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  2. LESSON 3: SOCIOPOLITICAL EVOLUTION OF MAN : EARLY CIVILIZATION AND THE RIGHTS OF THE STATES From a hunting-gathering lifestyle to Neolithic society, major changes took place in terms socio-economic factors of early human life. Despite this already drastic movement, human lifestyle continued to develop into more organized socio-economic and political system. • What factors contributed to this changes • How did these developments influence future socio-political movements and policies?
  3. The Neolithic revolution, through the domestication of plants and animals, paved the way for the beginnings of early civilizations like Mesopotamia. In the lessons, the development and implications of these civilizations will be discussed and explained.
  4. The Rise of Civilization Civilizations began to develop during the Neolithic period where the early humans learned to settle in just one area to domesticate plants and animals for survival. The first civilization were found mostly in Asia, particularly in China and Mesopotamia, now Iraq the latter was part of the fertile crescent, an area in the ancient Middle East that is believed to be "cradle of civilization" and the birthplace of agriculture, urbanization, writing, trade, and science due to its fertile land area. This area housed two bodies of water, the river Tigres and the Euphrates, which also became valuable resources for the early civilization.
  5. Chewing dispensation we're mainly agreeing societies that treated both genders equally as the first labor only involved in farming, domestication, and harvesting. Though this may be the case, social roles began to emerge with some members of the community becoming priests or priestesses, laborers, and farmers.
  6. The Development of States In Mesopotamia, in the region of sumer in 4,000 BCE, two significant developments took place that influenced the flow of the socio-political process of the early civilizations. These are: • the rise of states, and • the invention of writing. Historians believe that this developments occurred because of trades between different regions. The early civilizations would have had some form of writing to document or record traces of their products in deals.
  7. During the Copper Age (5, 900-3,200 BCE), the system of commerce grew with prosperity leading to the development of cities and changes in socio-political positions with some civilization promoting a kingship to replace priestly ruled to be able to foresee the flow of the trade and negotiations with other regions. This era gave rise to numerous developments such as the invention of the wheel and transition from the use of stone tools to copper tools. In 3,000 - 2,119 BCE, during the early Bronze Age , copper instruments were replaced with bronze tools. Along with this, the rise of city-states continued to flourish , thereby laying out a foundation for economic and political stability. As a result , more empires , civilization , and states began to rise and develop.
  8. Implications of the Rise of Civilizations and States The rise of civilizations and steaks lead to organization, economic focus, political power, and material development. These changes allowed both positive and negative implications that directly affected future developments in the socio- political evolution of men.
  9. Below are some implications of the rise of civilizations and states: • Warfare: conflict and wars emerged among states as tension grew among them. Soon , professional armies and weaponry began to make their appearance. • Metal Work: A huge development in metal work occurred along with the rise of civilizations and states. During this time, people began to discover various raw materials, such as iron, copper, and bronze for making tools and weapons. • Political System: Because of economic factors such as trading , the leadership among city states began to be more organized and developed . With the kingship system replacing the priestly leaders , each state had its executive branch that centralized decision and communications with other states.
  10. Evidence for the existence of Civilizations and States Artefactual evidence proved the existence and occurrences of early civilizations and states. Here are some of the actual evidence found to support the existence of this era. • In 1922 , archaeologist sir leonard woolley discovered the remains of two four-wheeled wagons that dated back to the time of Mesopotamian. • Excavations in the 1840s revealed human settlements in Mesopotamia during 10,000 BCE.
  11. Tips • Mesopotamia , in Greek , translate to "between two rivers" . This translation refers to the river Tigris and the Euphrates that surrounds the land. • The Mesopotamia civilization existed even before Egyptian civilization. After the Middle Eastern civilization began, Egyptian civilization soon developed along the Nile River.
