching that themasses ought to be elevated to higher conditions of life! But, blessmy soul, if the “Messenger’s” teaching is to be depended upon, thisvery raising up the masses would mean nothing more or less thansetting them straightway upon the paths of depravity! Happily thetheory that culture demoralises is only an old falsehood that ourforefathers believed in and we have inherited. No, it is ignorance,poverty, ugly conditions of life, that do the devil’s work! In a housewhich does not get aired and swept every day—my wife Katherinemaintains that the floor ought to be scrubbed as well, but that is adebatable question—in such a house, let me tell you, people willlose within two or three years the power of thinking or acting in amoral manner. Lack of oxygen weakens the conscience. And theremust be a plentiful lack of oxygen in very many houses in thistown, I should think, judging from the fact that the whole compactmajority can be unconscientious enough to wish to build thetown’s prosperity on a quagmire of falsehood and deceit. Aslaksen: We cannot allow such a grave accusation to be flung at acitizen community. A Citizen: I move that the Chairman direct the speaker to sit down.90 Voices: [angrily] Hear, hear! Quite right! Make him sit down! Dr. Stockmann: [losing his self-control] Then I will go and shoutthe truth at every street corner! I will write it in other towns’ news-papers! The whole country shall know what is going on here! Hovstad: It almost seems as if Dr. Stockmann’s intention wereto ruin the town. Dr. Stockmann: Yes, my native town is so dear to me that I wouldrather ruin it than see it flourishing upon a lie. Aslaksen: This is really serious. [Uproar and cat-calls.Mrs. Stockmann coughs, but to no purpose; her husbanddoes not listen to her any longer.]95 Hovstad: [shouting above the din] A man must be a publicenemy to wish to ruin a whole community!FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE  Whatis Dr. Stockmann really referring towhen he describes a clean versus adirty house?CENTRAL IDEA  How has thedoctor’s view of morality changed?Underline the phrase that indicateshis new view.Figurative Language  Circlethe simile Dr. Stockmann uses inparagraph 87. What does he meanby this comparison?WORDS WITH MULTIPLEMEANINGS  Underline themultiple-meaning word Aslaksenuses in paragraph 88. What doesthe word mean in this context?Lesson 3  •  Reading Drama 61CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 61 5/3/13 8:39 AM
  26. 26. CHARACTER  What change doyou sense in Petra in this para-graph? How does this change helpreveal the theme? Dr. Stockmann: [with growing fervor] What does the destructionof a community matter, if it lives on lies? It ought to be razed to theground. I tell you—All who live by lies ought to be exterminatedlike vermin! You will end by infecting the whole country; you willbring about such a state of things that the whole country willdeserve to be ruined. And if things come to that pass, I shall sayfrom the bottom of my heart: Let the whole country perish, let allthese people be exterminated! Voices From The Crowd: That is talking like an out-and-outenemy of the people! Billing: There sounded the voice of the people, by all that’s holy! The Whole Crowd: [shouting] Yes, yes! He is an enemy of the peo-ple! He hates his country! He hates his own people!100 Aslaksen: Both as a citizen and as an individual, I am profoundlydisturbed by what we have had to listen to. Dr. Stockmann hasshown himself in a light I should never have dreamed of. I amunhappily obliged to subscribe to the opinion which I have justheard my estimable fellow-citizens utter; and I propose that weshould give expression to that opinion in a resolution. I propose aresolution as follows: “This meeting declares that it considersDr. Thomas Stockmann, Medical Officer of the Baths, to be anenemy of the people.” [A storm of cheers and applause. A numberof men surround the Doctor and hiss him. Mrs. Stockmannand Petra have got up from their seats. Morten and Ejlif arefighting the other schoolboys for hissing; some of their elders sepa-rate them.]ACT V As the final act of the play opens, things seem grim for Dr. Stockmannand his family. They have been rejected by their town, except for theirone remaining friend, Captain Horster. As the act progresses, Petraand Dr. Stockmann lose their jobs. Dr. Stockmann says they will leaveand go to the United States, but then he has a change of heart. Dr. Stockmann: Good.—Going away, did you say? No, I’ll behanged if we are going away! We are going to stay where we are,Katherine! Petra: Stay here? Mrs. Stockmann: Here, in the town?WORD CHOICE  Reread para-graphs 80–100 and circle the wordenemy each time it is used. Howdoes Ibsen use the word to buildmomentum in the play?WORD CHOICE  Underline thewords with negative connotationsin paragraph 96. How does Ibsenuse these words to emphasizeDr. Stockmann’s moral standard?62  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 62 5/3/13 8:39 AM