  12. Key points • The first civilizations were found mostly in Asia , particularly in China and Mesopotamia , Iraq. • The Fertile Crescent is an area in ancient Middle east that is believed to be "cradle of civilization" and the birthplace of agriculture , urbanization , writing , trade , and science due to its fertile land area. • In Mesopotamia , in the region of Sumer in 4,000 BCE , two important developments took place that influenced the flow of the sociopolitical process of the early civilization . These are the rise of the states and the invention of writing. • The implications of the rise of civilizations in states include warfare , developments in metal work , and changes in political systems.
  13. LESSON 4: SOCIO-POLITICAL EVOLUTION OF MAN : DEMOCRATIZATION The early civilizations created new environments , called city-states , which introduced new developments in various aspects of life . What outcomes have lead to discontinuous progress and ventures ? The rise of civilizations and city-states paved the way for the introduction of new developments during the Copper and Bronze Age . Now , we look at how those impacted the following periods and developments .
  14. Democracy and Democratization Democratization refers to the spread of expansion of democracy. Democracy means rule by the people . The term comes from the Greek words demos, which means "people" , and kratos, which means "rule" . While democracy is often traced to the Greeks, particularly the Athenian democracy during 5th century BCE, a form of primitive democracy is said to must have existed during the hunting and gathering period In independent tribes. The form of democracy during 500 BCE in city-states is said to be a form of direct democracy , where citizens participate directly in decision making . On the other hand , the evolved form of democracy or the representative democracy that became widespread in nation-states is where officials are elected to represent a group of people.
  15. Historical Path to a Democratic City-States Agricultural developments in Asia and Africa eventually spread to the nearby civilization of Greece and Rome . Both Greeks and Romans adapted to the forming culture developed by the Mesopotamians , even following the latter's sociopolitical structure of kingship . Eventually they were able to engage in trade as the resources highly developed and impact socio economic growth.
  16. Greece • Societal status and groups began to develop: ° the king (bearing the highest position in all Greek city-states). ° the aristocracies and nobleman , then ° the farmers. • Wars were already occurring between city-states , and tension grew between social classes. • Greek kings have growing ambitions to transform themselves into Palace laden rulers just like their predecessors from the Bronze Age .
  17. • The need for power was not feasible as the primary abundant metal during the period was iron , are relatively cheaper metal compared to bronze . If the king seeks greater power , he cannot easily do so easily as the weaponry and machinery , primarily made of iron , where much cheaper , and can be afforded by practically anyone within the city-state. In 750 BC, with high tensions and alarm over the intentions of the kings, the nobleman collectively acted on ousting them, leading to a successful establishment of the first republics.
  18. The Beginnings of Democratization The developments in the Greek city-states led to the birth of democracy and the rise of democratization in societies. Oligarchy • Greek king's were thrown out by the nobleman. • City-states began to change the form of leadership into oligarchy , were the rules were made up of aristocracies. Because of inexpensive and accessible weaponry and the ongoing wars between city-states , even ordinary people like the farmers learned to arm themselves and rebel against drastic changes.
  19. The oligarchic government ruled in favor of the nobleman and aristocracies, so ordinary people also used their collective power against an abusive government.
  20. Tyranny ​Since there are few noble people in the government , city-states , in effect , were now ruled by a tyrant , a positive term for a Greek leader that means "boss". ​Tyrants became effective in ensuring fair treatment for both land owners and farmers. ​For some time , peace and equality emerged among social classes. ​In the second generation of tyrant rule , however , the son of a tyrant made some wrong and abusive decisions that lead to another revolution ousting the tyrant rule.
  21. Birth of Democracy ​Because of the tyrant's abuse of power , intelligent leaders of Greek city-states proposed that power must account for the common people. ​This lead to the creation of a more broad-based constitution , eventually developing the city-states into a democratic setting. ​In 594 BCE , solon gave athens a new constitution . This event was considered as the rise of democracy in Greece. It should be noted , though , that not all Greek city-states follow this truly , especially the poorer , more backward areas , steel , the political change in Greece has also soon lead Rome to follow a democratic ruling thereafter.