  27. 27. Small Group Dr. Stockmann: Yes, here. This is the field of battle—this is wherethe fight will be. This is where I shall triumph! As soon as I havehad my trousers sewn up I shall go out and look for another house.We must have a roof over our heads for the winter.105 Horster: That you shall have in my house. Dr. Stockmann: Can I? Horster: Yes, quite well. I have plenty of room, and I amalmost never at home. Dr. Stockmann: How good of you, Captain Horster! Petra: Thank you!110 Dr. Stockmann: [grasping his hand] Thank you, thank you! That isone trouble over! Now I can set to work in earnest at once. There isan endless amount of things to look through here, Katherine!Luckily I shall have all my time at my disposal; because I havebeen dismissed from the Baths, you know. Mrs. Stockmann: [with a sigh] Oh yes, I expected that. Dr. Stockmann: And they want to take my practice away fromme too. Let them! I have got the poor people to fall back upon,anyway—those that don’t pay anything; and, after all, they needme most, too. But, by Jove, they will have to listen to me; I shallpreach to them in season and out of season, as it says somewhere. Mrs. Stockmann: But, dear Thomas, I should have thought eventshad showed you what use it is to preach. Dr. Stockmann: You are really ridiculous, Katherine. Do you wantme to let myself be beaten off the field by public opinion and thecompact majority and all that devilry? No, thank you! And what Iwant to do is so simple and clear and straightforward. I only want todrum into the heads of these curs the fact that the liberals are themost insidious enemies of freedom—that party programmes stran-gle every young and vigorous truth—that considerations ofexpediency turn morality and justice upside down—and that theywill end by making life here unbearable. Don’t you think, CaptainHorster, that I ought to be able to make people understand that?115 Horster: Very likely; I don’t know much about such things myself. Dr. Stockmann: Well, look here—I will explain! It is the party lead-ers that must be exterminated. A party leader is like a wolf, yousee—like a voracious wolf. He requires a certain number ofsmaller victims to prey upon every year, if he is to live. Just look atHovstad and Aslaksen! How many smaller victims have they notput an end to—or at any rate maimed and mangled until they arefit for nothing except to be householders or subscribers to the“People’s Messenger”! [Sits down on the edge of the table.] Comehere, Katherine—look how beautifully the sun shines to-day! Andthis lovely spring air I am drinking in!FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE What simile does Dr. Stockmannuse in paragraph 116 to helpHorster understand his view ofpolitical leaders?INFERENCE  Dr. Stockmanndescribes his upcoming work as abattle. What inference can youmake about how Dr. Stockmannviews himself?STRUCTURE  Why does Ibsenend the play with Dr. Stockmann’sdecision to stay? How does itcompare to the ending ofThe Misanthrope?Theme  What is the theme ofthe play?Lesson 3  •  Reading Drama 63CC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 63 5/3/13 8:39 AM
  28. 28. Small GroupDiscussionDiscuss these questions with your group, and together write a paragraph in response to eachquestion. Provide evidence to support your responses.1. Dr. Stockmann is an idealist, or a person who pursues noble goals. Would he benefit frombeing more of a realist? Explain.2. Recall the conversation in which Mrs. Stockmann asks her husband not to oppose Peter.What does the exchange reveal about society at the time?Comprehension CheckAnswer these questions about the selection you have just read. Use details from the selectionto support your responses.1. What dialogue is most effective in developing Dr. Stockmann’s character and motivations?2. What events lead to Dr. Stockmann’s decision to move to the United States, and why does helater change his mind? What does he hope to do by staying in town?3. Is Dr. Stockmann misunderstood by his community, or are his convictions misguided? Isthere enough text evidence to be certain of either position?Independent ProjectsYour teacher may assign you one or both of the following performance tasks. Investigate the characteristics of realism. Apply what you have learned about drama to analyze another play byMolière or Ibsen.On Your OwnApplicationRead another play by Molière, suchas Tartuffe, or Henrik Ibsen, such asA Doll’s House or The Master Builder.In a written response to a series ofquestions, you will discuss how thedevelopment of the main charactersand the structure of the plot reveal theplay’s theme.InquiryWrite an essay and do a brief presen-tation in response to the question,“What is realism?” In your essay andpresentation, you will present threecharacteristics of the literary move-ment and explain what makes Ibsena realist.64  Lesson 3  •  Reading DramaCC13_ELA_L2W_L3_SE 64 5/3/13 8:39 AMwritten responses
  29. 29. TextsComparingInformationalLesson10Informational texts may present very differentapproaches to the same topic. For example,newspaper articles report facts about currentevents, while essays may express opinionsabout the same topic. History books oftenoffer a sweeping overview of the past, whilebiographies and autobiographies focus on thecontributions and experiences of an individual.Because each approach has something to offer,it is useful to read several kinds of informationaltexts to gain a deeper understanding of aparticular event, period, or person.As you read the following two selections—a technical article about the causes and effectsof earthquakes and an article about the impactof one particular earthquake on Japan—noticethe approach each author takes on the subject.How is the information you learn from eacharticle similar? How is it different? What do yougain by reading both articles?Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational Texts 173CC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 173 5/6/13 2:14 PM
  30. 30. ConsiderWhole Class1 On March 11, 2011, at 2:46 p.m., a violent undersea earthquakeoccurred off the east coast of Japan. It registered 9.0 in magnitude,making it one of the most powerful earthquakes ever recorded. The resulting shift in the ocean floor triggered a series ofhuge waves, called tsunamis, that spread out from the quake’sepicenter, or point of origin. Towering walls of water began to hitthe Japanese coast within half an hour. They inundated coastalcities such as Ishinomaki and Sendai, causing extensive losses ofproperty and human life. In one devastating example, the tsunamicompletely destroyed Okawa Elementary School in Ishinomaki,and the wave swept away seventy-four of the school’s students andten teachers as they struggled to reach the safety of higher ground.In all, Japan suffered more than 15,000 deaths from the earth-quake and tsunami. More than 3,000 people remained missing ayear after the catastrophe. The country also sustained more than$20 billion in damage. Will humans ever be able to prevent or predict such naturaldisasters? To answer that question, it is necessary to examine whatcauses Earth to release such destructive forces.What kind of destruction results from earthquakes?What techniques do authors use to explain scientific processes?POINT OF VIEW  In objectivewriting, authors report facts thatcan be verified, while in subjectivewriting, they integrate emotionand/or opinion. Reread the firsttwo paragraphs. Does this authorprimarily have an objective or­subjective point of view in theseparagraphs? Explain.AUTHOR’S PURPOSE The author’s purpose is his or herreason for writing. Authors usedifferent techniques to achievetheir purposes. In ­paragraph 3,the author presents a questionfollowed by a statement. Howare these two sentences related?What do they tell you about thepurpose of this article?When Earth ShakesThe powerful tsunami that hit Japan in March 2011 splintered wooden buildings.174  Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational TextsCC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 174 5/6/13 2:14 PM
  31. 31. Whole ClassEarth’s Structure Earth is a sphere made of several distinct layers, like an onion.The center, called the core, is solid and composed mostly of ironand nickel. Estimates of its temperature range from 6,700 to 8,500degrees Fahrenheit. The next layer is the outer core, which is madeof the same elements but in liquid form.5 Around the outer core lies the mantle, which is divided into twolayers. The inner layer next to the outer core is made of extremelydense rock, much denser than what is found on Earth’s surface. The outer part of the mantle is called the asthenosphere; it isalso made of dense rock, which is partially molten and thereforeable to change its shape and position. The material in this layerflows very slowly because of convection, which is a circular move-ment of the molten rock caused by differences in temperature. Above the mantle lies the lithosphere. It includes material fromtwo separate layers: first, the very top section of the mantle, whichhas solidified because of its distance from the core’s heat, and sec-ond, Earth’s surface, or crust. The crust is a thin layer of lighterrock that is more brittle than the rock found in the interior. Mostearthquakes originate in the lithosphere.Refining Key TermsTechnical terms often have complex meanings. Over the courseof an informational article, the writer might add new details orexplanations to refine the definitions of technical terms.epicenter seismology tectonicsfault magnitudeVocabulary StrategySTRUCTURE  Informational­articles can be structured in manyways. This article has a topicalstructure. The author divides thebroad topic of earthquakes intosmaller subtopics. According tothis heading, what does this sec-tion cover? How does this sectionrelate to the author’s purpose?GRAPHICS  Authors use graphics,such as charts, diagrams, andgraphs, to visually explain­information in the text. Whatdoes this graphic show? Howdoes it help you better understandthe information on this page?CRUSTINNERCOREOUTERCOREMANTLETEXT FEATURES  Authors usedifferent features to make certainwords and ideas stand out. In thisarticle, scientific terms are set initalics. How is this font style help-ful to readers?Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational Texts 175CC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 175 5/6/13 2:14 PM
  32. 32. Earthquakes and tsunamis occur because of the way Earth isstructured and the forces that exist within the planet. Scientistshave learned about Earth’s structure through seismology, thestudy of the way the shock waves produced by earthquakes travelthrough Earth. Shock waves travel at different speeds dependingon the density and flexibility of the material through which theyare moving. By using sensitive instruments to record the patternsproduced by such waves, seismologists have developed an idea ofthe way our planet is structured.How Earthquakes Happen Unlike the inner layers of Earth, the lithosphere is broken intoseveral separate rigid plates that glide above the more malleableasthenosphere. Earth’s continents and ocean floors are at thesurface of these plates.10 Because the plates float on the asthenosphere, they are in con-stant but extremely slow motion, usually moving only a few inchesa year. The study of such movement is called plate tectonics.EVIDENCE  Explanationsand descriptions are types of­evidence used to support keypoints. Underline the evidencethat supports the first ­sentencein paragraph 8.STRUCTURE  When an article isdivided into several sections, eachmay have its own organizationalpattern. Judging from this­heading, which structure doesthe author use in this section?GRAPHICS  The information­presented in informational articlesmay be technically complex. Tohelp readers understand and­visualize information, authorsoften use different types of­graphics. How does this maphelp you understand platetectonics? What informationfrom the text does it clarify?As this map shows, the plates differ widely in size and have irregularshapes. They do not conform precisely to the shape of the continents.176  Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational TextsCC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 176 5/6/13 2:14 PM