  22. Also, keep in the mind that citizen participation in democratic decision- making during this time is limited to males and therefore, not the total population.
  23. Significance and Implication of Democratization The development of democracy led to changes that greatly impacted the ordinary people by reducing inequality and promoting fair treatment for all. The beginnings of the democratization in Greece laid out a foundation for modern-day democracy.
  24. Also , the establishment of democratic government promoted more cultural and artistic implication that eventually distinguished Greek and roman civilization from any other ancient civilization. Below are some artifactual evidences e of the artistic and cultural implications of democratization: ​Greek literature began to arise as poet Homer created his epics, Iliad and Odyssey. ​Stone temples that appeared as early as 600 bc were improved through classical Greek structures upon the rise of democratization.
  25. Key points  In Greece, societal status in groups began to develop with the King bearing the highest position in all greek city-states , followed by aristocracies and nobleman then the farmers .  ​In 750 BCE, with high tensions and alarm over the intentions of the Kings , the nobleman collectively acted on ousting him , leading to a successful establishment of the first republics.  ​It was in 594 BCE when Solon gave Athens a new constitution. This event was considered as the rise of democracy in Greece.  ​The establishment of a democratic government promoted more cultural and artistic implications.  ​Wars and tension across Greece and between city-states were one of the primary influences in the rise of democracy.
  26. Importance of Artifacts in Interpreting Social, Cultural, Political , and Economic Processes. Artifacts Archaeologists have discovered artifactual pieces of evidence even dating back to the beginning of human evolution. As a result, present-day social and biological scientists were able to open a window to what life was in the past. In this lesson, the significance and value of artifacts in several aspects will be described and discussed.
  27. Artifacts are objects made or modified by humans in the past. They are recovered after a long time through archaeological endeavor or by chance. Apart from serving as windows to the past, artifacts are also deemed significant because they are tangible, authentic proof that a certain period in history actually occurred.
  28. The Significance of Artifacts Artifacts have significant contributions in interpreting social, political, and economic purposes that occurred in the past. Their existence proves and describes these aspects thoroughly. The discovery of artifacts and the understanding of various processes has provided a stable foundation for the socio-economic, political, and cultural growth that humans have come to recognize today.
  29. Importance of Artifact Preservation There are various reason why artifacts must be preserved and taken care of. Some of which are the following: ​*Artifacts are irreplaceable*. Artifacts, being made hundreds, even thousands of years ago, are very delicate objects that cannot be replaced by any available material in the present time. Artifacts are key to understanding the past. Practices that accord in the past would not have been known if not for the discovery of artifacts.
  30. *Artifacts give people a sense of identity*. Artifacts greatly describe culture and society. It provides people with an opportunity to further understand their identities and heritage, as well as some collective qualities that their culture may have. The past is yet to be fully discovered. Despite the seemingly great success archaeologists have significant recent fears commander are still more to discover about history. Treating artifacts like pieces of puzzles will eventually provide a general picture of the past.
  31. Present-day “Artifacts” for the Future Many advances have already been made and discovered within this century, it is logical to treat these discoveries as significant elements that can help shape the future. As such, the technologies and developments that the world has today must also be well-preserved. These must be treated with certainty that one day, these “artifacts” will be discovered and put to understanding by the future generations.
  32. Tips ​Artifacts may consist of any tangible objects that was originally part of the distant past but recently discovered . They may include bones, fossils, tools, and a lot more. ​Archaeologists are responsible for digging out artifacts. Anthropologist study an area’s culture. Together, they work to create a holistic picture and identity of a certain group.
  33. Key Points ​Artifacts are objects made or modified by humans in the past . They are recovered after a long time through archaeological endeavor or by chance. ​Artifacts have implications in the understanding of social, cultural, economic, and political processes. ​It is important to preserve artifacts because they are irreplaceable, help understand the past, and give people a sense of identity. ​Present-day discoveries and technologies will one day be artifacts for the future generation.
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