  33. 33. Whole Class Seismologists have learned that not all plates move in the samedirection or at the same speed, which means their edges interactwith each other in a variety of ways. Scientists classify these­interactions into three types: •  Divergent boundaries exist where plates move apart.Divergent boundaries can lead to the formation of new crustas liquid rock called magma rises to fill the gap left betweenthe plates and then hardens. This occurs most often on theocean floor. •  Convergent boundaries exist where plates move together.When two plates collide, the pressure can create greatstresses in the rock. Usually, one plate will be forced to slidebeneath the other and to push down into the partially meltedrock of the mantle. •  Transform boundaries exist where plates slide along besideeach other. But the plates do not always slide easily. Often,the edges of the plates snag on each other and are unable toslide for a long time.15 Earthquakes can occur at each type of plate boundary.When plates collide or grind against each other, enormous pres-sure builds within the rock. Sometimes these pressures grow sogreat that they force one or both of the plates to give way andsuddenly move. Earthquakes also occur along the faults associated with theboundaries. A fault is a crack that occurs within Earth’s crustbecause of the stresses produced by platemovement. However, it is important tobear in mind that not all cracks are faults.Rock on either side of a crack must movefor it to be considered a fault. Faults canrange from a few inches to hundreds ofmiles in length. Larger faults have thepotential to produce more powerful­earthquakes than smaller ones becausethey can be sites of greater rock move-ments. A fault is considered active ifmovement has occurred there withinthe last 130,000 years.TEXT FEATURES  Authorsuse bulleted lists to highlightparticular information. Bulletedlists may present details relatingto a main idea, items belongingto a ­category, or important termswith definitions. What type of­information is presented in thislist? Why does the author use a­bulleted list here?TEXT EVIDENCE  It is importantto use text evidence to support theinferences, or informed guesses,you make about a text. What arefaults, and how can they causeearthquakes? Underline phrasesand sentences to support yourinference.The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, located below the AtlanticOcean, is an example of a divergent boundary. Itis part of the world’s longest mountain range, andit separates four different tectonic plates.Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational Texts 177Mid-AtlanticRidgeCC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 177 5/6/13 2:14 PM
  34. 34. Seismologists have identified three types of faults, which aredefined by the direction in which they move: •  Normal faults occur when the mass of rock that overhangsthe fracture slides downward. Normal faults tend to occurnear divergent boundaries. •  Thrust faults occur when the mass of rock that overhangs thefracture slides upward. These tend to occur near convergentboundaries.20 •  Strike-slip faults occur when the rock masses on either side ofa fracture slip horizontally past each other. They are mostoften associated with transform boundaries. Most earthquakes are caused by the movement of plates orslippage along faults associated with plate boundaries. The pointwithin Earth where the quake originates is called the hypocenter,while the epicenter is the point on the surface directly above it. One part of the world is especially known for earthquakes andalso for volcanoes. The Ring of Fire is a horseshoe-shaped bandthat stretches around the edge of the Pacific Ocean along theboundaries of several tectonic plates. It earned its name becauseit experiences an unusually high number of earthquakes and­volcanic eruptions. Even though most earthquakes can be explained by plate­tectonics, a small number of quakes occur in the central portion ofplates far away from boundaries and their associated faults. Onetheory is that these intraplate earthquakes are somehow causedby rock deformations, but scientists do not know for sure.INTEGRATING ­INFORMATION Integrating the information youlearn in the text with a graphicwill help you better understandthe information the author pre-sents. Compare the ­diagram withthe information in the bulleted list.What information do you learnfrom each? How does the diagramincrease your ­understandingof faults?DOMAIN-SPECIFICVOCABULARY  Authors of­technical or scientific texts oftenuse vocabulary that is specificto a particular field of study.Underline the context clues thathelp you determine the meaningof ­hypocenter. How is it differentfrom the the meaning of epicenter?INFERENCE  The details authorsprovide often help you make­inferences, or logical assumptions,about texts. Reread paragraph 23.Do seismologists spend as muchtime studying intraplate earth-quakes as they do studying platetectonics? Circle details ­that sup-port your inference.Strike-slipNormalThrustCHECK IN  Make sure you understand what you have read so far byanswering the following question: What role do boundaries and faults playin earthquakes?Types of Faults178  Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational TextsCC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 178 5/6/13 2:14 PM
  35. 35. Whole ClassThe Aftermath of Earthquakes Depending on their magnitude, which is a measure of poweror intensity, earthquakes can cause immense amounts of dam-age. One reason is that earthquakes release different types ofshock waves, each of which has a different type of motion (forexample, side-to-side or up-and-down). Buildings and otherhuman-made structures are not usually intended to move inthese ways, so the shaking associated with earthquakes canweaken or destroy them. The table below summarizes thecharacteristics of the different types of waves.CONNECTIONS  Authors developthe central idea by making con-nections between related ideas,details, or events. How does theauthor connect the ideas in thissection with the ideas in the previ-ous section? How does this sectionfurther develop the central idea?GRAPHICS  Charts, or tables,often present information that isnot included in the text. Notice theway this chart is structured. Whatadvantage does the chart offerover a text description?Earthquake-damaged buildings sometimes looklike cakes whose top layers have slid off to theside. At other times, the buildings crack in two.Types of Seismic WavesGeneral Category Specific Type Where It Travels How It MovesBody Wave P wave through Earth’s interior back and forth in the direction the waveis moving; can pass through both solidsand liquidsS wave through Earth’s interior side to side, perpendicular to the directionthe wave is moving; cannot pass throughliquidSurface Wave Love wave at Earth’s surface long and slow; moves the ground side to sideRayleigh wave at Earth’s surface long and slow; moves the ground up,backward, down, and forward in a circularmotionLesson 10  •  Comparing Informational Texts 179CC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 179 5/6/13 2:14 PM
  36. 36. 25 One of the leading causes of deaths from earthquakes is thecollapse of buildings and other structures, such as bridges andhighway overpasses. For example, during the 1989 Loma Prietaearthquake in California, the upper portion of the double-deckNimitz Freeway collapsed onto the lower portion, killing forty-twopeople who were driving on the road. When buildings or other structures collapse, falling debris killsand injures many people. Countless others become trapped in thewreckage. The widespread nature of the destruction and the cor-responding damage to infrastructure and equipment can make atimely rescue of trapped people impossible. Many of those alivewithin the rubble die from lack of food and water—or from lack oftreatment for injuries. As earthquake shock waves pass through the ground, thevibration of Earth can cause soft soil to act like a liquid. Anythingconstructed on top of such soil will sink into it or topple. In addi-tion, earthquakes frequently cause landslides, sending mud,rocks, and sometimes ice and snow hurtling down slopes andburying anything in the valleys below. An undersea earthquakethat occurred off the coast of Peru in 1970 triggered a landslide inthe Andes that buried thousands of people. Another danger associated with earthquakes is that the groundon one side of the fault may suddenly lift, fall, or slide a great­distance. The resulting cracks in the ground can be huge. Theycan swallow buildings, tear apart roads, and break open pipes thatcarry water and gas. Broken gas pipes and downed electric linesoften cause fires, a frequent and deadly side effect of earthquakes.Quakes may also disrupt water supplies, making it difficult to putout the flames. For example, after the 1906 San Francisco earth-quake, fires burned out of control for three days.AUTHOR’S PURPOSE  Authorswrite for different audiences,depending on their purpose. Theirdesire to appeal to a particularaudience dictates the kinds offacts and examples they use intheir writing. How does the exam-ple given in paragraph 25 reflectthe author’s purpose and intendedaudience?EVIDENCE  In order to establishhim- or herself as a credibleauthority on the topic, an authormust provide ample evidence tosupport all claims and statements.This evidence may come in theform of facts, statistics, testimo-nies, examples, or descriptivedetails. What claim does theauthor make in paragraph 27?Underline evidence the authorgives to support this claim.These houses in San Franciscowere severely damaged duringthe 1906 earthquake alongthe San Andreas Fault.180  Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational TextsCC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 180 5/6/13 2:14 PM
  37. 37. Whole Class Earthquakes can also crack dams, causing them to give wayand release the huge volume of water stored in their reservoirs.After the 2011 earthquake in Japan, a dam at Fukushima­fractured. The resulting flood washed away many homes.The Danger of Tsunamis30 Undersea earthquakes are the most frequent cause of tsuna-mis. A tsunami is a series of powerful ocean waves that are createdwhen a large amount of water is lifted or otherwise displaced byan earthquake or some other sudden event, such as a landslide ora volcanic eruption. If an earthquake causes a thrust fault, forexample, the mass of rock that is forced upward will push a hugevolume of seawater out of its way. This action creates a giant swellof water above the place where the earthquake occurred. Theswell then becomes a tsunami. Out in the vast expanse of the ocean, a tsunami wave may riseonly about three feet above the water’s surface. Unlike regularwaves, which are generated by wind, tsunami waves are verylong—stretching from 60 to 120 miles. They also travel veryquickly through deep water; in the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami cantravel at speeds as fast as a jet can fly. As the tsunami approaches land, it reaches a place where theocean floor slopes upward and the water becomes shallower. Thefriction of the wave’s bottom hitting the sloping ocean floor causesthe wave’s speed to drop to 20 to 30 miles an hour. At the sametime, the wave’s length shortens and its height increases to accom-modate the volume of displaced water. This means that a swellSTRUCTURE  Authors structuretexts to effectively deliver­information and ensure that­readers can follow their ideas.Would the article have been aseffective if the author had put thissection on earthquake damage atthe beginning? Explain.CONNECTIONS  To make an arti-cle coherent, authors must developtheir ideas throughout the articleand continually make ­connectionsbetween them. In this section theauthor introduces another type ofnatural disaster—the tsunami.What evidence in paragraph 30links tsunamis to the central ideaof the article?Whole ClassCracks caused by earthquakes usually look most dramatic right after therumbling begins. The continued shaking of the ground and aftershockscan cause the cracks to partially fill with soil and stones.Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational Texts 181CC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 181 5/6/13 2:15 PM
  38. 38. that was only one to three feet high in the middle of the oceanbecomes a gigantic wall of water just before it crashes onto theshore. Usually, a series of waves occurs, pushing the water fartherand farther up the land before the energy of the tsunami is spent. Perhaps the most deadly tsunami in history occurred inDecember 2004. An earthquake with a magnitude of 9.1 occurredbeneath the ocean off the coast of Sumatra, an island of Indonesia.The seismic activity generated tsunami waves that hit Indonesia,Sri Lanka, Thailand, India, Maldives, and even far-away EastAfrica. More than 225,000 people were killed with no warning.POINT OF VIEW  An author’spoint of view is his or her attitudetoward the subject. Point ofview is often revealed throughthe author’s choice of words.Underline words in paragraph 33that indicate the author’s pointof view.CENTRAL IDEA  Nonfiction­articles are often divided into­sections, with each section­supporting and developing thecentral idea of the article. Howdoes “Measuring and PredictingEarthquakes” help develop thecentral idea?More than a million peoplein thirteen countries weredisplaced by the 2004 tsunami.CHECK IN  Make sure you understand what you have read so far byanswering the following question: What is the relationship between anearthquake and a tsunami?Measuring and Predicting Earthquakes The science of seismology has developed ways to measureearthquakes. One of the most widely known measurements isthe Richter magnitude scale, developed by seismologist CharlesF. Richter in 1935. He invented an instrument to measure the sizeof the shock waves, or seismic waves, that earthquakes generate.One distinctive feature of the scale is that units of measurementincrease exponentially rather than by constant increments. Themagnitude of an earthquake that measures 2.0 on the Richterscale is ten times greater than one that measures 1.0, while a valueof 3.0 means the earthquake has a magnitude that is ten timesgreater than one that measures 2.0 and one hundred times greaterthan one measuring 1.0.182  Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational TextsCC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 182 5/6/13 2:15 PM
  39. 39. Whole ClassRichter ScaleMagnitude Description EffectsLess than 2.9 micro rarely felt3.0 to 3.9 minor felt by some people in the area; slightshaking4.0 to 4.9 light felt by almost everyone in the area;noticeable shaking; slight damage5.0 to 5.9 moderate moderate damage to weak buildings6.0 to 6.9 strong damage to many buildings; can causedeaths in populated areas7.0 to 7.9 major can cause great damage and highdeath tolls8.0 and greater great severe damage and high death tollsover a wide area35 Since the Richter scale came into widespread use, seismolo-gists have developed other scales to measure an earthquake’smagnitude. One of these, the moment magnitude scale, combinesthe measure of all wave types, frequencies, and durationsrecorded at many seismic stations at the same moment. Measuring magnitude is not the only method of evaluatingand ranking earthquakes. The Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI)scale measures the violence of the shaking caused by an earth-quake. This scale quantifies how strong an earthquake feels andthe amount of damage it causes. In addition, seismologists have­developed formulas to measure the amount of energy releasedby earthquakes. Seismology has not made as much progress in learning howto predict earthquakes as it has in measuring them. According tothe U.S. Geological Survey, seismologists would like to be ableto ­predict accurately that an earthquake will occur at a certainlocation within the next year. Such precision would give the publicenough time to be prepared, and thus the number of deaths andINTEGRATING INFORMATION Authors gather information frommultiple sources and then synthe-size the facts, examples, and otherinformation in order to write anarticle. The author compiled thischart using various sources. Whymight he or she have relied onmultiple sources to create it ratherthan using an existing chart? Doesit make the chart more or lessreliable? Explain.GRAPHICS  Providing ­informationin various formats accommodatespeople with different learningstyles. Compare the writtendescription of the Richter scalewith the chart. Is one more­effective than the other in helpingyou understand the scale? Explain.EVIDENCE  Authors must userelevant and sufficient evidence tosupport their claims. This authorclaims that seismology has notmade much progress in learninghow to predict earthquakes.Underline sentences that supportthe claim. Is the evidence convinc-ing? Explain.Scientists use an instrumentcalled a seismograph tomeasure earthquakes.Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational Texts 183CC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 183 5/6/13 2:15 PM
  40. 40. PacificOceanBanning FaultSan Jacinto FaultFault1872194019791952OwensValleyFaultSan FranciscoSanCalifornia18361836Segments on which slip occurred duringgreat earthquakes of 1857, 1872, and 1906ExplanationSegments on which slip occurredduring smaller earthquakesDates of earthquakes of magnitudes 7–8Segments on which fault creep occurs18381868190618571980AndreasLos AngelesSan DiegoGarlock Faultloss of property could be reduced. However, such predictions arenot within science’s present capabilities. Instead, seismologists calculate the probability of earthquakesand issue rough predictions for different locations. For example,they may predict that a certain location has a 1 in 2 (50 percent)chance of having an earthquake within five years. One methodthey use to make such predictions is to study the frequency ofpast earthquakes and look for patterns in the way they occur.However, earthquakes do not generally occur in completely pre-dictable cycles. Another method seismologists use is to study how much stressis building up in rock along known faults to try to determine whenthe tension will grow so great that the rocks will slip to a differentposition. To use those measurements in order to make a predic-tion, scientists need an understanding of what has occurred inthe past. One of the main obstacles to this method is that for mostknown faults, scientists do not have such records.40 Scientists are also using instruments to monitor seismic activ-ity along faults with a history of frequent earthquakes. They hopeto be able to detect geophysical signals that indicate that an earth-quake is about to occur. If such signals exist, scientists could usethem to issue short-term warnings.INFERENCE  An inference is alogical assumption based on theinformation in a text and personalexperience. Why are several typesof instruments used to measureearthquakes? What are scientistshoping to achieve? Cite evidencethat supports your inferences.The San Andreas Fault inCalifornia is one of themost intensively studiedfaults in the world.184  Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational TextsCC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 184 5/6/13 2:15 PM
  41. 41. 1 2 3DROP! COVER HOLD ON!Whole ClassImproving Earthquake Safety Since it is currently impossible to accurately predict exactlywhere and when an earthquake might occur, the best way toreduce earthquake-related deaths is to build safer structures inmore stable locations. When earthquakes cause high numbersof deaths, poorly constructed buildings are often at fault.Government agencies can use regulations to make sure that­buildings are not constructed directly over faults or on unstableground that might liquefy or slide suddenly during a quake. In addition, governments in earthquake-prone regions canpass building codes that require design modifications to help newbuildings withstand the stresses associated with earthquakes andthus sustain less damage. The use of steel frames, reinforcingdiagonal beams, specially designed walls that resist the sidewaysforce called shear, and shock absorbers in the base of tall ­buildingscan help structures to endure violent shaking without collapsing.Preventing the collapse of buildings is one of the most effectiveways to reduce earthquake-related deaths. However, becauseearthquake-safety modifications can be expensive, they are oftenimplemented in only the largest and most costly building projects. One other action that people can take to reduce the loss of lifefrom major earthquakes is to improve methods of response andrescue. Modern instruments can detect earthquakes anywherein the world, helping the authorities to respond quickly and mobi-lize the equipment, supplies, and staff needed to help survivors.Until such time as seismologists learn how to give advance warn-ing of devastating quakes, erecting safer buildings and providing­immediate aid after disasters are the best ways for humans to liveand survive in earthquake-prone regions.AUTHOR’S PURPOSE  Authorsmay have certain purposes forincluding different sections in theirtext. What might be the author’spurpose for including the informa-tion in paragraphs 41–43? What isthe effect of ­ending the articlethis way?SUMMARY  In a summary, yourestate key ideas in your ownwords. Briefly summarize theentire article.In addition to regulating safer construction, governments educatethe public on earthquake safety by distributing information.COMPARING TEXTS  Considerthe topics covered in this text.What central ideas does the authorpresent? What is the author’s pointof view toward the subject? Keepthese elements in mind as youread the next passage.Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational Texts 185CC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 185 5/6/13 2:15 PM
  42. 42. Whole ClassReview the article to find one example of each kind of presentation element.Write the example and page number where it appears. In the third column,explain how it helps you better understand the topic or adds new information.In the fourth column, suggest an alternate way of presenting the information.Element/Example PageClarifies Understandingor Presents New IdeasAlternativeTechniqueSubhead:Key Word:List:Graphic:Try ItPresenting Complex InformationWhen nonfiction writers must present complex technical information, they use avariety of techniques to make that information clear to the reader. In “When EarthShakes,” the author uses several techniques to explain complex ideas.• Subheads are section titles that break the text into smaller, more easilymanageable parts.• Key words and vocabulary terms are often set in distinctive font styles, suchas bold or italic. Look for definitions in the context of the selection or in aseparate glossary.• Lists, with items denoted by bullet points or numbers, highlight importantideas or examples, describe the parts of a whole, or show the individualsteps of a process.• Graphics are visual aids that further explain or enhance the text.Photographs and illustrations visually portray the information in a text.Diagrams, timelines, graphs, maps, and charts convey complexinformation in a way that is easy for readers to understand. Captions arephrases or short sentences that explain what the graphics depict.186  Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational TextsCC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 186 5/6/13 2:15 PM
  43. 43. Whole ClassRefining Key TermsIn each of the following sentences, the author defines one of the vocabularywords. The author later refines the meanings of these words through furtherexplanation or examples. Explain how the meaning of each word below is refinedelsewhere in the article.1. The resulting shift in the ocean floor triggered a series of huge waves, calledtsunamis, that spread out from the quake’s epicenter, or point of origin. 2. Scientists have learned about Earth’s structure through seismology, the studyof the way the shock waves produced by earthquakes travel through Earth. 3. The study of such movement is called plate tectonics. 4. A fault is a crack that occurs within Earth’s crust because of the stressesproduced by plate movement. 5. Depending on their magnitude, which is a measure of power or intensity,earthquakes can cause immense amounts of damage. Vocabulary StrategyComprehension CheckAnswer these questions about the selection you have just read. Use details fromthe selection to support your responses.1. What causes earthquakes? Summarize the process in your own words.2. What are the main types of damage caused by earthquakes? Can this damagebe averted? Explain why or why not.3. Why are scientists unable to predict exactly when and where an earthquake isgoing to happen?Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational Texts 187CC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 187 5/6/13 2:15 PM
  44. 44. ConsiderSmall Group1 During the afternoon of Saturday, March 12, 2011—oneday after a devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan—eight-year-old Remika Fujimori and her friends were playing out-side in the spring sunshine. They were unaware that just a few milesaway a third disaster was brewing. Cooling systems at the nuclearpower plant in Fukushima, the city where the children lived, hadfailed because of damage caused by the tsunami. The fuel rods wereoverheating, and pressure was building up inside reactor unit 1. Plant officials were scrambling to avoid catastrophe. On Friday,March 11, residents within about two miles of the plant had beentold to evacuate. People within about six miles were told to stayhome and be ready to evacuate if the situation were warranted.Twice on Saturday, officials released some of the steam buildingup in the reactor into the atmosphere to reduce the pressure insidethe plant and ward off a major disaster. This steam containedsome radioactivity. However, at 3:30 that afternoon, a huge explosion occurredin the nuclear plant. The walls of the concrete building thathoused the steel reactor collapsed. Tokyo Electric Power Company(TEPCO) announced that four workers at the plant were injured.Hours later Japan’s Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA)confirmed that radioactive elements had been released intothe environment.Japan’s Triple DisasterJapan’s Triple DisasterWhat role do governments play in disaster warning and relief?How can personal accounts add to your understanding of disasters?POINT OF VIEW  What thoughtsor emotions does the author wantyou to have when you read thefirst paragraph of this article?Does the opening account leadyou to expect an objective or­subjective point of view inthis article?After the accident, radiationmade it dangerous forresidents and workers to benear the crippled power plant.188  Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational TextsCC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 188 5/6/13 2:15 PM
  45. 45. OnagawaFukushima 1–DaiichiFukushima 2–DainiTokaiTOKYOKeyOnagawaMiyagi PrefectureFukushima 1–DaiichiFukushima 2–DainiTokaiJAPANEarthquake EpicenterDamaged Nuclear Power PlantRadioactive ContaminationEarthquakeMarch 11, 201114:45 (JST)9.0 MagnitudePacific OceanSmall Group Some people believe that civilians were exposed to that­radiation because the government did not evacuate a wideenough area and did not adequately inform the public of whatwas ­happening. Critics later charged that Japan’s government­bureaucracy ­encouraged officials to protect the special interestsof their ­department—in this case, the energy industry—ratherthan look out for public safety.5 As a result of the government’s inaction, Remika’s motherMayumi did not find out about the explosion until hours after itoccurred and therefore had no idea that she should call herdaughter indoors to protect her from radiation poisoning. Monthslater, Mayumi Fujimori said in an interview, “Something reallyterrible, something really unimaginable happened. I didn’t knowwhat to do and how I could protect my children. I tried to do mybest.” Like conscientious parents all over the world, she worriedthat she was somehow to blame for putting her child at risk.Anxiety continued to plague her a year later. The Fujimoris were just one of thousands of families caughtin the horrors of the triple disaster that occurred in Japan in thespring of 2011.REFINING KEY TERMS  Fromthe clues in paragraph 4, whatdoes the word bureaucracy mean?As you read, underline instanceswhen the author refines the­meaning of the word.AUTHOR’S PURPOSE Consider the title of the articleand the opening account. What isthe author’s purpose for writingthis article?GRAPHICS  What additionalinformation does the map provide?How does it help you better­understand the text?Lesson 10  •  Comparing Informational Texts 189CC13_ELA_L2W_L10_SE 189 5/6/13 2:15 PM

×